G2Cdb::Human Disease report

Disease id
D00000142
Name
Diabetes mellitus Type 2
Nervous system disease
no

Genes (4)

Gene Name/Description Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
G00001394 MAPK8IP1
mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1
Y (10700186) Microinsertion (MI) Y
G00002164 IRS1
insulin receptor substrate 1
Y (15561966) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) N
G00001922 STX1A
syntaxin 1A (brain)
Y (11719842) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
G00001324 ATP1A1
ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 1 polypeptide
Y (15198370) Polymorphism (P) ?

References

  • Association studies of insulin receptor substrate 1 gene (IRS1) variants in type 2 diabetes samples enriched for family history and early age of onset.

    Zeggini E, Parkinson J, Halford S, Owen KR, Frayling TM, Walker M, Hitman GA, Levy JC, Sampson MJ, Feskens EJ, Hattersley AT and McCarthy MI

    Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

    The gene encoding insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) represents a strong biological candidate for a contributory role in type 2 diabetes susceptibility. Indeed, functional studies have implicated the G971R variant, and a recent meta-analysis of 27 association studies suggested that carriage of 971R was associated with a 25% increase in disease risk. However, this association has not been evaluated in large samples. The present study genotyped the P512A and G971R IRS1 variants in 971 U.K. type 2 diabetic subjects ascertained for strong family history and/or early onset, as well as 1,257 control subjects matched by ethnicity. There was no evidence for association with type 2 diabetes for either variant. (For example, the odds ratio [OR] for carriage of 971R was 1.11 [95% CI 0.86-1.44, P = 0.44]) An updated meta-analysis (31 studies: 5,104 case and 7,418 control subjects) remained significant for the G971R association (P = 0.025), albeit with a diminished OR (1.15 [95% CI 1.02-1.31]). Additional studies of IRS1 variation will be required to obtain a robust estimate of the overall contribution of IRS1 variation to type 2 diabetes susceptibility, but the current study suggests that previous studies have overestimated the magnitude of this effect.

    Diabetes 2004;53;12;3319-22

  • C-peptide, Na+,K(+)-ATPase, and diabetes.

    Vague P, Coste TC, Jannot MF, Raccah D and Tsimaratos M

    Departement de Nutrition-Endocrinologie-Maladies Métaboliques, CHU Timone, Marseille, France. philippe.vague@ap-hm.fr

    Na+,K(+)-ATPase is an ubiquitous membrane enzyme that allows the extrusion of three sodium ions from the cell and two potassium ions from the extracellular fluid. Its activity is decreased in many tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals. This impairment could be at least partly responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is decreased in the red blood cell membranes of type 1 diabetic individuals, irrespective of the degree of diabetic control. It is less impaired or even normal in those of type 2 diabetic patients. The authors have shown that in the red blood cells of type 2 diabetic patients, Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity was strongly related to blood C-peptide levels in non-insulin-treated patients (in whom C-peptide concentration reflects that of insulin) as well as in insulin-treated patients. Furthermore, a gene-environment relationship has been observed. The alpha-1 isoform of the enzyme predominant in red blood cells and nerve tissue is encoded by the ATP1A1 gene. A polymorphism in the intron 1 of this gene is associated with lower enzyme activity in patients with C-peptide deficiency either with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but not in normal individuals. There are several lines of evidence for a low C-peptide level being responsible for low Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in the red blood cells. Short-term C-peptide infusion to type 1 diabetic patients restores normal Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. Islet transplantation, which restores endogenous C-peptide secretion, enhances Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity proportionally to the rise in C-peptide. This C-peptide effect is not indirect. In fact, incubation of diabetic red blood cells with C-peptide at physiological concentration leads to an increase of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. In isolated proximal tubules of rats or in the medullary thick ascending limb of the kidney, C-peptide stimulates in a dose-dependent manner Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. This impairment in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity, mainly secondary to the lack of C-peptide, plays probably a role in the development of diabetic complications. Arguments have been developed showing that the diabetes-induced decrease in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity compromises microvascular blood flow by two mechanisms: by affecting microvascular regulation and by decreasing red blood cell deformability, which leads to an increase in blood viscosity. C-peptide infusion restores red blood cell deformability and microvascular blood flow concomitantly with Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. The defect in ATPase is strongly related to diabetic neuropathy. Patients with neuropathy have lower ATPase activity than those without. The diabetes-induced impairment in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is identical in red blood cells and neural tissue. Red blood cell ATPase activity is related to nerve conduction velocity in the peroneal and the tibial nerve of diabetic patients. C-peptide infusion to diabetic rats increases endoneural ATPase activity in rat. Because the defect in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is also probably involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy and cardiomyopathy, physiological C-peptide infusion could be beneficial for the prevention of diabetic complications.

