G2Cdb::Human Disease report

Disease id
D00000022
Name
Colorectal cancer
Nervous system disease
no

Genes (5)

Gene Name/Description Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
G00002235 CTNNB1
catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa
Y (9294210) Deletion (D) Y
G00002235 CTNNB1
catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa
Y (9294210) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
G00002235 CTNNB1
catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa
Y (11217439) Deletion (D) Y
G00002235 CTNNB1
catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa
Y (11217439) Microinsertion (MI) Y
G00002235 CTNNB1
catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa
Y (9515795) Unknown (?) Y
G00002235 CTNNB1
catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa
Y (12379157) No mutation found (N) N
G00002235 CTNNB1
catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa
Y (10416591) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
G00002235 CTNNB1
catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa
Y (10416591) Deletion (D) Y
G00002164 IRS1
insulin receptor substrate 1
Y (15066917) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
G00002164 IRS1
insulin receptor substrate 1
Y (16489531) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ?
G00002124 AKAP9
A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein (yotiao) 9
Y (17000706) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
G00002137 SRC
v-src sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog (avian)
Y (11161376) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) N
G00001473 GNAS
GNAS complex locus
Y (16033819) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y

References

  • Search for low penetrance alleles for colorectal cancer through a scan of 1467 non-synonymous SNPs in 2575 cases and 2707 controls with validation by kin-cohort analysis of 14 704 first-degree relatives.

    Webb EL, Rudd MF, Sellick GS, El Galta R, Bethke L, Wood W, Fletcher O, Penegar S, Withey L, Qureshi M, Johnson N, Tomlinson I, Gray R, Peto J and Houlston RS

    Section of Cancer Genetics, Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey, UK.

    To identify low penetrance susceptibility alleles for colorectal cancer (CRC), we genotyped 1467 non-synonymous SNPs mapping to 871 candidate cancer genes in 2575 cases and 2707 controls. nsSNP selection was biased towards those predicted to be functionally deleterious. One SNP AKAP9 M463I remained significantly associated with CRC risk after stringent adjustment for multiple testing. Further SNPs associated with CRC risk included several previously reported to be associated with cancer risk including ATM F858L [OR=1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-2.07] and P1054R (OR=1.42; 95% CI: 1.14-1.77) and MTHFR A222V (OR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.69-0.97). To validate associations, we performed a kin-cohort analysis on the 14 704 first-degree relatives of cases for each SNP associated at the 5% level in the case-control analysis employing the marginal maximum likelihood method to infer genotypes of relatives. Our observations support the hypothesis that inherited predisposition to CRC is in part mediated through polymorphic variation and identify a number of SNPs defining inter-individual susceptibility. We have made data from this analysis publicly available at http://www.icr.ac.uk/research/research_sections/cancer_genetics/cancer_genetics_teams/molecular_and_population_genetics/software_and_databases/index.shtml in order to facilitate the identification of low penetrance CRC susceptibility alleles through pooled analyses.

    Funded by: Breast Cancer Now: BREAST CANCER NOW RESEARCH CENTRE

    Human molecular genetics 2006;15;21;3263-71

  • PPARgamma and colon and rectal cancer: associations with specific tumor mutations, aspirin, ibuprofen and insulin-related genes (United States).

    Slattery ML, Curtin K, Wolff R, Ma KN, Sweeney C, Murtaugh M, Potter JD, Levin TR and Samowitz W

    Health Research Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, 84108, USA. mslatter@hrc.utah.edu

    We hypothesize that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is associated with colorectal cancer given its association with insulin, diabetes, obesity, and inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the association between colorectal cancer and specific tumor mutations and the Pro12Ala (P12A) PPARgamma polymorphism. We also evaluated interactions between the PPARgamma gene and other insulin-related genes and use of aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. Data were available from 1,577 cases of colon cancer that were matched to 1,971 population-based controls and 794 cases of rectal cancer that were matched to 1,001 population-based controls. Colon tumors from the case subjects were evaluated for p53 and Ki-ras mutations and microsatellite instability (MSI). Insulin-related genes evaluated were the Bsm1, polyA, and Fok1 polymorphisms of the VDR gene; the G972R IRS1 polymorphism; the G1057D IRS2 polymorphism; the 19CA repeat polymorphism of the IGF1 gene; and the -200A>C IGFBP3 polymorphism. The odds ratio (OR) between the PA/AA genotypes and proximal tumors was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.69-1.01); for distal tumors was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.83-1.21); and for rectal tumors was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.86-1.25). Evaluation of specific types of tumor mutations showed that colon cancer cases with the PA or AA genotypes were less likely to have p53 tumor mutations (OR 0.78; 95% CI: 0.62-0.99), specifically transition mutations (OR 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56-0.97). Colon cancer cases also were less likely to have a tumor with MSI if they had the PA or AA PPARgamma genotype (OR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47-0.98); differences in Ki-ras mutations were not seen in colon tumors by PPARgamma genotype. Those who did not take ibuprofen-type drugs and had the PA or AA genotypes were at a significantly greater risk of rectal cancer (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.52-2.92; p interaction 0.03) than people with the PP genotype regardless of ibuprofen-type drug use. There was a significant interaction between the -200A>C IGFBP3 polymorphism and the Pro12Ala PPARgamma polymorphism and risk of colon cancer (p for interaction = 0.02) with individuals being at significantly lower risk if they had both the CC IGFBP3 genotype and the PA/AA PPARgamma genotype. For rectal cancer there was a significant interaction between the Bsm1/polyA polymorphisms (p = 0.001) of the VDR gene and the PA/AA Pro12Ala PPARgamma polymorphism with the highest risk group being those with both the PA/AA Pro12Ala PPARgamma and the BB/SS VDR genotypes. These data suggest that PPARgamma may be associated with many aspects of colorectal cancer including insulin- and inflammation-related mechanisms.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA048998, R01 CA048998-11, R01 CA085846, R01 CA085846-06

