G2Cdb::Human Disease report

Disease id
D00000135
Name
Griscelli syndrome
Nervous system disease
no

Genes (1)

Gene Name/Description Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
G00002000 MYO5A
myosin VA (heavy chain 12, myoxin)
Y (9207796) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
G00002000 MYO5A
myosin VA (heavy chain 12, myoxin)
Y (10704277) Insertion (I) Y
G00002000 MYO5A
myosin VA (heavy chain 12, myoxin)
Y (10733681) Microinsertion (MI) N
G00002000 MYO5A
myosin VA (heavy chain 12, myoxin)
Y (12058346) No mutation found (N) N
G00002000 MYO5A
myosin VA (heavy chain 12, myoxin)
Y (12148598) Unknown (?) Y

References

  • Evidence that Griscelli syndrome with neurological involvement is caused by mutations in RAB27A, not MYO5A.

    Anikster Y, Huizing M, Anderson PD, Fitzpatrick DL, Klar A, Gross-Kieselstein E, Berkun Y, Shazberg G, Gahl WA and Hurvitz H

    Heritable Disorders Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-1830, USA.

    Griscelli syndrome (GS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by partial albinism, along with immunologic abnormalities or severe neurological impairment or both. Mutations in one of two different genes on chromosome 15q can cause the different subtypes of GS. Most patients with GS display the hemophagocytic syndrome and have mutations in RAB27A, which codes for a small GTPase. Two patients with neurological involvement have mutations in MYO5A, which codes for an actin-based molecular motor. The RAB27A and MYO5A gene products interact with each other and function in vesicle trafficking. We report the molecular basis of GS in a Muslim Arab kindred whose members have extremely variable neurological involvement, along with the hemophagocytic syndrome and immunologic abnormalities. The patients have normal MYO5A genes but exhibit a homozygous 67.5-kb deletion that eliminates RAB27A mRNA and immunocytofluorescence-detectable protein. We also describe the molecular organization of RAB27A and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the founder deletion in this kindred. Finally, we propose that all patients with GS have RAB27A mutations and immunologic abnormalities that sometimes result in secondary neurological involvement. The two patients described elsewhere who have MYO5A mutations and neurological complications but no immunologic defects may not have GS but instead may have Elejalde syndrome, a condition characterized by mild hypopigmentation and severe, primary neurological abnormalities.

    American journal of human genetics 2002;71;2;407-14

  • Griscelli disease: genotype-phenotype correlation in an array of clinical heterogeneity.

    Sanal O, Ersoy F, Tezcan I, Metin A, Yel L, Ménasché G, Gürgey A, Berkel I and de Saint Basile G

    Hacettepe University, Ihsan Doğramaci Children's Hospital, Immunology Division, Ankara, Turkey.

    Griscelli disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diffuse pigmentary dilution and occurrence of acute phases of uncontrolled lymphocyte and macrophage activation, so-called "hemophagocytic syndrome" (HS) that leads to death. Recently, two closely linked genes located on human 15q21 region have been found to be responsible for the disease. We present clinical and laboratory findings of 13 unrelated patients with Griscelli disease as well as mutation analyses in an effort to define a genotype-phenotype correlation. Eight patients who showed RAB27A mutations presented with HS. In contrast, two patients who primarily presented with a neurological impairment in the absence of infection susceptibility or HS were found to have homozygous MYO5A mutations. No mutation in RAB27A could be detected in the other three patients. One of the latter developed HS at a rather late age, while the other two are free of HS at 12 and 15 years of age. Griscelli disease presents with a heterogeneous clinical picture that seems to reflect the involved gene defect. This genotype-phenotype correlation suggests that the natural course of the disease and outcome is dictated by the site and type of the genetic mutation.

    Journal of clinical immunology 2002;22;4;237-43

  • arg-cys substitution at codon 1246 of the human myosin Va gene is not associated with Griscelli syndrome.