    Experimental diabesity research 2004;5;1;37-50

  • Single nucleotide polymorphism (D68D, T to C) in the syntaxin 1A gene correlates to age at onset and insulin requirement in Type II diabetic patients.

    Tsunoda K, Sanke T, Nakagawa T, Furuta H and Nanjo K

    Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Wakayama University of Medical Science, Wakayama, Japan.

    Syntaxin 1A is a candidate gene for Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, because it plays an important role in insulin secretion from the islet beta cells. We aimed to scan this gene for mutations or genetic markers that correlate with Type II diabetes.

    Methods: We identified and characterized coding exons of the syntaxin 1A gene and scanned the newly identified 10 exons using direct sequencing.

    Results: In the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of exon 3 (D68D, T to C) among three newly identified SNPs, genotype frequency of the homozygote of C allele (CC) occurred more frequently in a Type II diabetic group than in a non-diabetic group (16.48 %, n = 182, vs 11.05 %, n = 181, p = 0.0499). Among the diabetic patients, age of onset in patients with CC genotype was lower than that in patients with the TT and TC genotypes [40.10 +/- 1.50 years old (means +/- SEM) vs 44.20 +/- 0.58, p = 0.005]. Patients with the CC genotype had a higher frequency of insulin treatment (78.30 % vs 46.80 %, p = 0.006) with a duration equal to, or longer than, 10 years. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that the genotype was significantly and independently associated with age at onset and mode of treatment, respectively.

    These data indicate that the SNP in the syntaxin 1A gene (D68D, T to C) correlates to the age of onset and insulin requirements of Type II diabetic Japanese patients.

    Diabetologia 2001;44;11;2092-7

  • The gene MAPK8IP1, encoding islet-brain-1, is a candidate for type 2 diabetes.

    Waeber G, Delplanque J, Bonny C, Mooser V, Steinmann M, Widmann C, Maillard A, Miklossy J, Dina C, Hani EH, Vionnet N, Nicod P, Boutin P and Froguel P

    Department of Internal Medicine, CHUV-University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland. gwaeber@chuv.hospvd.ch

    Type 2 diabetes is a polygenic and genetically heterogeneous disease . The age of onset of the disease is usually late and environmental factors may be required to induce the complete diabetic phenotype. Susceptibility genes for diabetes have not yet been identified. Islet-brain-1 (IB1, encoded by MAPK8IP1), a novel DNA-binding transactivator of the glucose transporter GLUT2 (encoded by SLC2A2), is the homologue of the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase-interacting protein-1 (JIP-1; refs 2-5). We evaluated the role of IBi in beta-cells by expression of a MAPK8IP1 antisense RNA in a stable insulinoma beta-cell line. A 38% decrease in IB1 protein content resulted in a 49% and a 41% reduction in SLC2A2 and INS (encoding insulin) mRNA expression, respectively. In addition, we detected MAPK8IP1 transcripts and IBi protein in human pancreatic islets. These data establish MAPK8IP1 as a candidate gene for human diabetes. Sibpair analyses performed on i49 multiplex French families with type 2 diabetes excluded MAPK8IP1 as a major diabetogenic locus. We did, however, identify in one family a missense mutation located in the coding region of MAPK8IP1 (559N) that segregated with diabetes. In vitro, this mutation was associated with an inability of IB1 to prevent apoptosis induced by MAPK/ERK kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) and a reduced ability to counteract the inhibitory action of the activated c-JUN amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway on INS transcriptional activity. Identification of this novel non-maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) form of diabetes demonstrates that IB1 is a key regulator of 3-cell function.