    Cancer causes & control : CCC 2006;17;3;239-49

  • GNAS1 T393C polymorphism and survival in patients with sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Frey UH, Alakus H, Wohlschlaeger J, Schmitz KJ, Winde G, van Calker HG, Jöckel KH, Siffert W and Schmid KW

    Institute of Pharmacology, University Hospital of Essen, Essen, Germany. Ulrich.Frey@uni-essen.de

    Purpose: Signaling via the G protein Galpha s pathway is linked to proapoptotic processes in cancer cell lines. We have recently shown an association between the GNAS1 T393C polymorphism and disease progression in patients with bladder cancer with homozygous TT genotypes displaying increased transcription of Galpha s and a more favorable clinical course compared with C-allele carriers.

    In the present study, 151 patients with sporadic colorectal cancer were retrospectively genotyped to examine a potential association between T393C genotypes and survival. Moreover, two other single-nucleotide polymorphisms in common haplotype blocks within the gene GNAS1 and their interaction with the T393C polymorphism were investigated.

    Results: The allele frequency in the patients group was not significantly different from that of healthy blood donors. Kaplan-Meier curves for overall survival (mean follow-up, 43 months) showed that in International Union Against Cancer (UICC) stages I to II, the 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in TT genotypes (87.8%) compared with TC (71.0%) and CC genotypes (50.0%; P = 0.009), whereas no genotype effect could be observed for UICC stages III to IV. In multivariate Cox proportional analysis the T393C polymorphism was an independent prognostic factor for survival. Homozygous CC patients were at highest risk for death (hazard ratio, 12.1; P = 0.006) compared with TT genotypes. Heterozygous patients had an intermediate risk compatible with a gene-dose effect. The two haplotype blocks investigated were not associated with clinical outcome.

    Conclusions: The results support the role of the T393C polymorphism as a marker for survival in patients with colorectal cancer stages I to II and in the identification of patients who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2005;11;14;5071-7

  • Aspirin, NSAIDs, and colorectal cancer: possible involvement in an insulin-related pathway.

    Slattery ML, Samowitz W, Hoffman M, Ma KN, Levin TR and Neuhausen S

    Health Research Center and Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Utah, 375 Chipeta Way, Suite A, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA mslatter@hrc.utah.edu

    Introduction: Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to reduce risk of colorectal cancer. Although inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is generally thought to be the relevant mechanism, aspirin-like drugs apparently are involved in other pathways and mechanisms. We explore the associations between aspirin/NSAIDs, the insulin-related pathway, and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    Methods: Genetic polymorphisms of five genes identified as being involved in an insulin-related pathway were genotyped using data collected in a case-control study of 1346 incident colon cancer cases and 1544 population-based controls and 952 incident rectal cancer cases and 1205 controls. Genotypes assessed were the 3' untranslated region poly(A) and the intron 8 BsmI polymorphisms of the VDR gene, a CA repeat polymorphism of the IGF1 gene, the A/C polymorphism at nucleotide -202 of the IGFBP3, the Gly972Arg polymorphism of the IRS1 gene, and the Gly1057Asp polymorphism of the IRS2 gene.

    Results: Use of aspirin and NSAIDs was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer, with slightly greater protection from NSAIDs than aspirin for rectal cancer. We observed a significant interaction between IRS1 genotype and aspirin/NSAIDs use and risk of colorectal cancer. Relative to the GR/RR IRS1 genotype, a protective effect from the GG IRS1 genotype was seen in those who did not use NSAIDs; use of NSAIDs was protective for all genotypes. These associations were especially strong for those diagnosed prior to age 65 (P interaction = 0.0006). We also observed a significant interaction between aspirin/NSAIDs use and the VDR gene. Having the SS or BB VDR genotypes reduced risk of colorectal cancer among non-aspirin/NSAID users; however, aspirin/NSAIDs reduced risk for all VDR genotypes.

