G2Cdb::Human Disease report

Disease id
D00000105
Name
Breast carcinoma
Nervous system disease
no

Genes (2)

Gene Name/Description Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
G00001624 PIK3CA
phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide
Y (15608678) Unknown (?) Y
G00001624 PIK3CA
phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide
Y (15805248) Unknown (?) Y
G00001624 PIK3CA
phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide
Y (16353168) Unknown (?) Y
G00001624 PIK3CA
phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide
Y (17202311) Microinsertion (MI) Y
G00001444 PPP2R1A
protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, alpha
Y (10713707) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ?
G00001444 PPP2R1A
protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, alpha
Y (10713707) Single nucleotide insertion (SNI) ?

References

  • Clinicopathologic analysis of breast cancers with PIK3CA mutations in Japanese women.

    Maruyama N, Miyoshi Y, Taguchi T, Tamaki Y, Monden M and Noguchi S

    Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

    Purpose: Somatic mutations of PIK3CA, which encodes the p110alpha catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, have recently been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of human breast cancers. In this study, the frequency of PIK3CA mutations and their relationship with clinicopathologic and biological variables were investigated in Japanese breast cancers.

    Mutational analysis of PIK3CA was done in 188 primary breast cancers of Japanese women. Relationship of these mutations with various clinicopathologic variables [histologic type, tumor size, histologic grade, lymph node status, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and progesterone receptor status, and prognosis], biological variables [phospho-AKT (pAKT) and HER2 expression determined by immunohistochemistry], and p53 mutation status was studied.

    Results: Missense mutations of PIK3CA were found in 44 of 158 invasive ductal carcinomas, 4 of 10 invasive lobular carcinomas, 1 of 4 mucinous carcinomas, 2 of 2 squamous carcinomas, and 2 of 2 apocrine carcinomas, but no mutation was found in 12 noninvasive ductal carcinomas. PIK3CA-mutated tumors were found to be more likely to be ER-alpha positive (P < 0.05) and pAKT positive (P < 0.05). There was no significant association between PIK3CA mutations and p53 mutation status. PIK3CA mutations were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with a favorable prognosis, and multivariate analysis showed that PIK3CA mutation status was a significant (P < 0.05) prognostic factor independent of the other conventional prognostic factors.

    Conclusions: The frequency of PIK3CA mutations in Japanese breast cancers is similar to that of Caucasian breast cancers. Association of PIK3CA mutations with positive pAKT and positive ER-alpha suggests that PIK3CA mutations might exert their effects through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/ER-alpha pathway. PIK3CA mutations seem to have a potential to be used as an indicator of favorable prognosis.

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2007;13;2 Pt 1;408-14

  • PIK3CA mutation and histological type in breast carcinoma: high frequency of mutations in lobular carcinoma.

    Buttitta F, Felicioni L, Barassi F, Martella C, Paolizzi D, Fresu G, Salvatore S, Cuccurullo F, Mezzetti A, Campani D and Marchetti A

    Clinical Research Center, Center of Excellence on Aging, University-Foundation, Chieti, Italy.

    Mutations in the PIK3CA gene have recently been reported in different human neoplasms, including breast cancer. This paper reports the results of a systematic analysis of PIK3CA mutations in different histological types of breast carcinoma. One hundred and eighty invasive breast carcinomas, comprising 74 ductal, 56 lobular, 22 mucinous, 20 medullary, and eight papillary, were selected on the basis of their histological type in a consecutive series of 780 breast cancers. Exons 1-20 of the PIK3CA gene were subjected to SSCP analysis followed by direct sequencing. PIK3CA mutations were observed in 46 (26%) of the 180 tumours examined: 23 (50%) mutations were located in exon 9, and 23 (50%) in exon 20. Mutations were frequent in lobular (46%), less frequent in ductal (22%), and uncommon in medullary (10%), mucinous (5%), and papillary tumours (12%) (p = 0.0002). Mutations in exon 9 were more frequent in lobular carcinomas (30% of cases) than in the other histological types (less than 5% of cases) (p = 0.00014). No significant differences were observed in the distribution of mutations in exon 20. There was no significant correlation between PIK3CA mutations and other clinicopathological and biological variables, including age, tumour size, lymph node metastases, oestrogen receptor (ER) status, progesterone receptor (PgR) status, p53 gene mutations, and p53 protein expression. The findings indicate that in invasive breast carcinomas, PIK3CA alterations are mainly present in lobular and ductal tumours, whereas the other histological types, known to be associated with a favourable prognosis, show a very low incidence of PIK3CA mutations.

    The Journal of pathology 2006;208;3;350-5

  • PIK3CA mutations correlate with hormone receptors, node metastasis, and ERBB2, and are mutually exclusive with PTEN loss in human breast carcinoma.

