G2Cdb::Human Disease report

Disease id
D00000320
Name
Athletic performance
Nervous system disease
no

Genes (2)

Gene Name/Description Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
G00002443 SERPINA3
serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 3
Y (17033684) Polymorphism (P) Y
G00002443 SERPINA3
serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 3
Y (16612741) Polymorphism (P) N
G00002443 SERPINA3
serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 3
Y (15977791) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
G00002443 SERPINA3
serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 3
Y (15886711) Polymorphism (P) Y
G00002443 SERPINA3
serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 3
Y (15718405) Polymorphism (P) ?
G00001473 GNAS
GNAS complex locus
Y (16210433) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y

References

  • Association analysis of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and complex quantitative body composition and performance phenotypes in adolescent Greeks.

    Moran CN, Yang N, Bailey ME, Tsiokanos A, Jamurtas A, MacArthur DG, North K, Pitsiladis YP and Wilson RH

    Institute of Diet, Exercise and Lifestyle (IDEAL) and Division of Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Biomedical & Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

    The functional allele (577R) of ACTN3, which encodes human alpha-actinin-3, has been reported to be associated with elite athletic status and with response to resistance training, while the nonfunctional allele (577X) has been proposed as a candidate metabolically thrifty allele. In a study of 992 adolescent Greeks, we show that there is a significant association (P=0.003) between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and 40 m sprint time in males that accounts for 2.3% of phenotypic variance, with the 577R allele contributing to faster times in an additive manner. The R577X polymorphism is not associated with other power phenotypes related to 40 m sprint, nor with an endurance phenotype. Furthermore, the polymorphism is not associated with obesity-related phenotypes in our population, suggesting that the 577X allele is not a thrifty allele, and thus the persistence of this null allele must be explained in other terms.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2007;15;1;88-93

  • ACTN3 genotype in professional endurance cyclists.

    Lucia A, Gómez-Gallego F, Santiago C, Bandrés F, Earnest C, Rabadán M, Alonso JM, Hoyos J, Córdova A, Villa G and Foster C

    European University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain. alejandro.lucia@uem.es

    The Z-disk protein alpha-actinin-3 is only expressed in type II muscle fibres, which are responsible for generating forceful contractions at high velocity. Despite the evolutionary conservation of alpha-actinin-3, approximately one in every five Caucasians of European ancestry is totally deficient in this protein, due to homozygosity for a R577X polymorphism in the ACTN3 gene. This, together with the results of recent research on elite athletes, suggests that the "null" XX polymorphism might confer some advantage to endurance performance events. To test this hypothesis, we studied the frequency distribution of R577X genotypes in a group of 50 top-level male professional cyclists (26.9 +/- 0.4 yrs [mean +/- SEM]; VO2max: 73.5 +/- 0.8 ml x kg (-1) x min (-1)). Their results were compared with those of a group of 52 Olympic-class male endurance runners (26.8 +/- 0.6 yrs; VO2max: 73.3 +/- 0.8 ml x kg (-1) x min (-1)) and 123 healthy, sedentary male controls. All subjects were Caucasian, and of European ancestry. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between groups: RR: 28.5 %; RX: 53.6 % and XX: 17.9 % in controls; RR: 28.0 %; RX: 46.0 % and XX: 26.0 % in cyclists; and RR: 25.0 %; RX: 57.7 %; XX: 17.3 % in runners). No differences were found in indices of endurance performance (VO2peak or ventilatory thresholds) between athlete carriers of each R577X genotype. In summary, although the alpha-actinin-3 deficient XX genotype may be detrimental for sprint performance in humans, the R577X polymorphism of the ACTN3 gene does not appear to confer an advantage on the ability of male athletes to sustain extreme endurance performance.

    International journal of sports medicine 2006;27;11;880-4

  • Effects of polymorphisms in beta1-adrenoceptor and alpha-subunit of G protein on heart rate and blood pressure during exercise test. The Finnish Cardiovascular Study.