    Conclusions: These data support the protective effect of aspirin and NSAIDs on colorectal cancer risk. In addition, the observed interactions for aspirin/NSAIDs and IRS1 and VDR genotypes suggest that mechanisms other than COX-2 inhibition may be contributing to the protective effect of aspirin and NSAIDs on colorectal cancer risk.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 48998, CA 85846, N01 PC 67000, R01 CA048998, R01 CA048998-09, R01 CA085846, R01 CA085846-03, R01 CA085846-04

    Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2004;13;4;538-45

  • Predominance of CIN versus MSI in the development of rectal cancer at young age.

    Fernebro E, Halvarsson B, Baldetorp B and Nilbert M

    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. Eva.Fernebro@onk.lu.se

    Background: Development of proximal and distal colorectal cancers involve partly different mechanisms associated with the microsatellite instability (MSI) and the chromosomal instability (CIN) pathways. Colorectal cancers in patients under 50 years of age represent about 5% of the total number of tumors and have been associated with an increased frequency of MSI tumors. However, MSI and CIN may play different roles in the development of colon cancer and rectal cancer, and we have specifically investigated their contribution to the development of rectal cancer at young age.

    Methods: Thirty rectal cancers diagnosed before the age of 50 were characterized for DNA-ploidy, MSI, mutations of KRAS and CTNNB1 and immunohistochemical expression of p53, beta-catenin and of the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins MLH1 and MSH2.

    Results: DNA aneuploidy was detected in 21/30 tumors, KRAS mutations in 6 tumors, no mutations of CTNNB1 were detected but immunohistochemical staining for beta-catenin showed nuclear staining in 6 tumors, and immunohistochemical expression of p53 was detected in 18 tumors. MSI was detected in 3/30 tumors, all of which showed and immunohistochemical loss of staining for the MMR protein MSH2, which strongly indicates a phenotype associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC).

    Conclusions: MSI occurs only in a small fraction of the tumors from young patients with rectal cancer, but when present it strongly indicates an underlying HNPCC-causing mutation, and other mechanisms than HNPCC thus cause rectal cancer in the majority of young patients.

    BMC cancer 2002;2;25

  • Lack of mutation at codon 531 of SRC in advanced colorectal cancers from Italian patients.

    Laghi L, Bianchi P, Orbetegli O, Gennari L, Roncalli M and Malesci A

    Department of Gastroenterology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano, Milan, 20089, Italy.

    A truncating mutation (C to T transition) at codon 531 of the human protooncogene c-src, possibly accounting for the activation of c-src tyrosine kinase, has been recently identified in a subset of advanced colorectal cancer from North-American patients. However, two subsequent studies have failed to confirm the occurrence of SRC 531 mutation in colorectal cancers from North-European and Asiatic patients, raising the hypothesis that the genetic activation of src in colon cancer might be restricted to patients belonging to specific ethnic groups. We investigated a large series of colorectal cancers from Italian patients (155 cases) with a high prevalence of liver metastasis (43%). Using a PCR-RFLP assay, the occurrence of a SRC 531 mutation was ruled out in all the investigated specimens of primary tumours and/or metastases. Our results demonstrate that SRC Gln531AMB plays no role in the development or in the progression of colorectal cancer among Italian patients.

    British journal of cancer 2001;84;2;196-8

  • [beta-Catenine as a genomic target of high-grade microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer].

    Kölble K, Barthel B, Ullrich O, Pidde H, Döhring C, Rüschoff J, Schlag PM and Dietel M

    Institut für Pathologie, Universitätsklinikum Charité, Humboldt-Universität, Berlin.

    Aims: Various inherited and acquired alterations affecting the genes and gene products of the WNT pathway appear to be involved in the different molecular routes leading to colorectal cancer (CRC). This study was initiated to investigate the prevalence of somatic mutations in the beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) and the associated pathology in CRC with defective DNA mismatch repair.

    Methods: Paraffin and/or frozen sections of 33 primary CRC (including any liver and lymph node metastases present) with high-grade microsatellite instability (MSI-H; i.e. with > or = 5 unstable microsatellite markers of 10 tested) were polytopically fractionated by microdissection. Genomic and c-DNA samples were sequenced across exons 2-4 of CTNNB1 and the expression patterns of beta-catenin (beta-C) analyzed by immunohistology and Western blotting.

    Results: Seven somatic mutations affecting phosphorylation sites of exon 3 (2 deletions also encompassing parts of either intron 2 or exon 4 [delta X2/3 bzw. delta X3/4] and 5 missense mutations [2 x T41A, 2 x S45F, S45P]) were identified. Two mutations (delta X3/4 and S45F) were concordantly present in CRC primaries and their respective metastases whereas the S45P mutation was restricted to a hepatic metastasis. In the delta X2/3 CRC primary only a shortened 66 kD CTNNB1 gene product was present while its associated liver metastasis showed a total loss of beta-C expression.