    Saal LH, Holm K, Maurer M, Memeo L, Su T, Wang X, Yu JS, Malmström PO, Mansukhani M, Enoksson J, Hibshoosh H, Borg A and Parsons R

    Integrated Program in Cellular, Molecular, and Biophysical Studies, Institute for Cancer Genetics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.

    Deregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway either through loss of PTEN or mutation of the catalytic subunit alpha of PI3K (PIK3CA) occurs frequently in human cancer. We identified PIK3CA mutations in 26% of 342 human breast tumor samples and cell lines at about equal frequency in tumor stages I to IV. To investigate the relationship between PTEN and PIK3CA, we generated a cohort of tumors that had lost PTEN expression and compared it with a matched control set that had retained PTEN. A highly significant association between PIK3CA mutations and retention of PTEN protein expression was observed. In addition, PIK3CA mutations were associated with expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR), lymph node metastasis, and ERBB2 overexpression. The fact that PIK3CA mutations and PTEN loss are nearly mutually exclusive implies that deregulated phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP(3)) is critical for tumorigenesis in a significant fraction of breast cancers and that loss of PIP(3) homeostasis by abrogation of either PIK3CA or PTEN relieves selective pressure for targeting of the other gene. The correlation of PIK3CA mutation to ER/PR-positive tumors and PTEN loss to ER/PR-negative tumors argues for disparate branches of tumor evolution. Furthermore, the association between ERBB2 overexpression and PIK3CA mutation implies that more than one input activating the PI3K/AKT pathway may be required to overcome intact PTEN. Thus, mutation of PIK3CA is frequent, occurs early in carcinoma development, and has prognostic and therapeutic implications.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA082783, CA097403, R01 CA082783, R01 CA082783-05, R01 CA082783-06; NIGMS NIH HHS: 5T32 GM07367-29

    Cancer research 2005;65;7;2554-9

  • PIK3CA gene is frequently mutated in breast carcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Lee JW, Soung YH, Kim SY, Lee HW, Park WS, Nam SW, Kim SH, Lee JY, Yoo NJ and Lee SH

    Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Socho-gu, Seoul 137-701, Korea.

    A recent report revealed that phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha (PIK3CA) gene is somatically mutated in several types of human cancer, suggesting the mutated PIK3CA gene as an oncogene in human cancers. However, because the previous report focused the mutational search primarily on colon cancers, the data on PIK3CA mutations in other types of human cancers have been largely unknown. Here, we performed mutational analysis of the PIK3CA gene by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism assay in 668 cases of common human cancers, including hepatocellular carcinomas, acute leukemias, gastric carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and non-small-cell lung cancers. We detected PIK3CA somatic mutations in 26 of 73 hepatocellular carcinomas (35.6%), 25 of 93 breast carcinomas (26.9%), 12 of 185 gastric carcinomas (6.5%), one of 88 acute leukemias (1.1%), and three of 229 non-small-cell lung cancers (1.3%). Some of the PIK3CA mutations were detected in the early lesions of breast cancer carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and gastric carcinomas, suggesting that PIK3CA mutation may occur independent of stage of the tumors. The high incidence and wide distribution of PIK3CA gene mutation in the common human cancers suggest that alterations of lipid kinase pathway by PIK3CA mutations contribute to the development of human cancers.

    Oncogene 2005;24;8;1477-80

  • Low frequency of alterations of the alpha (PPP2R1A) and beta (PPP2R1B) isoforms of the subunit A of the serine-threonine phosphatase 2A in human neoplasms.

    Calin GA, di Iasio MG, Caprini E, Vorechovsky I, Natali PG, Sozzi G, Croce CM, Barbanti-Brodano G, Russo G and Negrini M

    Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Diagnostica, Sezione di Microbiologia, Universitá di Ferrara, via Luigi Borsari, 46, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy.

    The phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is one of the major cellular serine-threonine phosphatases. It was recently shown that the gene encoding for the beta isoform of its subunit A, PPP2R1B, is altered in human lung and colorectal carcinomas, suggesting a role in human tumorigenesis. Here, we report the detection of mutations in breast, lung carcinomas and melanomas in the genes of both alpha (PPP2R1A) and beta isoforms. Mutations affecting PPP2R1B were found in four breast carcinomas, while mutations in PPP2R1A were found in carcinomas of the breast and of the lung and in one melanoma. Most of the mutations affecting PPP2R1B were exons deletions, suggesting abnormal splicing. These splicing abnormalities were detected in tumor samples in the absence of the normal splicing product, and were not found in several normal controls. In one case, a homozygous deletion present in tumor DNA, and not in the matched normal control was demonstrated. Mutations affecting the PPP2R1A gene were nucleotide substitutions changing highly conserved amino acids and one frame-shift. Although the frequency of alterations is low, the inclusion of both isoforms of subunit A in the genes mutated in human cancer and the addition of breast cancer to the list of neoplasms in which PPP2R1B is altered, strengthen the potential role of PP2A in human tumorogenesis.