    Nieminen T, Lehtimäki T, Laiho J, Rontu R, Niemelä K, Kööbi T, Lehtinen R, Viik J, Turjanmaa V and Kähönen M

    Dept. of Pharmacological Sciences, Medical School, Univ. of Tampere, Tampere FI-33014, Finland. tuomo.nieminen@iki.fi

    We tested whether the Arg389Gly and Ser49Gly polymorphisms of the beta1-adrenergic receptor gene ADRB1 and the T393C polymorphism of the G protein alpha-subunit gene GNAS1 modulate heart rate (HR) and blood pressure responses during an exercise stress test. The study population comprised 890 participants (563 men and 327 women, mean age 58.1 +/- 12.6 yr) of the Finnish Cardiovascular Study. Their HR, systolic (SAP), and diastolic arterial pressures (DAP) at rest, during exercise, and 4 min after the test were measured and analyzed by repeated-measurement ANOVA (RANOVA). Genotypes were detected by TaqMan 5' nuclease assay. In all subjects, and in men and women separately, the T393C of GNAS1 was the only polymorphism with genotype x time interaction in HR over the three study phases (P = 0.04, RANOVA). None of the polymorphisms presented genotype x time interaction in SAP or DAP responses (P > 0.10, RANOVA). In all subjects at rest, the Ser49Gly polymorphism of ADRB1 tended (P = 0.06, ANOVA) to differentiate HR. Arg389Gly polymorphism of ADRB1 affected maximal SAP during exercise (P = 0.04, ANOVA) and the change in SAP from rest to maximal (P = 0.03, ANOVA). Arg389 homozygotes, particularly men, were less likely to have ventricular extrasystoles during the exercise (odds ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.91, P = 0.009, and odds ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval = 0.42-0.86, P = 0.006, respectively) than did Gly389 carriers. In conclusion, polymorphisms examined appear to have modulatory effects on hemodynamics in a clinical exercise test setting. However, the effects in absolute numbers were minor and clinically possibly insignificant.

    Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 2006;100;2;507-11

  • Mitochondrial DNA and ACTN3 genotypes in Finnish elite endurance and sprint athletes.

    Niemi AK and Majamaa K

    Department of Neurology, University of Oulu, Finland.

    Differences in ACTN3 (alpha-actinin 3) genotypes have been reported among endurance and power athletes. Elite athletic performance in endurance sports should also depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) that produces ATP for muscle metabolism. We determined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and ACTN3 genotypes in Finnish elite endurance (n = 52) and sprint (n = 89) athletes, and found that the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups differed significantly between the two groups. Most notably, none of the endurance athletes belonged to haplogroup K or subhaplogroup J2, both of which have previously been associated with longevity. The frequency of ACTN3 XX genotype was higher and that of RR was lower among Finnish endurance athletes, and, in addition, none of the top Finnish sprinters had the XX genotype. Lack of mtDNA haplogroup K and subhaplogroup J2 among elite endurance athletes suggests that these haplogroups are 'uncoupling genomes'. Such genomes should not be beneficial to endurance-type athletic performance but should be beneficial to longevity, since uncoupling of OXPHOS reduces the production of ATP, reduces the release of reactive oxygen species and generates heat.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2005;13;8;965-9

  • ACTN3 genotype is associated with increases in muscle strength in response to resistance training in women.

    Clarkson PM, Devaney JM, Gordish-Dressman H, Thompson PD, Hubal MJ, Urso M, Price TB, Angelopoulos TJ, Gordon PM, Moyna NM, Pescatello LS, Visich PS, Zoeller RF, Seip RL and Hoffman EP

    Dept. of Exercise Science, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. clarkson@excsci.umass.edu

