G2Cdb::Human Disease report

Disease id
Nervous system disease

Genes (1)

Gene Name/Description Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
G00001473 GNAS
GNAS complex locus
Y (8809352) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y


  • Concurrent hormone resistance (pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia) and hormone independence (testotoxicosis) caused by a unique mutation in the G alpha s gene.

    Nakamoto JM, Zimmerman D, Jones EA, Loke KY, Siddiq K, Donlan MA, Brickman AS and Van Dop C

    Department of Pediatrics, University of California at Los Angeles 90095, USA.

    Defects in the G (guanine nucleotide-binding)-protein subunit (G alpha s) which stimulates adenylyl cyclase may result in either loss or gain of endocrine function. Reduced G alpha s activity is found in the hormone resistance syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP-Ia), while constitutive activation of G alpha s is associated with endocrine organ overactivity, including the gonadotropin-independent sexual precocity seen in patients with McCune-Albright syndrome. We identified two unrelated boys presenting with concurrent PHP-Ia and gonadotropin-independent sexual precocity (testotoxicosis). Mutational screening by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of PCR-amplified exons of the G alpha s gene revealed a point mutation which generates an alanine-to-serine substitution in codon 366 of one G alpha s allele (A366S), an alanine present at the homologous position in all G-proteins. We have previously shown in transfected testis cells that the A366S mutation activates G alpha s by decreasing affinity for GDP, thereby increasing the rate of nucleotide exchange in a receptor-independent fashion. In contrast to differential stability of the activated mutant G alpha s protein in Leydig cells, with stability at 32 degrees C but not at 37 degrees C, skin fibroblasts with the mutation had the same reduced G alpha s levels at both temperatures. Our findings explain the limitation of clinical manifestations of G alpha s overactivity to testis, without involvement of other body appendages which are generally at lower than core body temperature. This unique mutation at a critically conserved residue of G alpha s is the first mutant G-protein which affects guanine nucleotide affinity and is associated with human disease, producing widely divergent and tissue-specific effects.

    Biochemical and molecular medicine 1996;58;1;18-24

Literature (1)

Pubmed - human_disease

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© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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