    Lambert J, Naeyaert JM, De Paepe A, Van Coster R, Ferster A, Song M and Messiaen L

    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Gent, Belgium. jo.lambert@rug.ac.be

    Myosin Va is an actin-associated motor protein involved in organelle transport such as melanosomes and neuron synaptic vesicles and has always been proposed as the candidate gene for the autosomal recessive Griscelli-Pruniéras syndrome, one of the silvery hair syndromes, which is a lethal disease combining immunodeficiency and neurologic and pigmentary abnormalities. Thus far, two mutations in the myosin Va gene have been described to be associated with this syndrome. One of these mutations was a homozygous mis-sense mutation causing an arginine to cysteine alteration at codon 1246. Because we also found this particular substitution after mutation analysis of a Griscelli patient, we checked its relevance in a control group of 124 unrelated healthy individuals and found it to be present, even in homozygous state, in normal unaffected individuals. It is clear that this arg1246cys substitution is a polymorphism occurring in the human population and not occurring in association with Griscelli syndrome. Distinguishing a polymorphism from a bona fide mutation is of utmost importance and has major ethical implications with regard to prenatal genetic counseling in affected families.

    The Journal of investigative dermatology 2000;114;4;731-3

  • Two genes are responsible for Griscelli syndrome at the same 15q21 locus.

    Pastural E, Ersoy F, Yalman N, Wulffraat N, Grillo E, Ozkinay F, Tezcan I, Gediköglu G, Philippe N, Fischer A and de Saint Basile G

    Unité de Recherches sur le développement normal et pathologique du système immunitaire, INSERM U429, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, 149 rue de Sèvres, Paris Cedex 15, 75743, France.

    Griscelli syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by pigment dilution, variable cellular immunodeficiency, and an acute phase of uncontrolled T lymphocyte and macrophage activation. We previously mapped the disease locus to 15q21 and showed that a MyoVa gene (HGMW-approved symbol MYO5A) defect leads to Griscelli syndrome. We report a second MyoVa mutation in a new patient, confirming this first finding. However, in four other Griscelli syndrome patients analyzed, the MYOVA protein is expressed, and no mutation can be detected in the MyoVa gene coding sequence, even in the alternatively spliced region for which exon-intron boundaries were characterized. Linkage analysis performed in 15 Griscelli families thus far studied confirms the first localization. However, fine haplotype analysis in three families strongly suggests the existence of a second gene at the same locus for Griscelli syndrome less than 7.3 cM distant from the MyoVa gene.

    Genomics 2000;63;3;299-306

  • Griscelli disease maps to chromosome 15q21 and is associated with mutations in the myosin-Va gene.

    Pastural E, Barrat FJ, Dufourcq-Lagelouse R, Certain S, Sanal O, Jabado N, Seger R, Griscelli C, Fischer A and de Saint Basile G

    Unité de Recherches sur le Dévelopement Normal et Pathologique de Systéme Immunitaire INSERM U429 Paris, France.

    Griscelli disease (OMIM 214450) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by pigmentary dilution, variable cellular immunodeficiency and onset of acute phases of uncontrolled lymphocyte and macrophage activation, leading to death in the absence of bone-marrow transplantation. The pigmentary dilution is characterized by a diffuse skin pigmentation, silvery hair, large clumps of pigments in the hair shafts (Fig. 1) and an accumulation of melanosomes in melanocytes, with abnormal transfer of the melanin granules to the keratinocytes. Immunological abnormalities are characterized by absent delayed-type cutaneous hypersensitivity and an impaired natural-killer cell function. A similar disorder has been described in the dilute lethal mouse--which, however, differs by the occurrence of a severe neurological disorder. The dilute locus encodes myosin-Va, a member of the unconventional myosin family. Myosins bind actin and produce mechanical force through ATP hydrolysis. Some members of this family are thought to participate in organelle-transport machinery. Because of the phenotype resulting in the dilute mouse and because of their potential role in intracellular transport, unconventional myosin-encoding genes were regarded as candidate genes for Griscelli disease. Here we report that the Griscelli disease locus co-localizes on chromosome 15q21 with the myosin-Va gene, MYO5a, and that mutations of this gene occur in two patients with the disease. Griscelli disease is therefore a human equivalent of dilute expression in the mouse.