    Oncogene 2000;19;9;1191-5

Literature (5)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • PIK3CA gene is frequently mutated in breast carcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Lee JW, Soung YH, Kim SY, Lee HW, Park WS, Nam SW, Kim SH, Lee JY, Yoo NJ and Lee SH

    Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Socho-gu, Seoul 137-701, Korea.

    A recent report revealed that phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha (PIK3CA) gene is somatically mutated in several types of human cancer, suggesting the mutated PIK3CA gene as an oncogene in human cancers. However, because the previous report focused the mutational search primarily on colon cancers, the data on PIK3CA mutations in other types of human cancers have been largely unknown. Here, we performed mutational analysis of the PIK3CA gene by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism assay in 668 cases of common human cancers, including hepatocellular carcinomas, acute leukemias, gastric carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and non-small-cell lung cancers. We detected PIK3CA somatic mutations in 26 of 73 hepatocellular carcinomas (35.6%), 25 of 93 breast carcinomas (26.9%), 12 of 185 gastric carcinomas (6.5%), one of 88 acute leukemias (1.1%), and three of 229 non-small-cell lung cancers (1.3%). Some of the PIK3CA mutations were detected in the early lesions of breast cancer carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and gastric carcinomas, suggesting that PIK3CA mutation may occur independent of stage of the tumors. The high incidence and wide distribution of PIK3CA gene mutation in the common human cancers suggest that alterations of lipid kinase pathway by PIK3CA mutations contribute to the development of human cancers.

    Oncogene 2005;24;8;1477-80

  • Low frequency of alterations of the alpha (PPP2R1A) and beta (PPP2R1B) isoforms of the subunit A of the serine-threonine phosphatase 2A in human neoplasms.

    Calin GA, di Iasio MG, Caprini E, Vorechovsky I, Natali PG, Sozzi G, Croce CM, Barbanti-Brodano G, Russo G and Negrini M

    Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Diagnostica, Sezione di Microbiologia, Universitá di Ferrara, via Luigi Borsari, 46, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy.

    The phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is one of the major cellular serine-threonine phosphatases. It was recently shown that the gene encoding for the beta isoform of its subunit A, PPP2R1B, is altered in human lung and colorectal carcinomas, suggesting a role in human tumorigenesis. Here, we report the detection of mutations in breast, lung carcinomas and melanomas in the genes of both alpha (PPP2R1A) and beta isoforms. Mutations affecting PPP2R1B were found in four breast carcinomas, while mutations in PPP2R1A were found in carcinomas of the breast and of the lung and in one melanoma. Most of the mutations affecting PPP2R1B were exons deletions, suggesting abnormal splicing. These splicing abnormalities were detected in tumor samples in the absence of the normal splicing product, and were not found in several normal controls. In one case, a homozygous deletion present in tumor DNA, and not in the matched normal control was demonstrated. Mutations affecting the PPP2R1A gene were nucleotide substitutions changing highly conserved amino acids and one frame-shift. Although the frequency of alterations is low, the inclusion of both isoforms of subunit A in the genes mutated in human cancer and the addition of breast cancer to the list of neoplasms in which PPP2R1B is altered, strengthen the potential role of PP2A in human tumorogenesis.

    Oncogene 2000;19;9;1191-5

Pubmed - other

  • Clinicopathologic analysis of breast cancers with PIK3CA mutations in Japanese women.

    Maruyama N, Miyoshi Y, Taguchi T, Tamaki Y, Monden M and Noguchi S

    Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

    Purpose: Somatic mutations of PIK3CA, which encodes the p110alpha catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, have recently been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of human breast cancers. In this study, the frequency of PIK3CA mutations and their relationship with clinicopathologic and biological variables were investigated in Japanese breast cancers.

    Mutational analysis of PIK3CA was done in 188 primary breast cancers of Japanese women. Relationship of these mutations with various clinicopathologic variables [histologic type, tumor size, histologic grade, lymph node status, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and progesterone receptor status, and prognosis], biological variables [phospho-AKT (pAKT) and HER2 expression determined by immunohistochemistry], and p53 mutation status was studied.

    Results: Missense mutations of PIK3CA were found in 44 of 158 invasive ductal carcinomas, 4 of 10 invasive lobular carcinomas, 1 of 4 mucinous carcinomas, 2 of 2 squamous carcinomas, and 2 of 2 apocrine carcinomas, but no mutation was found in 12 noninvasive ductal carcinomas. PIK3CA-mutated tumors were found to be more likely to be ER-alpha positive (P < 0.05) and pAKT positive (P < 0.05). There was no significant association between PIK3CA mutations and p53 mutation status. PIK3CA mutations were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with a favorable prognosis, and multivariate analysis showed that PIK3CA mutation status was a significant (P < 0.05) prognostic factor independent of the other conventional prognostic factors.

