G2Cdb::Human Disease report

Disease id
D00000190
Name
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14
Nervous system disease
yes

Genes (1)

Gene Name/Description Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
G00002481 PRKCG
protein kinase C, gamma
Y (15313841) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
G00002481 PRKCG
protein kinase C, gamma
Y (14676051) Microinsertion (MI) Y
G00002481 PRKCG
protein kinase C, gamma
Y (16189624) Microinsertion (MI) Y

References

  • A novel H101Q mutation causes PKCgamma loss in spinocerebellar ataxia type 14.

    Alonso I, Costa C, Gomes A, Ferro A, Seixas AI, Silva S, Cruz VT, Coutinho P, Sequeiros J and Silveira I

    UnIGENe, IBMC, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 823, 4150-180, Porto, Portugal.

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, first described in a Japanese family, showing linkage to chromosome 19q13.4-qter. Recently, mutations have been identified in the PRKCG gene in families with SCA14. The PRKCG gene encodes the protein kinase Cgamma (PKCgamma), a member of a serine/threonine kinase family involved in signal transduction important for several cellular processes, including cell proliferation and synaptic transmission. To identify the disease-causing mutation in a large group of ataxia patients, we searched for mutations in the PRKCG gene. We ascertained 366 unrelated patients with spinocerebellar ataxia, either pure or with associated features such as epilepsy, mental retardation, seizures, paraplegia, and tremor. A C-to-G transversion in exon 4, resulting in a histidine-to-glutamine change at codon 101 of the PKCgamma protein, was identified in patients from a family with slowly progressive pure cerebellar ataxia. Functional studies performed in HEK293 cells transfected with normal or mutant construct showed that this mutation affects PKCgamma stability or solubility, verified by time-dependent decreased protein levels in cell culture. In conclusion, the H101Q mutation causes slowly progressive uncomplicated ataxia by interfering with PKCgamma stability or solubility, which consequently may cause in either case a decrease in the overall PKCgamma-dependent phosphorylation.

    Journal of human genetics 2005;50;10;523-529

  • Mutation in the catalytic domain of protein kinase C gamma and extension of the phenotype associated with spinocerebellar ataxia type 14.

    Stevanin G, Hahn V, Lohmann E, Bouslam N, Gouttard M, Soumphonphakdy C, Welter ML, Ollagnon-Roman E, Lemainque A, Ruberg M, Brice A and Durr A

    INSERM U289, Institut Fédératif de Recherche en Neuroscience, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de al Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

    Background: Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias comprise a clinically, neuropathologically, and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. The vast majority of cases are caused by trinucleotide or pentanucleotide repeat expansions in 9 different genes. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is a relatively pure form of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia mapped to chromosome 19q and caused by missense mutations in the gene encoding protein kinase C gamma (PRKCG), which are all located in the regulatory domain.

    Objectives: To identify new SCA14 families and to describe the associated phenotype.

    Methods: We describe a new SCA14 family of French ancestry with 14 patients and 4 probably affected individuals. Linkage to the SCA14 locus was evaluated according to standard procedures using 5 markers covering the SCA14 candidate interval. All 18 exons of the PRKCG gene and splice junctions were screened with direct sequencing in the index patient.

    Results: Linkage to the SCA14 locus was established with lod scores greater than 3 in the interval between DNA segments D19S571 and D19S926. Direct sequencing of the PRKCG gene revealed a T-to-C transition in exon 18 responsible for a novel missense mutation, F643L, which mapped to a highly conserved amino acid of the catalytic domain of protein kinase C gamma. The mutation showed complete segregation with the disease phenotype, was present in all affected and probably affected individuals, and was not observed on 410 control chromosomes from healthy white subjects. Age at onset, assessed in 14 affected individuals, was broader than in previous reports and ranged from childhood to age 60 years. All affected patients had slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia frequently associated with brisk reflexes. Cognitive impairment was also a striking feature in this family and has not been reported previously. Interestingly, there was no axial myoclonus as reported in a Japanese SCA14 family, but electrophysiological recordings in a single patient showed diffuse myoclonus in the arms and legs.

