G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002162
Gene symbol
FUS (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
fused in sarcoma
Orthologue
G00000913 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000132395 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000089280 (Ensembl human gene)
2521 (Entrez Gene)
67 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
FUS (GeneCards)
Literature
137070 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:4010 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P35637 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • FUS1
  • TLS
  • hnRNP-P2

Diseases (13)

Disease Nervous effect Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
D00000009: Myxoid liposarcoma N Y (7485386) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000041: Round cell liposarcoma N Y (7485386) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000007: Malignant liposarcoma N Y (7503811) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000093: Acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (7533529) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000009: Myxoid liposarcoma N Y (7566973) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000093: Acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (7566973) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000009: Myxoid liposarcoma N Y (7805034) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000041: Round cell liposarcoma N Y (7805034) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000009: Myxoid liposarcoma N Y (7987849) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000009: Myxoid liposarcoma N Y (8523819) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000006: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma N Y (8523819) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000093: Acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (9242552) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000009: Myxoid liposarcoma N Y (9315104) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000093: Acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (9315104) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000009: Myxoid liposarcoma N Y (9676855) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000041: Round cell liposarcoma N Y (9676855) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000039: Liposarcoma (well-differentiated) N Y (9676855) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000037: Pleomorphic liposarcoma N Y (9676855) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000009: Myxoid liposarcoma N Y (10347549) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000104: Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma N Y (11063972) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000009: Myxoid liposarcoma N Y (11162437) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000010: Myxoid well-differentiated liposarcoma N Y (11229517) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) N
D00000005: Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma N Y (12915480) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000005: Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma N Y (15139001) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000005: Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma N Y (15640831) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000037: Pleomorphic liposarcoma N Y (15720420) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000087: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia N Y (16263589) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000005: Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma N Y (16287497) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) N
D00000093: Acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (16303180) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000013: Myxoid oral liposarcoma N Y (16414544) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000101: Paediatric acute myelocytic leukaemia N Y (16737920) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y
D00000005: Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma N Y (16931951) Translocation fusion (with another gene) (TF) Y

References

  • Molecular detection of FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens.

    Matsuyama A, Hisaoka M, Shimajiri S, Hayashi T, Imamura T, Ishida T, Fukunaga M, Fukuhara T, Minato H, Nakajima T, Yonezawa S, Kuroda M, Yamasaki F, Toyoshima S and Hashimoto H

    Department of Pathology and Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.

    A diagnosis of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) remains problematic because of its bland-looking histologic features that can be potentially confused with other benign or low-grade fibromyxoid lesions. Recent cytogenetic and molecular analyses have shown that most LGFMSs have a characteristic chromosomal abnormality, t(7;16)(q33;p11), resulting in the FUS-CREB3L2 fusion gene. However, such assays have only rarely been used to analyze formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples. In the present study, we conducted a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay to detect the FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue specimens from 16 LGFMSs including 3 cases with giant collagen rosettes. The primers were newly designed to specifically amplify most of the junctional regions of the FUS-CREB3L2 fusion gene transcripts previously reported. The FUS-CREB3L2 fusion gene transcripts were detected in 14/16 (88%) cases of LGFMS. A nucleotide sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed that different portions of the FUS exon 6 or 7 were fused with various sites of the CREB3L2 exon 5, resulting in 12 different nucleotide sequences. We also tested a primer set to detect the FUS-CREB3L1 fusion transcript, which is a rare variant of the gene fusion in LGFMS, although no PCR products were identified in any case. The FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts were not detected in any of the 123 other soft-tissue tumors, including desmoid-type fibromatoses, myxofibrosarcomas, soft-tissue perineuriomas, and congenital or adult fibrosarcomas. These data suggest that our reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay is a reliable method to detect FUS-CREB3L2, which can thus help in accurately diagnosing LGFMS.

    The American journal of surgical pathology 2006;30;9;1077-84

  • ELF4 is fused to ERG in a case of acute myeloid leukemia with a t(X;21)(q25-26;q22).

    Moore SD, Offor O, Ferry JA, Amrein PC, Morton CC and Dal Cin P

    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    We report a novel chromosomal translocation in AML, t(X;21)(q25-26;q22), resulting in a fusion transcript between two ETS domain family members, ELF4 (at Xq25) and ERG (at 21q22). ERG has been associated previously with other fusion partners, specifically FUS and EWSR1, and implicated in both AML and Ewing's sarcoma. RT-PCR analysis of RNA isolated from bone marrow samples from the patient demonstrates that the translocation occurs within intron 1 of ERG isoform 1 (ERG-1) and intron 2 of ELF4 resulting in an in-frame fusion joining exon 2 from ELF4 with exon 2 of ERG. This is the first reported case of an ELF4-ERG fusion and identification of the specific ERG exon involved in the fusion that differentiates ERG isoforms. In addition, this case also directly implicates a new role for ELF4 in cancer.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA006516

    Leukemia research 2006;30;8;1037-42

  • Unusual type of TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric transcript in a pediatric acute myelocytic leukemia with 47,XX,+10,t(16;21)(p11;q22).