    The alpha-actinin 3 (ACTN3) gene encodes a protein of the Z disk of myofibers, and a polymorphism of ACTN3 results in complete loss of the protein. The ACTN3 genotype (R577X) has been found to be associated with performance in Australian elite athletes (Yang N, MacArthur DG, Gulbin JP, Hahn AG, Beggs AH, Easteal S, and North K. Am J Hum Genet 73: 627-631, 2003). We studied associations between ACTN3 genotype and muscle size [cross-sectional area of the biceps brachii via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and elbow flexor isometric (MVC) and dynamic [1-repetition maximum (1-RM)] strength in a large group of men (N = 247) and women (N = 355) enrolled in a 12-wk standardized elbow flexor/extensor resistance training program of the nondominant arm at one of eight study centers. We found no association between ACTN3 R577X genotype and muscle phenotype in men. However, women homozygous for the ACTN3 577X allele (XX) had lower baseline MVC compared with heterozygotes (P < 0.05) when adjusted for body mass and age. Women homozygous for the mutant allele (577X) demonstrated greater absolute and relative 1-RM gains compared with the homozygous wild type (RR) after resistance training when adjusted for body mass and age (P < 0.05). There was a trend for a dose-response with genotype such that gains were greatest for XX and least for RR. Significant associations were validated in at least one ethnic subpopulation (Caucasians, Asians) and were independent of training volume. About 2% of baseline MVC and of 1-RM strength gain after training were attributable to ACTN3 genotype (likelihood-ratio test P value, P = 0.01), suggesting that ACTN3 is one of many genes contributing to genetic variation in muscle performance and adaptation to exercise.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS40606

    Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 2005;99;1;154-63

  • [NP-detecting DNA technologies: solving problems of applied biochemistry].

    Krakhmaleva IN, Shishkin SS, Shakhovskaia NI, Stoliarova EB, Plugov AG, Kniazev AI, Khomenkov VG, Shevelev AB and Chernov NN

    Heterozygosity of CANP3, ACTN3, and GHR genes in specialized collections was studied using state-of-the-art DNA technologies for DNA analysis. A new dinucleotide deletion (AC) at the beginning of exon 21 was identified in five individuals with heterozygous CANP3 gene. Analysis of polymorphism (SNP1747 C-->T) of ACTN3 gene demonstrated a positive association of allele C with a high muscular performance. Real-time PCR assay of SNP1630 (A-->C) in GHR gene suggested a putative negative association of allele C of this SNP with a high muscular performance.

    Prikladnaia biokhimiia i mikrobiologiia 2005;41;3;303-7

Literature (6)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • ACTN3 genotype in professional endurance cyclists.

    Lucia A, Gómez-Gallego F, Santiago C, Bandrés F, Earnest C, Rabadán M, Alonso JM, Hoyos J, Córdova A, Villa G and Foster C

    European University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain. alejandro.lucia@uem.es

    The Z-disk protein alpha-actinin-3 is only expressed in type II muscle fibres, which are responsible for generating forceful contractions at high velocity. Despite the evolutionary conservation of alpha-actinin-3, approximately one in every five Caucasians of European ancestry is totally deficient in this protein, due to homozygosity for a R577X polymorphism in the ACTN3 gene. This, together with the results of recent research on elite athletes, suggests that the "null" XX polymorphism might confer some advantage to endurance performance events. To test this hypothesis, we studied the frequency distribution of R577X genotypes in a group of 50 top-level male professional cyclists (26.9 +/- 0.4 yrs [mean +/- SEM]; VO2max: 73.5 +/- 0.8 ml x kg (-1) x min (-1)). Their results were compared with those of a group of 52 Olympic-class male endurance runners (26.8 +/- 0.6 yrs; VO2max: 73.3 +/- 0.8 ml x kg (-1) x min (-1)) and 123 healthy, sedentary male controls. All subjects were Caucasian, and of European ancestry. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between groups: RR: 28.5 %; RX: 53.6 % and XX: 17.9 % in controls; RR: 28.0 %; RX: 46.0 % and XX: 26.0 % in cyclists; and RR: 25.0 %; RX: 57.7 %; XX: 17.3 % in runners). No differences were found in indices of endurance performance (VO2peak or ventilatory thresholds) between athlete carriers of each R577X genotype. In summary, although the alpha-actinin-3 deficient XX genotype may be detrimental for sprint performance in humans, the R577X polymorphism of the ACTN3 gene does not appear to confer an advantage on the ability of male athletes to sustain extreme endurance performance.