    Conclusions: We have identified a new SCA14 family with the first mutation (F643L) located in the catalytic domain of the enzyme. The wide range of ages at onset, the presence of myoclonus in the limbs, and the presence of cognitive impairment extend the phenotype associated with this genetic entity.

    Archives of neurology 2004;61;8;1242-8

  • Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 caused by a mutation in protein kinase C gamma.

    Yabe I, Sasaki H, Chen DH, Raskind WH, Bird TD, Yamashita I, Tsuji S, Kikuchi S and Tashiro K

    Department of Neurology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

    Background: We previously discovered spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) in a single Japanese family with an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia and intermittent axial myoclonus. The latter manifestation is selectively observed in patients with early onset. We mapped the locus to chromosome 19q13.4-qter, but the etiologic gene was not known. Recently, a mutation in the protein kinase C gamma gene (PRKCG) was identified in a US family of English and Dutch ancestry with autosomal dominant SCA whose disease mapped to a region overlapping that of the SCA14 locus. Different PRKCG mutations were found in another family with SCA and in a sporadic case from the United States. Axial myoclonus was not observed in any of these US families.

    Objectives: To determine whether a mutation in the PRKCG gene is responsible for SCA14 and to investigate the prevalence of PRKCG mutations in Japanese patients with autosomal dominant SCA.

    Direct nucleotide sequencing analysis of the 18 coding exons of the PRKCG gene was performed in the 19 members of the original Japanese family with SCA14 and in 24 Japanese probands with SCA. After identifying a PRKCG mutation, DNA samples from 72 patients with multiple system atrophy and 50 healthy individuals were examined for the mutation as controls.

    Results: Sequence analysis revealed a novel missense mutation, Gln127Arg, in all affected members of the family with SCA14. This mutation was not found in 122 control individuals. No mutations in the PRKCG gene were detected in the group of 24 probands with SCA of unknown type.

    Conclusions: These findings document that SCA14 is caused by mutations in the PRKCG gene. The observation that all 4 PRKCG mutations identified in patients with SCA to date are located in exon 4 suggests a critical role for this region of the gene in cerebellar function. Mutations in the same region of the gene can result in myoclonus in some families but not in others.

    Archives of neurology 2003;60;12;1749-51

Literature (3)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • A novel H101Q mutation causes PKCgamma loss in spinocerebellar ataxia type 14.

    Alonso I, Costa C, Gomes A, Ferro A, Seixas AI, Silva S, Cruz VT, Coutinho P, Sequeiros J and Silveira I

    UnIGENe, IBMC, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 823, 4150-180, Porto, Portugal.

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, first described in a Japanese family, showing linkage to chromosome 19q13.4-qter. Recently, mutations have been identified in the PRKCG gene in families with SCA14. The PRKCG gene encodes the protein kinase Cgamma (PKCgamma), a member of a serine/threonine kinase family involved in signal transduction important for several cellular processes, including cell proliferation and synaptic transmission. To identify the disease-causing mutation in a large group of ataxia patients, we searched for mutations in the PRKCG gene. We ascertained 366 unrelated patients with spinocerebellar ataxia, either pure or with associated features such as epilepsy, mental retardation, seizures, paraplegia, and tremor. A C-to-G transversion in exon 4, resulting in a histidine-to-glutamine change at codon 101 of the PKCgamma protein, was identified in patients from a family with slowly progressive pure cerebellar ataxia. Functional studies performed in HEK293 cells transfected with normal or mutant construct showed that this mutation affects PKCgamma stability or solubility, verified by time-dependent decreased protein levels in cell culture. In conclusion, the H101Q mutation causes slowly progressive uncomplicated ataxia by interfering with PKCgamma stability or solubility, which consequently may cause in either case a decrease in the overall PKCgamma-dependent phosphorylation.

    Journal of human genetics 2005;50;10;523-529

  • Mutation in the catalytic domain of protein kinase C gamma and extension of the phenotype associated with spinocerebellar ataxia type 14.