    Conclusions: The frequency of PIK3CA mutations in Japanese breast cancers is similar to that of Caucasian breast cancers. Association of PIK3CA mutations with positive pAKT and positive ER-alpha suggests that PIK3CA mutations might exert their effects through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/ER-alpha pathway. PIK3CA mutations seem to have a potential to be used as an indicator of favorable prognosis.

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2007;13;2 Pt 1;408-14

  • PIK3CA mutation and histological type in breast carcinoma: high frequency of mutations in lobular carcinoma.

    Buttitta F, Felicioni L, Barassi F, Martella C, Paolizzi D, Fresu G, Salvatore S, Cuccurullo F, Mezzetti A, Campani D and Marchetti A

    Clinical Research Center, Center of Excellence on Aging, University-Foundation, Chieti, Italy.

    Mutations in the PIK3CA gene have recently been reported in different human neoplasms, including breast cancer. This paper reports the results of a systematic analysis of PIK3CA mutations in different histological types of breast carcinoma. One hundred and eighty invasive breast carcinomas, comprising 74 ductal, 56 lobular, 22 mucinous, 20 medullary, and eight papillary, were selected on the basis of their histological type in a consecutive series of 780 breast cancers. Exons 1-20 of the PIK3CA gene were subjected to SSCP analysis followed by direct sequencing. PIK3CA mutations were observed in 46 (26%) of the 180 tumours examined: 23 (50%) mutations were located in exon 9, and 23 (50%) in exon 20. Mutations were frequent in lobular (46%), less frequent in ductal (22%), and uncommon in medullary (10%), mucinous (5%), and papillary tumours (12%) (p = 0.0002). Mutations in exon 9 were more frequent in lobular carcinomas (30% of cases) than in the other histological types (less than 5% of cases) (p = 0.00014). No significant differences were observed in the distribution of mutations in exon 20. There was no significant correlation between PIK3CA mutations and other clinicopathological and biological variables, including age, tumour size, lymph node metastases, oestrogen receptor (ER) status, progesterone receptor (PgR) status, p53 gene mutations, and p53 protein expression. The findings indicate that in invasive breast carcinomas, PIK3CA alterations are mainly present in lobular and ductal tumours, whereas the other histological types, known to be associated with a favourable prognosis, show a very low incidence of PIK3CA mutations.

    The Journal of pathology 2006;208;3;350-5

  • PIK3CA mutations correlate with hormone receptors, node metastasis, and ERBB2, and are mutually exclusive with PTEN loss in human breast carcinoma.

    Saal LH, Holm K, Maurer M, Memeo L, Su T, Wang X, Yu JS, Malmström PO, Mansukhani M, Enoksson J, Hibshoosh H, Borg A and Parsons R

    Integrated Program in Cellular, Molecular, and Biophysical Studies, Institute for Cancer Genetics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.

    Deregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway either through loss of PTEN or mutation of the catalytic subunit alpha of PI3K (PIK3CA) occurs frequently in human cancer. We identified PIK3CA mutations in 26% of 342 human breast tumor samples and cell lines at about equal frequency in tumor stages I to IV. To investigate the relationship between PTEN and PIK3CA, we generated a cohort of tumors that had lost PTEN expression and compared it with a matched control set that had retained PTEN. A highly significant association between PIK3CA mutations and retention of PTEN protein expression was observed. In addition, PIK3CA mutations were associated with expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR), lymph node metastasis, and ERBB2 overexpression. The fact that PIK3CA mutations and PTEN loss are nearly mutually exclusive implies that deregulated phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP(3)) is critical for tumorigenesis in a significant fraction of breast cancers and that loss of PIP(3) homeostasis by abrogation of either PIK3CA or PTEN relieves selective pressure for targeting of the other gene. The correlation of PIK3CA mutation to ER/PR-positive tumors and PTEN loss to ER/PR-negative tumors argues for disparate branches of tumor evolution. Furthermore, the association between ERBB2 overexpression and PIK3CA mutation implies that more than one input activating the PI3K/AKT pathway may be required to overcome intact PTEN. Thus, mutation of PIK3CA is frequent, occurs early in carcinoma development, and has prognostic and therapeutic implications.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA082783, CA097403, R01 CA082783, R01 CA082783-05, R01 CA082783-06; NIGMS NIH HHS: 5T32 GM07367-29

    Cancer research 2005;65;7;2554-9

© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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