G2Cdb::Human Disease report

Disease id
D00000033
Name
Cutaneous melanoma
Nervous system disease
no

Genes (2)

Gene Name/Description Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
G00001624 PIK3CA
phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide
Y (16567976) Microinsertion (MI) Y
G00002235 CTNNB1
catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa
Y (11950921) Unknown (?) N

References

  • Mutations of PIK3CA are rare in cutaneous melanoma.

    Omholt K, Kröckel D, Ringborg U and Hansson J

    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Cancer Centre Karolinska, Karolinska University Hospital Solna and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

    Recent studies have shown that the PIK3CA gene, which encodes the p110alpha catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, is mutated in human cancers. To determine whether PIK3CA is altered in cutaneous melanoma, we screened a series of 101 melanoma metastases. We identified PIK3CA missense mutations in three metastases (3%). Interestingly, these mutations were observed only in tumours that were negative for NRAS mutations. Using immunohistochemistry, we also analysed our metastases for the expression of phosphorylated Akt. These analyses revealed a moderate to strong phosphorylated Akt expression in 78% (21 of 27) of metastases with NRAS mutations and in 73% (54 of 74) of metastases without NRAS mutations. Interestingly, the three metastases with mutations in PIK3CA all exhibited a strong expression of phosphorylated Akt. Taken together, our results show that PIK3CA is mutated in a minority of melanomas and suggest that mutations in this gene may represent an alternative mechanism of Akt activation in cutaneous melanoma.

    Melanoma research 2006;16;2;197-200

  • Loss of membranous expression of beta-catenin is associated with tumor progression in cutaneous melanoma and rarely caused by exon 3 mutations.

    Demunter A, Libbrecht L, Degreef H, De Wolf-Peeters C and van den Oord JJ

    Department of Pathology, Laboratory of Morphology and Molecular Pathology, University Hospitals, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. anouk.demunter@uz.kuleuven.ac.be

    beta-Catenin plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the E-cadherin-catenin cell adhesion complex. It also plays a role in the Wnt signaling pathway by activating T-cell factor- and lymphoid enhancer factor-regulated gene transcription. The level of beta-catenin in cells is tightly controlled in a multiprotein complex, and mutations in the glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) phosphorylation sites of the beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) result in nuclear and/or cytoplasmic accumulation of beta-catenin and constitutive transactivation of T-cell factor and lymphoid enhancer factor target genes, a mechanism occurring in many cancers. Melanoma cell lines may harbor beta-catenin mutations; in vivo, however, cellular accumulation of beta-catenin is rarely caused by CTNNB1 mutations. In our study, 43 primary cutaneous melanoma and 30 metastases were screened for CTNNB1 exon 3 mutations by using a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique and sequencing. beta-Catenin mutations were found in 2 primary melanomas and 1 metastatic melanoma and were not correlated with nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in these cases. Cellular expression of beta-catenin was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and by reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 80 and 70 cases, respectively. Immunohistochemistry revealed a significant loss of membranous beta-catenin staining between the primary and metastatic melanomas as well as between radial and vertical growth phase. RT-PCR showed a significant inverse correlation between the amount of RNA and the proportion of cells with membranous expression of beta-catenin (P =.0015); no correlation existed between the amount of RNA and the number of cells with nuclear or cytoplasmic expression of beta-catenin. In conclusion, nuclear expression of beta-catenin is seen in cutaneous melanoma but, in contrast to the case of many other cancers, does not correlate with tumor stage or mutation status. A combination of immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR showed that down-regulation of membranous beta-catenin was associated with an increased amount of beta-catenin RNA in primary or metastatic melanoma. Our results suggest that posttranslational events, rather than CTNNB1 mutations, are responsible for the altered distribution of beta-catenin in cutaneous melanoma.

    Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc 2002;15;4;454-61

Literature (2)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • Mutations of PIK3CA are rare in cutaneous melanoma.

    Omholt K, Kröckel D, Ringborg U and Hansson J

    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Cancer Centre Karolinska, Karolinska University Hospital Solna and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

    Recent studies have shown that the PIK3CA gene, which encodes the p110alpha catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, is mutated in human cancers. To determine whether PIK3CA is altered in cutaneous melanoma, we screened a series of 101 melanoma metastases. We identified PIK3CA missense mutations in three metastases (3%). Interestingly, these mutations were observed only in tumours that were negative for NRAS mutations. Using immunohistochemistry, we also analysed our metastases for the expression of phosphorylated Akt. These analyses revealed a moderate to strong phosphorylated Akt expression in 78% (21 of 27) of metastases with NRAS mutations and in 73% (54 of 74) of metastases without NRAS mutations. Interestingly, the three metastases with mutations in PIK3CA all exhibited a strong expression of phosphorylated Akt. Taken together, our results show that PIK3CA is mutated in a minority of melanomas and suggest that mutations in this gene may represent an alternative mechanism of Akt activation in cutaneous melanoma.

    Melanoma research 2006;16;2;197-200

  • Loss of membranous expression of beta-catenin is associated with tumor progression in cutaneous melanoma and rarely caused by exon 3 mutations.

    Demunter A, Libbrecht L, Degreef H, De Wolf-Peeters C and van den Oord JJ

    Department of Pathology, Laboratory of Morphology and Molecular Pathology, University Hospitals, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. anouk.demunter@uz.kuleuven.ac.be

    beta-Catenin plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the E-cadherin-catenin cell adhesion complex. It also plays a role in the Wnt signaling pathway by activating T-cell factor- and lymphoid enhancer factor-regulated gene transcription. The level of beta-catenin in cells is tightly controlled in a multiprotein complex, and mutations in the glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) phosphorylation sites of the beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) result in nuclear and/or cytoplasmic accumulation of beta-catenin and constitutive transactivation of T-cell factor and lymphoid enhancer factor target genes, a mechanism occurring in many cancers. Melanoma cell lines may harbor beta-catenin mutations; in vivo, however, cellular accumulation of beta-catenin is rarely caused by CTNNB1 mutations. In our study, 43 primary cutaneous melanoma and 30 metastases were screened for CTNNB1 exon 3 mutations by using a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique and sequencing. beta-Catenin mutations were found in 2 primary melanomas and 1 metastatic melanoma and were not correlated with nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in these cases. Cellular expression of beta-catenin was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and by reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 80 and 70 cases, respectively. Immunohistochemistry revealed a significant loss of membranous beta-catenin staining between the primary and metastatic melanomas as well as between radial and vertical growth phase. RT-PCR showed a significant inverse correlation between the amount of RNA and the proportion of cells with membranous expression of beta-catenin (P =.0015); no correlation existed between the amount of RNA and the number of cells with nuclear or cytoplasmic expression of beta-catenin. In conclusion, nuclear expression of beta-catenin is seen in cutaneous melanoma but, in contrast to the case of many other cancers, does not correlate with tumor stage or mutation status. A combination of immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR showed that down-regulation of membranous beta-catenin was associated with an increased amount of beta-catenin RNA in primary or metastatic melanoma. Our results suggest that posttranslational events, rather than CTNNB1 mutations, are responsible for the altered distribution of beta-catenin in cutaneous melanoma.

    Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc 2002;15;4;454-61

© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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