    International journal of sports medicine 2006;27;11;880-4

  • Effects of polymorphisms in beta1-adrenoceptor and alpha-subunit of G protein on heart rate and blood pressure during exercise test. The Finnish Cardiovascular Study.

    Nieminen T, Lehtimäki T, Laiho J, Rontu R, Niemelä K, Kööbi T, Lehtinen R, Viik J, Turjanmaa V and Kähönen M

    Dept. of Pharmacological Sciences, Medical School, Univ. of Tampere, Tampere FI-33014, Finland. tuomo.nieminen@iki.fi

    We tested whether the Arg389Gly and Ser49Gly polymorphisms of the beta1-adrenergic receptor gene ADRB1 and the T393C polymorphism of the G protein alpha-subunit gene GNAS1 modulate heart rate (HR) and blood pressure responses during an exercise stress test. The study population comprised 890 participants (563 men and 327 women, mean age 58.1 +/- 12.6 yr) of the Finnish Cardiovascular Study. Their HR, systolic (SAP), and diastolic arterial pressures (DAP) at rest, during exercise, and 4 min after the test were measured and analyzed by repeated-measurement ANOVA (RANOVA). Genotypes were detected by TaqMan 5' nuclease assay. In all subjects, and in men and women separately, the T393C of GNAS1 was the only polymorphism with genotype x time interaction in HR over the three study phases (P = 0.04, RANOVA). None of the polymorphisms presented genotype x time interaction in SAP or DAP responses (P > 0.10, RANOVA). In all subjects at rest, the Ser49Gly polymorphism of ADRB1 tended (P = 0.06, ANOVA) to differentiate HR. Arg389Gly polymorphism of ADRB1 affected maximal SAP during exercise (P = 0.04, ANOVA) and the change in SAP from rest to maximal (P = 0.03, ANOVA). Arg389 homozygotes, particularly men, were less likely to have ventricular extrasystoles during the exercise (odds ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.91, P = 0.009, and odds ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval = 0.42-0.86, P = 0.006, respectively) than did Gly389 carriers. In conclusion, polymorphisms examined appear to have modulatory effects on hemodynamics in a clinical exercise test setting. However, the effects in absolute numbers were minor and clinically possibly insignificant.

    Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 2006;100;2;507-11

  • [NP-detecting DNA technologies: solving problems of applied biochemistry].

    Krakhmaleva IN, Shishkin SS, Shakhovskaia NI, Stoliarova EB, Plugov AG, Kniazev AI, Khomenkov VG, Shevelev AB and Chernov NN

    Heterozygosity of CANP3, ACTN3, and GHR genes in specialized collections was studied using state-of-the-art DNA technologies for DNA analysis. A new dinucleotide deletion (AC) at the beginning of exon 21 was identified in five individuals with heterozygous CANP3 gene. Analysis of polymorphism (SNP1747 C-->T) of ACTN3 gene demonstrated a positive association of allele C with a high muscular performance. Real-time PCR assay of SNP1630 (A-->C) in GHR gene suggested a putative negative association of allele C of this SNP with a high muscular performance.

    Prikladnaia biokhimiia i mikrobiologiia 2005;41;3;303-7

Pubmed - other

  • Association analysis of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and complex quantitative body composition and performance phenotypes in adolescent Greeks.