    Nature genetics 1997;16;3;289-92

Literature (5)

Pubmed - other

  • Evidence that Griscelli syndrome with neurological involvement is caused by mutations in RAB27A, not MYO5A.

    Anikster Y, Huizing M, Anderson PD, Fitzpatrick DL, Klar A, Gross-Kieselstein E, Berkun Y, Shazberg G, Gahl WA and Hurvitz H

    Heritable Disorders Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-1830, USA.

    Griscelli syndrome (GS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by partial albinism, along with immunologic abnormalities or severe neurological impairment or both. Mutations in one of two different genes on chromosome 15q can cause the different subtypes of GS. Most patients with GS display the hemophagocytic syndrome and have mutations in RAB27A, which codes for a small GTPase. Two patients with neurological involvement have mutations in MYO5A, which codes for an actin-based molecular motor. The RAB27A and MYO5A gene products interact with each other and function in vesicle trafficking. We report the molecular basis of GS in a Muslim Arab kindred whose members have extremely variable neurological involvement, along with the hemophagocytic syndrome and immunologic abnormalities. The patients have normal MYO5A genes but exhibit a homozygous 67.5-kb deletion that eliminates RAB27A mRNA and immunocytofluorescence-detectable protein. We also describe the molecular organization of RAB27A and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the founder deletion in this kindred. Finally, we propose that all patients with GS have RAB27A mutations and immunologic abnormalities that sometimes result in secondary neurological involvement. The two patients described elsewhere who have MYO5A mutations and neurological complications but no immunologic defects may not have GS but instead may have Elejalde syndrome, a condition characterized by mild hypopigmentation and severe, primary neurological abnormalities.

    American journal of human genetics 2002;71;2;407-14

  • Griscelli disease: genotype-phenotype correlation in an array of clinical heterogeneity.

    Sanal O, Ersoy F, Tezcan I, Metin A, Yel L, Ménasché G, Gürgey A, Berkel I and de Saint Basile G

    Hacettepe University, Ihsan Doğramaci Children's Hospital, Immunology Division, Ankara, Turkey.

    Griscelli disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diffuse pigmentary dilution and occurrence of acute phases of uncontrolled lymphocyte and macrophage activation, so-called "hemophagocytic syndrome" (HS) that leads to death. Recently, two closely linked genes located on human 15q21 region have been found to be responsible for the disease. We present clinical and laboratory findings of 13 unrelated patients with Griscelli disease as well as mutation analyses in an effort to define a genotype-phenotype correlation. Eight patients who showed RAB27A mutations presented with HS. In contrast, two patients who primarily presented with a neurological impairment in the absence of infection susceptibility or HS were found to have homozygous MYO5A mutations. No mutation in RAB27A could be detected in the other three patients. One of the latter developed HS at a rather late age, while the other two are free of HS at 12 and 15 years of age. Griscelli disease presents with a heterogeneous clinical picture that seems to reflect the involved gene defect. This genotype-phenotype correlation suggests that the natural course of the disease and outcome is dictated by the site and type of the genetic mutation.

    Journal of clinical immunology 2002;22;4;237-43

  • arg-cys substitution at codon 1246 of the human myosin Va gene is not associated with Griscelli syndrome.