    Nature genetics 2000;24;3;291-5

Literature (4)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • C-peptide, Na+,K(+)-ATPase, and diabetes.

    Vague P, Coste TC, Jannot MF, Raccah D and Tsimaratos M

    Departement de Nutrition-Endocrinologie-Maladies Métaboliques, CHU Timone, Marseille, France. philippe.vague@ap-hm.fr

    Na+,K(+)-ATPase is an ubiquitous membrane enzyme that allows the extrusion of three sodium ions from the cell and two potassium ions from the extracellular fluid. Its activity is decreased in many tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals. This impairment could be at least partly responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is decreased in the red blood cell membranes of type 1 diabetic individuals, irrespective of the degree of diabetic control. It is less impaired or even normal in those of type 2 diabetic patients. The authors have shown that in the red blood cells of type 2 diabetic patients, Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity was strongly related to blood C-peptide levels in non-insulin-treated patients (in whom C-peptide concentration reflects that of insulin) as well as in insulin-treated patients. Furthermore, a gene-environment relationship has been observed. The alpha-1 isoform of the enzyme predominant in red blood cells and nerve tissue is encoded by the ATP1A1 gene. A polymorphism in the intron 1 of this gene is associated with lower enzyme activity in patients with C-peptide deficiency either with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but not in normal individuals. There are several lines of evidence for a low C-peptide level being responsible for low Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in the red blood cells. Short-term C-peptide infusion to type 1 diabetic patients restores normal Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. Islet transplantation, which restores endogenous C-peptide secretion, enhances Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity proportionally to the rise in C-peptide. This C-peptide effect is not indirect. In fact, incubation of diabetic red blood cells with C-peptide at physiological concentration leads to an increase of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. In isolated proximal tubules of rats or in the medullary thick ascending limb of the kidney, C-peptide stimulates in a dose-dependent manner Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. This impairment in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity, mainly secondary to the lack of C-peptide, plays probably a role in the development of diabetic complications. Arguments have been developed showing that the diabetes-induced decrease in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity compromises microvascular blood flow by two mechanisms: by affecting microvascular regulation and by decreasing red blood cell deformability, which leads to an increase in blood viscosity. C-peptide infusion restores red blood cell deformability and microvascular blood flow concomitantly with Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. The defect in ATPase is strongly related to diabetic neuropathy. Patients with neuropathy have lower ATPase activity than those without. The diabetes-induced impairment in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is identical in red blood cells and neural tissue. Red blood cell ATPase activity is related to nerve conduction velocity in the peroneal and the tibial nerve of diabetic patients. C-peptide infusion to diabetic rats increases endoneural ATPase activity in rat. Because the defect in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is also probably involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy and cardiomyopathy, physiological C-peptide infusion could be beneficial for the prevention of diabetic complications.

    Experimental diabesity research 2004;5;1;37-50

  • Single nucleotide polymorphism (D68D, T to C) in the syntaxin 1A gene correlates to age at onset and insulin requirement in Type II diabetic patients.

    Tsunoda K, Sanke T, Nakagawa T, Furuta H and Nanjo K

    Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Wakayama University of Medical Science, Wakayama, Japan.

    Syntaxin 1A is a candidate gene for Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, because it plays an important role in insulin secretion from the islet beta cells. We aimed to scan this gene for mutations or genetic markers that correlate with Type II diabetes.

    Methods: We identified and characterized coding exons of the syntaxin 1A gene and scanned the newly identified 10 exons using direct sequencing.

    Results: In the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of exon 3 (D68D, T to C) among three newly identified SNPs, genotype frequency of the homozygote of C allele (CC) occurred more frequently in a Type II diabetic group than in a non-diabetic group (16.48 %, n = 182, vs 11.05 %, n = 181, p = 0.0499). Among the diabetic patients, age of onset in patients with CC genotype was lower than that in patients with the TT and TC genotypes [40.10 +/- 1.50 years old (means +/- SEM) vs 44.20 +/- 0.58, p = 0.005]. Patients with the CC genotype had a higher frequency of insulin treatment (78.30 % vs 46.80 %, p = 0.006) with a duration equal to, or longer than, 10 years. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that the genotype was significantly and independently associated with age at onset and mode of treatment, respectively.