    Moran CN, Yang N, Bailey ME, Tsiokanos A, Jamurtas A, MacArthur DG, North K, Pitsiladis YP and Wilson RH

    Institute of Diet, Exercise and Lifestyle (IDEAL) and Division of Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Biomedical & Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

    The functional allele (577R) of ACTN3, which encodes human alpha-actinin-3, has been reported to be associated with elite athletic status and with response to resistance training, while the nonfunctional allele (577X) has been proposed as a candidate metabolically thrifty allele. In a study of 992 adolescent Greeks, we show that there is a significant association (P=0.003) between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and 40 m sprint time in males that accounts for 2.3% of phenotypic variance, with the 577R allele contributing to faster times in an additive manner. The R577X polymorphism is not associated with other power phenotypes related to 40 m sprint, nor with an endurance phenotype. Furthermore, the polymorphism is not associated with obesity-related phenotypes in our population, suggesting that the 577X allele is not a thrifty allele, and thus the persistence of this null allele must be explained in other terms.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2007;15;1;88-93

  • Mitochondrial DNA and ACTN3 genotypes in Finnish elite endurance and sprint athletes.

    Niemi AK and Majamaa K

    Department of Neurology, University of Oulu, Finland.

    Differences in ACTN3 (alpha-actinin 3) genotypes have been reported among endurance and power athletes. Elite athletic performance in endurance sports should also depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) that produces ATP for muscle metabolism. We determined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and ACTN3 genotypes in Finnish elite endurance (n = 52) and sprint (n = 89) athletes, and found that the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups differed significantly between the two groups. Most notably, none of the endurance athletes belonged to haplogroup K or subhaplogroup J2, both of which have previously been associated with longevity. The frequency of ACTN3 XX genotype was higher and that of RR was lower among Finnish endurance athletes, and, in addition, none of the top Finnish sprinters had the XX genotype. Lack of mtDNA haplogroup K and subhaplogroup J2 among elite endurance athletes suggests that these haplogroups are 'uncoupling genomes'. Such genomes should not be beneficial to endurance-type athletic performance but should be beneficial to longevity, since uncoupling of OXPHOS reduces the production of ATP, reduces the release of reactive oxygen species and generates heat.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2005;13;8;965-9

  • ACTN3 genotype is associated with increases in muscle strength in response to resistance training in women.

    Clarkson PM, Devaney JM, Gordish-Dressman H, Thompson PD, Hubal MJ, Urso M, Price TB, Angelopoulos TJ, Gordon PM, Moyna NM, Pescatello LS, Visich PS, Zoeller RF, Seip RL and Hoffman EP

    Dept. of Exercise Science, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. clarkson@excsci.umass.edu

    The alpha-actinin 3 (ACTN3) gene encodes a protein of the Z disk of myofibers, and a polymorphism of ACTN3 results in complete loss of the protein. The ACTN3 genotype (R577X) has been found to be associated with performance in Australian elite athletes (Yang N, MacArthur DG, Gulbin JP, Hahn AG, Beggs AH, Easteal S, and North K. Am J Hum Genet 73: 627-631, 2003). We studied associations between ACTN3 genotype and muscle size [cross-sectional area of the biceps brachii via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and elbow flexor isometric (MVC) and dynamic [1-repetition maximum (1-RM)] strength in a large group of men (N = 247) and women (N = 355) enrolled in a 12-wk standardized elbow flexor/extensor resistance training program of the nondominant arm at one of eight study centers. We found no association between ACTN3 R577X genotype and muscle phenotype in men. However, women homozygous for the ACTN3 577X allele (XX) had lower baseline MVC compared with heterozygotes (P < 0.05) when adjusted for body mass and age. Women homozygous for the mutant allele (577X) demonstrated greater absolute and relative 1-RM gains compared with the homozygous wild type (RR) after resistance training when adjusted for body mass and age (P < 0.05). There was a trend for a dose-response with genotype such that gains were greatest for XX and least for RR. Significant associations were validated in at least one ethnic subpopulation (Caucasians, Asians) and were independent of training volume. About 2% of baseline MVC and of 1-RM strength gain after training were attributable to ACTN3 genotype (likelihood-ratio test P value, P = 0.01), suggesting that ACTN3 is one of many genes contributing to genetic variation in muscle performance and adaptation to exercise.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS40606

    Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 2005;99;1;154-63

© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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