    Conclusions: Both exon 3 and the entire locus coding for beta-C are somatically altered in approximately 20% of CRC with MSI-H at different stages of tumor progression. Thus CTNNB1 appears to be a genomic target for complex oncogenic mutations and deletional processes in a substantial fraction of this molecular subset of CRC.

    Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Pathologie 2000;84;182-6

  • Beta-catenin mutations are specific for colorectal carcinomas with microsatellite instability but occur in endometrial carcinomas irrespective of mutator pathway.

    Mirabelli-Primdahl L, Gryfe R, Kim H, Millar A, Luceri C, Dale D, Holowaty E, Bapat B, Gallinger S and Redston M

    Centre for Cancer Genetics, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Some colorectal tumors with wild-type adenomatous polyposis coli gene have activating mutations in beta-catenin (encoded by CTNNB1) that result in decreased phosphorylation by GSK-3beta and increased signaling through the Tcf/Lef transcription factors. To investigate the relationship between CTNNB1 mutations and underlying pathways of genomic instability, we examined 80 colorectal cancers stratified by the presence or absence of microsatellite instability (MSI). CTNNB1 mutations were identified in 13 (25%) of 53 cancers with high frequency MSI (MSI-H), including 12 point mutations at exon 3 phosphorylation sites (codons 41 and 45) and one deletion of the entire exon 3 degradation box. No CTNNB1 mutations were identified in 27 microsatellite stable or low frequency MSI (MSI-L) colorectal cancers (P < 0.01). In contrast, CTNNB1 mutations were identified in 3 of 9 (33%) MSI-H and 10 of 20 (50%) MSS/MSI-L endometrial carcinomas, suggesting a more generalized involvement in these tumors. Only six (46%) of the endometrial carcinoma CTNNB1 mutations occurred at residues directly phosphorylated by GSK-3beta, and only one of these was at either codon 41 or 45. All point mutations in MSI-H cancers were transitions, whereas 64% of those in MSS/MSI-L cancers were transversions (P < 0.01). The differences in the mutation profiles suggest that there may be molecular fingerprints of CTNNB1 mutations, determined by biological factors related to both tumor type and underlying pathways of genomic instability.

    Cancer research 1999;59;14;3346-51

  • Mutational analysis of the APC/beta-catenin/Tcf pathway in colorectal cancer.

    Sparks AB, Morin PJ, Vogelstein B and Kinzler KW

    Johns Hopkins Oncology Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA.

    Mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene initiates the majority of colorectal (CR) cancers. One consequence of this inactivation is constitutive activation of beta-catenin/Tcf-mediated transcription. To further explore the role of the APC/beta-catenin/Tcf pathway in CR tumorigenesis, we searched for mutations in genes implicated in this pathway in CR tumors lacking APC mutations. No mutations of the gamma-catenin (CTNNG1), GSK-3alpha (GSK3A), or GSK-3beta (GSK3B) genes were detected. In contrast, mutations in the NH2-terminal regulatory domain of beta-catenin (CTNNB1) were found in 13 of 27 (48%) CR tumors lacking APC mutations. Mutations in the beta-catenin regulatory domain and APC were observed to be mutually exclusive, consistent with their equivalent effects on beta-catenin stability and Tcf transactivation. In addition, we found that CTNNB1 mutations can occur in the early, adenomatous stage of CR neoplasia, as has been observed previously with APC mutations. These results suggest that CTNNB1 mutations can uniquely substitute for APC mutations in CR tumors and that beta-catenin signaling plays a critical role in CR tumorigenesis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA57345

    Cancer research 1998;58;6;1130-4

  • Beta-catenin mutations in cell lines established from human colorectal cancers.

    Ilyas M, Tomlinson IP, Rowan A, Pignatelli M and Bodmer WF

    Cancer Genetics and Immunology Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DU, United Kingdom. ilyas@europa.lif.icnet.uk

    beta-catenin has functions as both an adhesion and a signaling molecule. Disruption of these functions through mutations of the beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) may be important in the development of colorectal tumors. We examined the entire coding sequence of beta-catenin by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing of 23 human colorectal cancer cell lines from 21 patients. In two cell lines, there was apparent instability of the beta-catenin mRNA. Five different mutations (26%) were found in the remaining 21cell lines (from 19 patients). A three-base deletion (codon 45) was identified in the cell line HCT 116, whereas cell lines SW 48, HCA 46, CACO 2, and Colo 201 each contained single-base missense mutations (codons 33, 183, 245, and 287, respectively). All 23 cell lines had full-length beta-catenin protein that was detectable by Western blotting and that coprecipitated with E-cadherin. In three of the cell lines with CTNNB1 mutations, complexes of beta-catenin with alpha-catenin and APC were detectable. In SW48 and HCA 46, however, we did not detect complexes of beta-catenin protein with alpha-catenin and APC, respectively. These results show that selection of CTNNB1 mutations occurs in up to 26% of colorectal cancers from which cell lines are derived. In these cases, mutation selection is probably for altered beta-catenin function, which may significantly alter intracellular signaling and intercellular adhesion and may serve as a complement to APC mutations in the early stages of tumorigenesis.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94;19;10330-4

