G2Cdb::Human Disease report

Disease id
D00000113
Name
Pilomatricoma
Nervous system disease
no

Genes (1)

Gene Name/Description Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
G00002235 CTNNB1
catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa
Y (11472567) Unknown (?) Y
G00002235 CTNNB1
catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa
Y (10192393) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y

References

  • beta-Catenin gene mutation in human hair follicle-related tumors.

    Kajino Y, Yamaguchi A, Hashimoto N, Matsuura A, Sato N and Kikuchi K

    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Ohtsu, Japan.

    beta-Catenin, a multifunctional protein related to the adherens junction and to signal transduction, is a key molecule of cell proliferation, and it is central to epithelial architecture, regulating the polarity of cells and tissues. beta-Catenin stabilization may play a key role in epidermal signaling leading to hair development, and its aberrant activation may be implicated in formation of hair tumors. Several investigators have shown that pilomatricomas are frequently associated with beta-catenin mutation. In this study, we confirmed beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) mutation in human pilomatricomas (100% frequency) from which adequate DNA could be obtained for gene analysis. A novel mutation, D32N, was found in one case of pilomatricoma. A preliminary immunohistological study revealed prominent beta-catenin staining in basophilic cells of pilomatricomas, especially in nuclei. Benign tumors which were considered to be derived from hair matrix or hair follicles, and other benign skin tumors, were also investigated. beta-Catenin mutations were not detected in any of the these tumors. These results seem to indicate that hair matrix cells are key players in hair development. Investigation into gene abnormalities of hair-follicle tumors may elucidate the cause of their neoplastic transformation, and may provide a suggestion for the mechanism of hair development.

    Pathology international 2001;51;7;543-8

  • A common human skin tumour is caused by activating mutations in beta-catenin.

    Chan EF, Gat U, McNiff JM and Fuchs E

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, The University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

    WNT signalling orchestrates a number of developmental programs. In response to this stimulus, cytoplasmic beta-catenin (encoded by CTNNB1) is stabilized, enabling downstream transcriptional activation by members of the LEF/TCF family. One of the target genes for beta-catenin/TCF encodes c-MYC, explaining why constitutive activation of the WNT pathway can lead to cancer, particularly in the colon. Most colon cancers arise from mutations in the gene encoding adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), a protein required for ubiquitin-mediated degradation of beta-catenin, but a small percentage of colon and some other cancers harbour beta-catenin-stabilizing mutations. Recently, we discovered that transgenic mice expressing an activated beta-catenin are predisposed to developing skin tumours resembling pilomatricomas. Given that the skin of these adult mice also exhibits signs of de novo hair-follicle morphogenesis, we wondered whether human pilomatricomas might originate from hair matrix cells and whether they might possess beta-catenin-stabilizing mutations. Here, we explore the cell origin and aetiology of this common human skin tumour. We found nuclear LEF-1 in the dividing tumour cells, providing biochemical evidence that pilomatricomas are derived from hair matrix cells. At least 75% of these tumours possess mutations affecting the amino-terminal segment, normally involved in phosphorylation-dependent, ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the protein. This percentage of CTNNB1 mutations is greater than in all other human tumours examined thus far, and directly implicates beta-catenin/LEF misregulation as the major cause of hair matrix cell tumorigenesis in humans.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: NIH-RO1-AR31737; NIDCR NIH HHS: NCI-P50DE/CA-11921

    Nature genetics 1999;21;4;410-3

Literature (2)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • beta-Catenin gene mutation in human hair follicle-related tumors.

    Kajino Y, Yamaguchi A, Hashimoto N, Matsuura A, Sato N and Kikuchi K

    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Ohtsu, Japan.

    beta-Catenin, a multifunctional protein related to the adherens junction and to signal transduction, is a key molecule of cell proliferation, and it is central to epithelial architecture, regulating the polarity of cells and tissues. beta-Catenin stabilization may play a key role in epidermal signaling leading to hair development, and its aberrant activation may be implicated in formation of hair tumors. Several investigators have shown that pilomatricomas are frequently associated with beta-catenin mutation. In this study, we confirmed beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) mutation in human pilomatricomas (100% frequency) from which adequate DNA could be obtained for gene analysis. A novel mutation, D32N, was found in one case of pilomatricoma. A preliminary immunohistological study revealed prominent beta-catenin staining in basophilic cells of pilomatricomas, especially in nuclei. Benign tumors which were considered to be derived from hair matrix or hair follicles, and other benign skin tumors, were also investigated. beta-Catenin mutations were not detected in any of the these tumors. These results seem to indicate that hair matrix cells are key players in hair development. Investigation into gene abnormalities of hair-follicle tumors may elucidate the cause of their neoplastic transformation, and may provide a suggestion for the mechanism of hair development.

    Pathology international 2001;51;7;543-8

Pubmed - other

  • A common human skin tumour is caused by activating mutations in beta-catenin.

    Chan EF, Gat U, McNiff JM and Fuchs E

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, The University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

    WNT signalling orchestrates a number of developmental programs. In response to this stimulus, cytoplasmic beta-catenin (encoded by CTNNB1) is stabilized, enabling downstream transcriptional activation by members of the LEF/TCF family. One of the target genes for beta-catenin/TCF encodes c-MYC, explaining why constitutive activation of the WNT pathway can lead to cancer, particularly in the colon. Most colon cancers arise from mutations in the gene encoding adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), a protein required for ubiquitin-mediated degradation of beta-catenin, but a small percentage of colon and some other cancers harbour beta-catenin-stabilizing mutations. Recently, we discovered that transgenic mice expressing an activated beta-catenin are predisposed to developing skin tumours resembling pilomatricomas. Given that the skin of these adult mice also exhibits signs of de novo hair-follicle morphogenesis, we wondered whether human pilomatricomas might originate from hair matrix cells and whether they might possess beta-catenin-stabilizing mutations. Here, we explore the cell origin and aetiology of this common human skin tumour. We found nuclear LEF-1 in the dividing tumour cells, providing biochemical evidence that pilomatricomas are derived from hair matrix cells. At least 75% of these tumours possess mutations affecting the amino-terminal segment, normally involved in phosphorylation-dependent, ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the protein. This percentage of CTNNB1 mutations is greater than in all other human tumours examined thus far, and directly implicates beta-catenin/LEF misregulation as the major cause of hair matrix cell tumorigenesis in humans.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: NIH-RO1-AR31737; NIDCR NIH HHS: NCI-P50DE/CA-11921

    Nature genetics 1999;21;4;410-3

© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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