G2Cdb::Human Disease report

Disease id
D00000137
Name
Diabetic nephropathy
Nervous system disease
no

Genes (2)

Gene Name/Description Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
G00002126 PRKCB
protein kinase C, beta
Y (12874455) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
G00001324 ATP1A1
ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 1 polypeptide
Y (15198370) Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) Y

References

  • C-peptide, Na+,K(+)-ATPase, and diabetes.

    Vague P, Coste TC, Jannot MF, Raccah D and Tsimaratos M

    Departement de Nutrition-Endocrinologie-Maladies Métaboliques, CHU Timone, Marseille, France. philippe.vague@ap-hm.fr

    Na+,K(+)-ATPase is an ubiquitous membrane enzyme that allows the extrusion of three sodium ions from the cell and two potassium ions from the extracellular fluid. Its activity is decreased in many tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals. This impairment could be at least partly responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is decreased in the red blood cell membranes of type 1 diabetic individuals, irrespective of the degree of diabetic control. It is less impaired or even normal in those of type 2 diabetic patients. The authors have shown that in the red blood cells of type 2 diabetic patients, Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity was strongly related to blood C-peptide levels in non-insulin-treated patients (in whom C-peptide concentration reflects that of insulin) as well as in insulin-treated patients. Furthermore, a gene-environment relationship has been observed. The alpha-1 isoform of the enzyme predominant in red blood cells and nerve tissue is encoded by the ATP1A1 gene. A polymorphism in the intron 1 of this gene is associated with lower enzyme activity in patients with C-peptide deficiency either with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but not in normal individuals. There are several lines of evidence for a low C-peptide level being responsible for low Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in the red blood cells. Short-term C-peptide infusion to type 1 diabetic patients restores normal Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. Islet transplantation, which restores endogenous C-peptide secretion, enhances Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity proportionally to the rise in C-peptide. This C-peptide effect is not indirect. In fact, incubation of diabetic red blood cells with C-peptide at physiological concentration leads to an increase of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. In isolated proximal tubules of rats or in the medullary thick ascending limb of the kidney, C-peptide stimulates in a dose-dependent manner Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. This impairment in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity, mainly secondary to the lack of C-peptide, plays probably a role in the development of diabetic complications. Arguments have been developed showing that the diabetes-induced decrease in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity compromises microvascular blood flow by two mechanisms: by affecting microvascular regulation and by decreasing red blood cell deformability, which leads to an increase in blood viscosity. C-peptide infusion restores red blood cell deformability and microvascular blood flow concomitantly with Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. The defect in ATPase is strongly related to diabetic neuropathy. Patients with neuropathy have lower ATPase activity than those without. The diabetes-induced impairment in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is identical in red blood cells and neural tissue. Red blood cell ATPase activity is related to nerve conduction velocity in the peroneal and the tibial nerve of diabetic patients. C-peptide infusion to diabetic rats increases endoneural ATPase activity in rat. Because the defect in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is also probably involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy and cardiomyopathy, physiological C-peptide infusion could be beneficial for the prevention of diabetic complications.

    Experimental diabesity research 2004;5;1;37-50

  • Identification of a common risk haplotype for diabetic nephropathy at the protein kinase C-beta1 (PRKCB1) gene locus.

    Araki S, Ng DP, Krolewski B, Wyrwicz L, Rogus JJ, Canani L, Makita Y, Haneda M, Warram JH and Krolewski AS

    Section on Genetics and Epidemiology, Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    Abnormal activation of protein kinase C-beta isoforms in the diabetic state has been implicated in the development of diabetic nephropathy. It is thus plausible that DNA sequence differences in the protein kinase C-beta1 gene (PRKCB1), which encodes both betaI and betaII isoforms, may influence susceptibility to nephropathy. Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in PRKCB1 were tested for association with diabetic nephropathy in type I diabetes mellitus, by using both case-control and family-study designs. Allele and genotype distributions of two SNP in the promoter (--1504C/T and --546C/G) differed significantly between case patients and control patients (P < 0.05). These associations were particularly strong with diabetes mellitus duration of <24 yr (P = 0.002). The risk of diabetic nephropathy was higher among carriers of the T allele of the --1504C/T SNP, compared with noncarriers (odds ratio, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.39 to 4.62), and among carriers of the G allele of the --546C/G SNP (odds ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.37 to 4.38). Among individuals with diabetes mellitus duration of >/==" BORDER="0">24 yr, these two SNP were not associated with diabetic nephropathy. These positive findings were confirmed by using the family-based transmission disequilibrium test. The T-G haplotype, with both risk alleles, was transmitted more frequently than expected from heterozygous parents to offspring who developed diabetic nephropathy during the first 24 yr of diabetes mellitus. It is concluded that DNA sequence differences in the promoter of PRKCB1 contribute to diabetic nephropathy susceptibility in type I diabetes mellitus.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK41526, DK53534

    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 2003;14;8;2015-24

Literature (2)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • C-peptide, Na+,K(+)-ATPase, and diabetes.