Literature (10)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • Search for low penetrance alleles for colorectal cancer through a scan of 1467 non-synonymous SNPs in 2575 cases and 2707 controls with validation by kin-cohort analysis of 14 704 first-degree relatives.

    Webb EL, Rudd MF, Sellick GS, El Galta R, Bethke L, Wood W, Fletcher O, Penegar S, Withey L, Qureshi M, Johnson N, Tomlinson I, Gray R, Peto J and Houlston RS

    Section of Cancer Genetics, Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey, UK.

    To identify low penetrance susceptibility alleles for colorectal cancer (CRC), we genotyped 1467 non-synonymous SNPs mapping to 871 candidate cancer genes in 2575 cases and 2707 controls. nsSNP selection was biased towards those predicted to be functionally deleterious. One SNP AKAP9 M463I remained significantly associated with CRC risk after stringent adjustment for multiple testing. Further SNPs associated with CRC risk included several previously reported to be associated with cancer risk including ATM F858L [OR=1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-2.07] and P1054R (OR=1.42; 95% CI: 1.14-1.77) and MTHFR A222V (OR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.69-0.97). To validate associations, we performed a kin-cohort analysis on the 14 704 first-degree relatives of cases for each SNP associated at the 5% level in the case-control analysis employing the marginal maximum likelihood method to infer genotypes of relatives. Our observations support the hypothesis that inherited predisposition to CRC is in part mediated through polymorphic variation and identify a number of SNPs defining inter-individual susceptibility. We have made data from this analysis publicly available at http://www.icr.ac.uk/research/research_sections/cancer_genetics/cancer_genetics_teams/molecular_and_population_genetics/software_and_databases/index.shtml in order to facilitate the identification of low penetrance CRC susceptibility alleles through pooled analyses.

    Funded by: Breast Cancer Now: BREAST CANCER NOW RESEARCH CENTRE

    Human molecular genetics 2006;15;21;3263-71

  • PPARgamma and colon and rectal cancer: associations with specific tumor mutations, aspirin, ibuprofen and insulin-related genes (United States).

    Slattery ML, Curtin K, Wolff R, Ma KN, Sweeney C, Murtaugh M, Potter JD, Levin TR and Samowitz W

    Health Research Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, 84108, USA. mslatter@hrc.utah.edu

    We hypothesize that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is associated with colorectal cancer given its association with insulin, diabetes, obesity, and inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the association between colorectal cancer and specific tumor mutations and the Pro12Ala (P12A) PPARgamma polymorphism. We also evaluated interactions between the PPARgamma gene and other insulin-related genes and use of aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. Data were available from 1,577 cases of colon cancer that were matched to 1,971 population-based controls and 794 cases of rectal cancer that were matched to 1,001 population-based controls. Colon tumors from the case subjects were evaluated for p53 and Ki-ras mutations and microsatellite instability (MSI). Insulin-related genes evaluated were the Bsm1, polyA, and Fok1 polymorphisms of the VDR gene; the G972R IRS1 polymorphism; the G1057D IRS2 polymorphism; the 19CA repeat polymorphism of the IGF1 gene; and the -200A>C IGFBP3 polymorphism. The odds ratio (OR) between the PA/AA genotypes and proximal tumors was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.69-1.01); for distal tumors was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.83-1.21); and for rectal tumors was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.86-1.25). Evaluation of specific types of tumor mutations showed that colon cancer cases with the PA or AA genotypes were less likely to have p53 tumor mutations (OR 0.78; 95% CI: 0.62-0.99), specifically transition mutations (OR 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56-0.97). Colon cancer cases also were less likely to have a tumor with MSI if they had the PA or AA PPARgamma genotype (OR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47-0.98); differences in Ki-ras mutations were not seen in colon tumors by PPARgamma genotype. Those who did not take ibuprofen-type drugs and had the PA or AA genotypes were at a significantly greater risk of rectal cancer (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.52-2.92; p interaction 0.03) than people with the PP genotype regardless of ibuprofen-type drug use. There was a significant interaction between the -200A>C IGFBP3 polymorphism and the Pro12Ala PPARgamma polymorphism and risk of colon cancer (p for interaction = 0.02) with individuals being at significantly lower risk if they had both the CC IGFBP3 genotype and the PA/AA PPARgamma genotype. For rectal cancer there was a significant interaction between the Bsm1/polyA polymorphisms (p = 0.001) of the VDR gene and the PA/AA Pro12Ala PPARgamma polymorphism with the highest risk group being those with both the PA/AA Pro12Ala PPARgamma and the BB/SS VDR genotypes. These data suggest that PPARgamma may be associated with many aspects of colorectal cancer including insulin- and inflammation-related mechanisms.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA048998, R01 CA048998-11, R01 CA085846, R01 CA085846-06