    These data indicate that the SNP in the syntaxin 1A gene (D68D, T to C) correlates to the age of onset and insulin requirements of Type II diabetic Japanese patients.

    Diabetologia 2001;44;11;2092-7

Pubmed - other

  • Association studies of insulin receptor substrate 1 gene (IRS1) variants in type 2 diabetes samples enriched for family history and early age of onset.

    Zeggini E, Parkinson J, Halford S, Owen KR, Frayling TM, Walker M, Hitman GA, Levy JC, Sampson MJ, Feskens EJ, Hattersley AT and McCarthy MI

    Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

    The gene encoding insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) represents a strong biological candidate for a contributory role in type 2 diabetes susceptibility. Indeed, functional studies have implicated the G971R variant, and a recent meta-analysis of 27 association studies suggested that carriage of 971R was associated with a 25% increase in disease risk. However, this association has not been evaluated in large samples. The present study genotyped the P512A and G971R IRS1 variants in 971 U.K. type 2 diabetic subjects ascertained for strong family history and/or early onset, as well as 1,257 control subjects matched by ethnicity. There was no evidence for association with type 2 diabetes for either variant. (For example, the odds ratio [OR] for carriage of 971R was 1.11 [95% CI 0.86-1.44, P = 0.44]) An updated meta-analysis (31 studies: 5,104 case and 7,418 control subjects) remained significant for the G971R association (P = 0.025), albeit with a diminished OR (1.15 [95% CI 1.02-1.31]). Additional studies of IRS1 variation will be required to obtain a robust estimate of the overall contribution of IRS1 variation to type 2 diabetes susceptibility, but the current study suggests that previous studies have overestimated the magnitude of this effect.

    Diabetes 2004;53;12;3319-22

  • The gene MAPK8IP1, encoding islet-brain-1, is a candidate for type 2 diabetes.

    Waeber G, Delplanque J, Bonny C, Mooser V, Steinmann M, Widmann C, Maillard A, Miklossy J, Dina C, Hani EH, Vionnet N, Nicod P, Boutin P and Froguel P

    Department of Internal Medicine, CHUV-University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland. gwaeber@chuv.hospvd.ch

    Type 2 diabetes is a polygenic and genetically heterogeneous disease . The age of onset of the disease is usually late and environmental factors may be required to induce the complete diabetic phenotype. Susceptibility genes for diabetes have not yet been identified. Islet-brain-1 (IB1, encoded by MAPK8IP1), a novel DNA-binding transactivator of the glucose transporter GLUT2 (encoded by SLC2A2), is the homologue of the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase-interacting protein-1 (JIP-1; refs 2-5). We evaluated the role of IBi in beta-cells by expression of a MAPK8IP1 antisense RNA in a stable insulinoma beta-cell line. A 38% decrease in IB1 protein content resulted in a 49% and a 41% reduction in SLC2A2 and INS (encoding insulin) mRNA expression, respectively. In addition, we detected MAPK8IP1 transcripts and IBi protein in human pancreatic islets. These data establish MAPK8IP1 as a candidate gene for human diabetes. Sibpair analyses performed on i49 multiplex French families with type 2 diabetes excluded MAPK8IP1 as a major diabetogenic locus. We did, however, identify in one family a missense mutation located in the coding region of MAPK8IP1 (559N) that segregated with diabetes. In vitro, this mutation was associated with an inability of IB1 to prevent apoptosis induced by MAPK/ERK kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) and a reduced ability to counteract the inhibitory action of the activated c-JUN amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway on INS transcriptional activity. Identification of this novel non-maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) form of diabetes demonstrates that IB1 is a key regulator of 3-cell function.

    Nature genetics 2000;24;3;291-5

© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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