    Vague P, Coste TC, Jannot MF, Raccah D and Tsimaratos M

    Departement de Nutrition-Endocrinologie-Maladies Métaboliques, CHU Timone, Marseille, France. philippe.vague@ap-hm.fr

    Na+,K(+)-ATPase is an ubiquitous membrane enzyme that allows the extrusion of three sodium ions from the cell and two potassium ions from the extracellular fluid. Its activity is decreased in many tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals. This impairment could be at least partly responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is decreased in the red blood cell membranes of type 1 diabetic individuals, irrespective of the degree of diabetic control. It is less impaired or even normal in those of type 2 diabetic patients. The authors have shown that in the red blood cells of type 2 diabetic patients, Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity was strongly related to blood C-peptide levels in non-insulin-treated patients (in whom C-peptide concentration reflects that of insulin) as well as in insulin-treated patients. Furthermore, a gene-environment relationship has been observed. The alpha-1 isoform of the enzyme predominant in red blood cells and nerve tissue is encoded by the ATP1A1 gene. A polymorphism in the intron 1 of this gene is associated with lower enzyme activity in patients with C-peptide deficiency either with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but not in normal individuals. There are several lines of evidence for a low C-peptide level being responsible for low Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in the red blood cells. Short-term C-peptide infusion to type 1 diabetic patients restores normal Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. Islet transplantation, which restores endogenous C-peptide secretion, enhances Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity proportionally to the rise in C-peptide. This C-peptide effect is not indirect. In fact, incubation of diabetic red blood cells with C-peptide at physiological concentration leads to an increase of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. In isolated proximal tubules of rats or in the medullary thick ascending limb of the kidney, C-peptide stimulates in a dose-dependent manner Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. This impairment in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity, mainly secondary to the lack of C-peptide, plays probably a role in the development of diabetic complications. Arguments have been developed showing that the diabetes-induced decrease in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity compromises microvascular blood flow by two mechanisms: by affecting microvascular regulation and by decreasing red blood cell deformability, which leads to an increase in blood viscosity. C-peptide infusion restores red blood cell deformability and microvascular blood flow concomitantly with Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. The defect in ATPase is strongly related to diabetic neuropathy. Patients with neuropathy have lower ATPase activity than those without. The diabetes-induced impairment in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is identical in red blood cells and neural tissue. Red blood cell ATPase activity is related to nerve conduction velocity in the peroneal and the tibial nerve of diabetic patients. C-peptide infusion to diabetic rats increases endoneural ATPase activity in rat. Because the defect in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is also probably involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy and cardiomyopathy, physiological C-peptide infusion could be beneficial for the prevention of diabetic complications.

    Experimental diabesity research 2004;5;1;37-50

Pubmed - other

  • Identification of a common risk haplotype for diabetic nephropathy at the protein kinase C-beta1 (PRKCB1) gene locus.

    Araki S, Ng DP, Krolewski B, Wyrwicz L, Rogus JJ, Canani L, Makita Y, Haneda M, Warram JH and Krolewski AS

    Section on Genetics and Epidemiology, Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    Abnormal activation of protein kinase C-beta isoforms in the diabetic state has been implicated in the development of diabetic nephropathy. It is thus plausible that DNA sequence differences in the protein kinase C-beta1 gene (PRKCB1), which encodes both betaI and betaII isoforms, may influence susceptibility to nephropathy. Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in PRKCB1 were tested for association with diabetic nephropathy in type I diabetes mellitus, by using both case-control and family-study designs. Allele and genotype distributions of two SNP in the promoter (--1504C/T and --546C/G) differed significantly between case patients and control patients (P < 0.05). These associations were particularly strong with diabetes mellitus duration of <24 yr (P = 0.002). The risk of diabetic nephropathy was higher among carriers of the T allele of the --1504C/T SNP, compared with noncarriers (odds ratio, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.39 to 4.62), and among carriers of the G allele of the --546C/G SNP (odds ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.37 to 4.38). Among individuals with diabetes mellitus duration of >/==" BORDER="0">24 yr, these two SNP were not associated with diabetic nephropathy. These positive findings were confirmed by using the family-based transmission disequilibrium test. The T-G haplotype, with both risk alleles, was transmitted more frequently than expected from heterozygous parents to offspring who developed diabetic nephropathy during the first 24 yr of diabetes mellitus. It is concluded that DNA sequence differences in the promoter of PRKCB1 contribute to diabetic nephropathy susceptibility in type I diabetes mellitus.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK41526, DK53534

    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 2003;14;8;2015-24

© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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