    Cancer causes & control : CCC 2006;17;3;239-49

  • GNAS1 T393C polymorphism and survival in patients with sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Frey UH, Alakus H, Wohlschlaeger J, Schmitz KJ, Winde G, van Calker HG, Jöckel KH, Siffert W and Schmid KW

    Institute of Pharmacology, University Hospital of Essen, Essen, Germany. Ulrich.Frey@uni-essen.de

    Purpose: Signaling via the G protein Galpha s pathway is linked to proapoptotic processes in cancer cell lines. We have recently shown an association between the GNAS1 T393C polymorphism and disease progression in patients with bladder cancer with homozygous TT genotypes displaying increased transcription of Galpha s and a more favorable clinical course compared with C-allele carriers.

    In the present study, 151 patients with sporadic colorectal cancer were retrospectively genotyped to examine a potential association between T393C genotypes and survival. Moreover, two other single-nucleotide polymorphisms in common haplotype blocks within the gene GNAS1 and their interaction with the T393C polymorphism were investigated.

    Results: The allele frequency in the patients group was not significantly different from that of healthy blood donors. Kaplan-Meier curves for overall survival (mean follow-up, 43 months) showed that in International Union Against Cancer (UICC) stages I to II, the 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in TT genotypes (87.8%) compared with TC (71.0%) and CC genotypes (50.0%; P = 0.009), whereas no genotype effect could be observed for UICC stages III to IV. In multivariate Cox proportional analysis the T393C polymorphism was an independent prognostic factor for survival. Homozygous CC patients were at highest risk for death (hazard ratio, 12.1; P = 0.006) compared with TT genotypes. Heterozygous patients had an intermediate risk compatible with a gene-dose effect. The two haplotype blocks investigated were not associated with clinical outcome.

    Conclusions: The results support the role of the T393C polymorphism as a marker for survival in patients with colorectal cancer stages I to II and in the identification of patients who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2005;11;14;5071-7

  • Aspirin, NSAIDs, and colorectal cancer: possible involvement in an insulin-related pathway.

    Slattery ML, Samowitz W, Hoffman M, Ma KN, Levin TR and Neuhausen S

    Health Research Center and Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Utah, 375 Chipeta Way, Suite A, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA mslatter@hrc.utah.edu

    Introduction: Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to reduce risk of colorectal cancer. Although inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is generally thought to be the relevant mechanism, aspirin-like drugs apparently are involved in other pathways and mechanisms. We explore the associations between aspirin/NSAIDs, the insulin-related pathway, and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    Methods: Genetic polymorphisms of five genes identified as being involved in an insulin-related pathway were genotyped using data collected in a case-control study of 1346 incident colon cancer cases and 1544 population-based controls and 952 incident rectal cancer cases and 1205 controls. Genotypes assessed were the 3' untranslated region poly(A) and the intron 8 BsmI polymorphisms of the VDR gene, a CA repeat polymorphism of the IGF1 gene, the A/C polymorphism at nucleotide -202 of the IGFBP3, the Gly972Arg polymorphism of the IRS1 gene, and the Gly1057Asp polymorphism of the IRS2 gene.

    Results: Use of aspirin and NSAIDs was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer, with slightly greater protection from NSAIDs than aspirin for rectal cancer. We observed a significant interaction between IRS1 genotype and aspirin/NSAIDs use and risk of colorectal cancer. Relative to the GR/RR IRS1 genotype, a protective effect from the GG IRS1 genotype was seen in those who did not use NSAIDs; use of NSAIDs was protective for all genotypes. These associations were especially strong for those diagnosed prior to age 65 (P interaction = 0.0006). We also observed a significant interaction between aspirin/NSAIDs use and the VDR gene. Having the SS or BB VDR genotypes reduced risk of colorectal cancer among non-aspirin/NSAID users; however, aspirin/NSAIDs reduced risk for all VDR genotypes.

    Conclusions: These data support the protective effect of aspirin and NSAIDs on colorectal cancer risk. In addition, the observed interactions for aspirin/NSAIDs and IRS1 and VDR genotypes suggest that mechanisms other than COX-2 inhibition may be contributing to the protective effect of aspirin and NSAIDs on colorectal cancer risk.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 48998, CA 85846, N01 PC 67000, R01 CA048998, R01 CA048998-09, R01 CA085846, R01 CA085846-03, R01 CA085846-04

    Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2004;13;4;538-45

  • Predominance of CIN versus MSI in the development of rectal cancer at young age.