    Stevanin G, Hahn V, Lohmann E, Bouslam N, Gouttard M, Soumphonphakdy C, Welter ML, Ollagnon-Roman E, Lemainque A, Ruberg M, Brice A and Durr A

    INSERM U289, Institut Fédératif de Recherche en Neuroscience, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de al Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

    Background: Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias comprise a clinically, neuropathologically, and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. The vast majority of cases are caused by trinucleotide or pentanucleotide repeat expansions in 9 different genes. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is a relatively pure form of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia mapped to chromosome 19q and caused by missense mutations in the gene encoding protein kinase C gamma (PRKCG), which are all located in the regulatory domain.

    Objectives: To identify new SCA14 families and to describe the associated phenotype.

    Methods: We describe a new SCA14 family of French ancestry with 14 patients and 4 probably affected individuals. Linkage to the SCA14 locus was evaluated according to standard procedures using 5 markers covering the SCA14 candidate interval. All 18 exons of the PRKCG gene and splice junctions were screened with direct sequencing in the index patient.

    Results: Linkage to the SCA14 locus was established with lod scores greater than 3 in the interval between DNA segments D19S571 and D19S926. Direct sequencing of the PRKCG gene revealed a T-to-C transition in exon 18 responsible for a novel missense mutation, F643L, which mapped to a highly conserved amino acid of the catalytic domain of protein kinase C gamma. The mutation showed complete segregation with the disease phenotype, was present in all affected and probably affected individuals, and was not observed on 410 control chromosomes from healthy white subjects. Age at onset, assessed in 14 affected individuals, was broader than in previous reports and ranged from childhood to age 60 years. All affected patients had slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia frequently associated with brisk reflexes. Cognitive impairment was also a striking feature in this family and has not been reported previously. Interestingly, there was no axial myoclonus as reported in a Japanese SCA14 family, but electrophysiological recordings in a single patient showed diffuse myoclonus in the arms and legs.

    Conclusions: We have identified a new SCA14 family with the first mutation (F643L) located in the catalytic domain of the enzyme. The wide range of ages at onset, the presence of myoclonus in the limbs, and the presence of cognitive impairment extend the phenotype associated with this genetic entity.

    Archives of neurology 2004;61;8;1242-8

Pubmed - other

  • Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 caused by a mutation in protein kinase C gamma.

    Yabe I, Sasaki H, Chen DH, Raskind WH, Bird TD, Yamashita I, Tsuji S, Kikuchi S and Tashiro K

    Department of Neurology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

    Background: We previously discovered spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) in a single Japanese family with an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia and intermittent axial myoclonus. The latter manifestation is selectively observed in patients with early onset. We mapped the locus to chromosome 19q13.4-qter, but the etiologic gene was not known. Recently, a mutation in the protein kinase C gamma gene (PRKCG) was identified in a US family of English and Dutch ancestry with autosomal dominant SCA whose disease mapped to a region overlapping that of the SCA14 locus. Different PRKCG mutations were found in another family with SCA and in a sporadic case from the United States. Axial myoclonus was not observed in any of these US families.

    Objectives: To determine whether a mutation in the PRKCG gene is responsible for SCA14 and to investigate the prevalence of PRKCG mutations in Japanese patients with autosomal dominant SCA.

    Direct nucleotide sequencing analysis of the 18 coding exons of the PRKCG gene was performed in the 19 members of the original Japanese family with SCA14 and in 24 Japanese probands with SCA. After identifying a PRKCG mutation, DNA samples from 72 patients with multiple system atrophy and 50 healthy individuals were examined for the mutation as controls.

    Results: Sequence analysis revealed a novel missense mutation, Gln127Arg, in all affected members of the family with SCA14. This mutation was not found in 122 control individuals. No mutations in the PRKCG gene were detected in the group of 24 probands with SCA of unknown type.

    Conclusions: These findings document that SCA14 is caused by mutations in the PRKCG gene. The observation that all 4 PRKCG mutations identified in patients with SCA to date are located in exon 4 suggests a critical role for this region of the gene in cerebellar function. Mutations in the same region of the gene can result in myoclonus in some families but not in others.

    Archives of neurology 2003;60;12;1749-51

© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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