    Lambert J, Naeyaert JM, De Paepe A, Van Coster R, Ferster A, Song M and Messiaen L

    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Gent, Belgium. jo.lambert@rug.ac.be

    Myosin Va is an actin-associated motor protein involved in organelle transport such as melanosomes and neuron synaptic vesicles and has always been proposed as the candidate gene for the autosomal recessive Griscelli-Pruniéras syndrome, one of the silvery hair syndromes, which is a lethal disease combining immunodeficiency and neurologic and pigmentary abnormalities. Thus far, two mutations in the myosin Va gene have been described to be associated with this syndrome. One of these mutations was a homozygous mis-sense mutation causing an arginine to cysteine alteration at codon 1246. Because we also found this particular substitution after mutation analysis of a Griscelli patient, we checked its relevance in a control group of 124 unrelated healthy individuals and found it to be present, even in homozygous state, in normal unaffected individuals. It is clear that this arg1246cys substitution is a polymorphism occurring in the human population and not occurring in association with Griscelli syndrome. Distinguishing a polymorphism from a bona fide mutation is of utmost importance and has major ethical implications with regard to prenatal genetic counseling in affected families.

    The Journal of investigative dermatology 2000;114;4;731-3

  • Two genes are responsible for Griscelli syndrome at the same 15q21 locus.

    Pastural E, Ersoy F, Yalman N, Wulffraat N, Grillo E, Ozkinay F, Tezcan I, Gediköglu G, Philippe N, Fischer A and de Saint Basile G

    Unité de Recherches sur le développement normal et pathologique du système immunitaire, INSERM U429, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, 149 rue de Sèvres, Paris Cedex 15, 75743, France.

    Griscelli syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by pigment dilution, variable cellular immunodeficiency, and an acute phase of uncontrolled T lymphocyte and macrophage activation. We previously mapped the disease locus to 15q21 and showed that a MyoVa gene (HGMW-approved symbol MYO5A) defect leads to Griscelli syndrome. We report a second MyoVa mutation in a new patient, confirming this first finding. However, in four other Griscelli syndrome patients analyzed, the MYOVA protein is expressed, and no mutation can be detected in the MyoVa gene coding sequence, even in the alternatively spliced region for which exon-intron boundaries were characterized. Linkage analysis performed in 15 Griscelli families thus far studied confirms the first localization. However, fine haplotype analysis in three families strongly suggests the existence of a second gene at the same locus for Griscelli syndrome less than 7.3 cM distant from the MyoVa gene.

    Genomics 2000;63;3;299-306

  • Griscelli disease maps to chromosome 15q21 and is associated with mutations in the myosin-Va gene.

    Pastural E, Barrat FJ, Dufourcq-Lagelouse R, Certain S, Sanal O, Jabado N, Seger R, Griscelli C, Fischer A and de Saint Basile G

    Unité de Recherches sur le Dévelopement Normal et Pathologique de Systéme Immunitaire INSERM U429 Paris, France.

    Griscelli disease (OMIM 214450) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by pigmentary dilution, variable cellular immunodeficiency and onset of acute phases of uncontrolled lymphocyte and macrophage activation, leading to death in the absence of bone-marrow transplantation. The pigmentary dilution is characterized by a diffuse skin pigmentation, silvery hair, large clumps of pigments in the hair shafts (Fig. 1) and an accumulation of melanosomes in melanocytes, with abnormal transfer of the melanin granules to the keratinocytes. Immunological abnormalities are characterized by absent delayed-type cutaneous hypersensitivity and an impaired natural-killer cell function. A similar disorder has been described in the dilute lethal mouse--which, however, differs by the occurrence of a severe neurological disorder. The dilute locus encodes myosin-Va, a member of the unconventional myosin family. Myosins bind actin and produce mechanical force through ATP hydrolysis. Some members of this family are thought to participate in organelle-transport machinery. Because of the phenotype resulting in the dilute mouse and because of their potential role in intracellular transport, unconventional myosin-encoding genes were regarded as candidate genes for Griscelli disease. Here we report that the Griscelli disease locus co-localizes on chromosome 15q21 with the myosin-Va gene, MYO5a, and that mutations of this gene occur in two patients with the disease. Griscelli disease is therefore a human equivalent of dilute expression in the mouse.

    Nature genetics 1997;16;3;289-92

© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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