    Fernebro E, Halvarsson B, Baldetorp B and Nilbert M

    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. Eva.Fernebro@onk.lu.se

    Background: Development of proximal and distal colorectal cancers involve partly different mechanisms associated with the microsatellite instability (MSI) and the chromosomal instability (CIN) pathways. Colorectal cancers in patients under 50 years of age represent about 5% of the total number of tumors and have been associated with an increased frequency of MSI tumors. However, MSI and CIN may play different roles in the development of colon cancer and rectal cancer, and we have specifically investigated their contribution to the development of rectal cancer at young age.

    Methods: Thirty rectal cancers diagnosed before the age of 50 were characterized for DNA-ploidy, MSI, mutations of KRAS and CTNNB1 and immunohistochemical expression of p53, beta-catenin and of the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins MLH1 and MSH2.

    Results: DNA aneuploidy was detected in 21/30 tumors, KRAS mutations in 6 tumors, no mutations of CTNNB1 were detected but immunohistochemical staining for beta-catenin showed nuclear staining in 6 tumors, and immunohistochemical expression of p53 was detected in 18 tumors. MSI was detected in 3/30 tumors, all of which showed and immunohistochemical loss of staining for the MMR protein MSH2, which strongly indicates a phenotype associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC).

    Conclusions: MSI occurs only in a small fraction of the tumors from young patients with rectal cancer, but when present it strongly indicates an underlying HNPCC-causing mutation, and other mechanisms than HNPCC thus cause rectal cancer in the majority of young patients.

    BMC cancer 2002;2;25

  • Lack of mutation at codon 531 of SRC in advanced colorectal cancers from Italian patients.

    Laghi L, Bianchi P, Orbetegli O, Gennari L, Roncalli M and Malesci A

    Department of Gastroenterology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano, Milan, 20089, Italy.

    A truncating mutation (C to T transition) at codon 531 of the human protooncogene c-src, possibly accounting for the activation of c-src tyrosine kinase, has been recently identified in a subset of advanced colorectal cancer from North-American patients. However, two subsequent studies have failed to confirm the occurrence of SRC 531 mutation in colorectal cancers from North-European and Asiatic patients, raising the hypothesis that the genetic activation of src in colon cancer might be restricted to patients belonging to specific ethnic groups. We investigated a large series of colorectal cancers from Italian patients (155 cases) with a high prevalence of liver metastasis (43%). Using a PCR-RFLP assay, the occurrence of a SRC 531 mutation was ruled out in all the investigated specimens of primary tumours and/or metastases. Our results demonstrate that SRC Gln531AMB plays no role in the development or in the progression of colorectal cancer among Italian patients.

    British journal of cancer 2001;84;2;196-8

  • [beta-Catenine as a genomic target of high-grade microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer].

    Kölble K, Barthel B, Ullrich O, Pidde H, Döhring C, Rüschoff J, Schlag PM and Dietel M

    Institut für Pathologie, Universitätsklinikum Charité, Humboldt-Universität, Berlin.

    Aims: Various inherited and acquired alterations affecting the genes and gene products of the WNT pathway appear to be involved in the different molecular routes leading to colorectal cancer (CRC). This study was initiated to investigate the prevalence of somatic mutations in the beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) and the associated pathology in CRC with defective DNA mismatch repair.

    Methods: Paraffin and/or frozen sections of 33 primary CRC (including any liver and lymph node metastases present) with high-grade microsatellite instability (MSI-H; i.e. with > or = 5 unstable microsatellite markers of 10 tested) were polytopically fractionated by microdissection. Genomic and c-DNA samples were sequenced across exons 2-4 of CTNNB1 and the expression patterns of beta-catenin (beta-C) analyzed by immunohistology and Western blotting.

    Results: Seven somatic mutations affecting phosphorylation sites of exon 3 (2 deletions also encompassing parts of either intron 2 or exon 4 [delta X2/3 bzw. delta X3/4] and 5 missense mutations [2 x T41A, 2 x S45F, S45P]) were identified. Two mutations (delta X3/4 and S45F) were concordantly present in CRC primaries and their respective metastases whereas the S45P mutation was restricted to a hepatic metastasis. In the delta X2/3 CRC primary only a shortened 66 kD CTNNB1 gene product was present while its associated liver metastasis showed a total loss of beta-C expression.

    Conclusions: Both exon 3 and the entire locus coding for beta-C are somatically altered in approximately 20% of CRC with MSI-H at different stages of tumor progression. Thus CTNNB1 appears to be a genomic target for complex oncogenic mutations and deletional processes in a substantial fraction of this molecular subset of CRC.

    Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Pathologie 2000;84;182-6

  • Beta-catenin mutations are specific for colorectal carcinomas with microsatellite instability but occur in endometrial carcinomas irrespective of mutator pathway.

    Mirabelli-Primdahl L, Gryfe R, Kim H, Millar A, Luceri C, Dale D, Holowaty E, Bapat B, Gallinger S and Redston M

    Centre for Cancer Genetics, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Some colorectal tumors with wild-type adenomatous polyposis coli gene have activating mutations in beta-catenin (encoded by CTNNB1) that result in decreased phosphorylation by GSK-3beta and increased signaling through the Tcf/Lef transcription factors. To investigate the relationship between CTNNB1 mutations and underlying pathways of genomic instability, we examined 80 colorectal cancers stratified by the presence or absence of microsatellite instability (MSI). CTNNB1 mutations were identified in 13 (25%) of 53 cancers with high frequency MSI (MSI-H), including 12 point mutations at exon 3 phosphorylation sites (codons 41 and 45) and one deletion of the entire exon 3 degradation box. No CTNNB1 mutations were identified in 27 microsatellite stable or low frequency MSI (MSI-L) colorectal cancers (P < 0.01). In contrast, CTNNB1 mutations were identified in 3 of 9 (33%) MSI-H and 10 of 20 (50%) MSS/MSI-L endometrial carcinomas, suggesting a more generalized involvement in these tumors. Only six (46%) of the endometrial carcinoma CTNNB1 mutations occurred at residues directly phosphorylated by GSK-3beta, and only one of these was at either codon 41 or 45. All point mutations in MSI-H cancers were transitions, whereas 64% of those in MSS/MSI-L cancers were transversions (P < 0.01). The differences in the mutation profiles suggest that there may be molecular fingerprints of CTNNB1 mutations, determined by biological factors related to both tumor type and underlying pathways of genomic instability.

    Cancer research 1999;59;14;3346-51

  • Mutational analysis of the APC/beta-catenin/Tcf pathway in colorectal cancer.

    Sparks AB, Morin PJ, Vogelstein B and Kinzler KW

    Johns Hopkins Oncology Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA.

    Mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene initiates the majority of colorectal (CR) cancers. One consequence of this inactivation is constitutive activation of beta-catenin/Tcf-mediated transcription. To further explore the role of the APC/beta-catenin/Tcf pathway in CR tumorigenesis, we searched for mutations in genes implicated in this pathway in CR tumors lacking APC mutations. No mutations of the gamma-catenin (CTNNG1), GSK-3alpha (GSK3A), or GSK-3beta (GSK3B) genes were detected. In contrast, mutations in the NH2-terminal regulatory domain of beta-catenin (CTNNB1) were found in 13 of 27 (48%) CR tumors lacking APC mutations. Mutations in the beta-catenin regulatory domain and APC were observed to be mutually exclusive, consistent with their equivalent effects on beta-catenin stability and Tcf transactivation. In addition, we found that CTNNB1 mutations can occur in the early, adenomatous stage of CR neoplasia, as has been observed previously with APC mutations. These results suggest that CTNNB1 mutations can uniquely substitute for APC mutations in CR tumors and that beta-catenin signaling plays a critical role in CR tumorigenesis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA57345

    Cancer research 1998;58;6;1130-4

Pubmed - other

  • Beta-catenin mutations in cell lines established from human colorectal cancers.

    Ilyas M, Tomlinson IP, Rowan A, Pignatelli M and Bodmer WF

    Cancer Genetics and Immunology Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DU, United Kingdom. ilyas@europa.lif.icnet.uk

    beta-catenin has functions as both an adhesion and a signaling molecule. Disruption of these functions through mutations of the beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) may be important in the development of colorectal tumors. We examined the entire coding sequence of beta-catenin by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing of 23 human colorectal cancer cell lines from 21 patients. In two cell lines, there was apparent instability of the beta-catenin mRNA. Five different mutations (26%) were found in the remaining 21cell lines (from 19 patients). A three-base deletion (codon 45) was identified in the cell line HCT 116, whereas cell lines SW 48, HCA 46, CACO 2, and Colo 201 each contained single-base missense mutations (codons 33, 183, 245, and 287, respectively). All 23 cell lines had full-length beta-catenin protein that was detectable by Western blotting and that coprecipitated with E-cadherin. In three of the cell lines with CTNNB1 mutations, complexes of beta-catenin with alpha-catenin and APC were detectable. In SW48 and HCA 46, however, we did not detect complexes of beta-catenin protein with alpha-catenin and APC, respectively. These results show that selection of CTNNB1 mutations occurs in up to 26% of colorectal cancers from which cell lines are derived. In these cases, mutation selection is probably for altered beta-catenin function, which may significantly alter intracellular signaling and intercellular adhesion and may serve as a complement to APC mutations in the early stages of tumorigenesis.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94;19;10330-4

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