    Choi HW, Shin MG, Sawyer JR, Cho D, Kee SJ, Baek HJ, Kook H, Kim HJ, Shin JH, Suh SP, Hwang TJ and Ryang DW

    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Ilsimri-160, Hwasun-eup, Hwasun-gun, South Korea 519-809.

    We report on a case of pediatric acute myelocytic leukemia showing 47,XX,+10,t(16;21)(p11;q22) that resulted in an unusual TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric transcript. The leukemic cells showed erythrophagocytosis, positive reactions for myeloperoxidase and Sudan black B stains, and negative reactions for periodic acid-Schiff and alpha-naphtyl butyrate esterase stains as well as expression of myeloid antigens. We also confirmed a very rare type of TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric transcript by fusion of the 5' part of the TLS/FUS gene in chromosome 16p11 and the 3' part of the ERG gene in chromosome 21q22 using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. After achieving a complete remission with two cycles of induction chemotherapy, the patient received an umbilical cord blood transplantation.

    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 2006;167;2;172-6

  • Detection of TLS/FUS-CHOP fusion transcripts in a case of oral liposarcoma.

    Rivero ER, Mesquita RA, de Sousa SC and Nunes FD

    Department of Oral Pathology, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, 05508-900 São Paulo, Brazil.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to detect the chromosomal translocation t(12;16)(q13;p11) that leads to a gene fusion encoding a FUS-CHOP chimeric protein and has been shown to be highly characteristic of myxoid and round cell subtypes of liposarcoma, in a case of oral myxoid liposarcoma.

    Nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to detect the TLS/FUS-CHOP fusion gene transcript was performed. A case of inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia and a case of oral lipoma were included as negative controls.

    Results: Only the myxoid oral liposarcoma showed a 103-base pair product, specific of TLS/FUS-CHOP fusion type II transcript.

    Conclusion: The identification of FUS-CHOP transcript is potentially useful in the diagnosis and research of oral liposarcomas.

    Annals of diagnostic pathology 2006;10;1;36-8

  • Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma arising in the big toe.

    Kusumi T, Nishikawa S, Tanaka M, Ogawa T, Jin H, Sato F, Toh S, Hasegawa T and Kijima H

    Department of Pathology, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan. kusumito@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare tumor. Reported herein is a case of LGFMS arising in the big toe. The patient was a 58-year-old man who underwent excision of the tumor. The tumor was well-demarcated. Histologically, there were proliferating spindle-shaped tumor cells arranged in a whorled growth pattern, and the stroma showed hyalinized collagen bundles and a myxoid matrix. Nuclear mitotic figures were conspicuous in part. A large rosette-like structure with hyalinized stroma was found, which is characteristic of LGFMS. The differential diagnosis included tumor occurrence in adults; tending to arise in distal extremities; and having bland fibromyxoid histological features, such as fibroma of tendon sheath, low-grade myxofibrosarcoma and acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma. It was not possible to detect the FUS/CREB3L2 and FUS/CREB3L1 fusion genes from the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue, although the histological features of the present case were typical of LGFMS. LGFMS may become more common with time, and unique cases may accumulate.

    Pathology international 2005;55;12;802-6

  • TLS/FUS-ERG fusion gene in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with t(16;21)(p11;q22) and monitoring of minimal residual disease.

    Kanazawa T, Ogawa C, Taketani T, Taki T, Hayashi Y and Morikawa A

    Department of Pediatrics and Developmental Medicine, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan. tkanazaw@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp

    This study reports a 1-year-old boy with precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) carrying t(16;21)(p11;q22). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct sequence analysis showed TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric mRNA with a novel junctional pattern of exon 7 of TLS/FUS and exon 6 of ERG. He did not respond to ALL-oriented therapy. Complete remission (CR) was achieved by chemotherapy oriented for acute myeloid leukemia. Allogenic bone marrow transplantation was done and he has been in CR for 24 months. TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric mRNA was not detected after CR. This is the first report of an ALL patient with a TLS/FUS-ERG fusion transcript.

    Leukemia & lymphoma 2005;46;12;1833-5

  • Clinicopathologic and molecular genetic characterization of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, and cloning of a novel FUS/CREB3L1 fusion gene.

    Mertens F, Fletcher CD, Antonescu CR, Coindre JM, Colecchia M, Domanski HA, Downs-Kelly E, Fisher C, Goldblum JR, Guillou L, Reid R, Rosai J, Sciot R, Mandahl N and Panagopoulos I

    Department of Clinical Genetics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. fredrik.mertens@klingen.lu.se

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is an indolent, late-metastasizing malignant soft-tissue tumor that is often mistaken for either more benign or more malignant tumor types. Cytogenetic analyses have identified a recurrent balanced translocation t(7;16) (q32-34;p11), later shown by molecular genetic approaches to result in a FUS/CREB3L2 fusion gene. Whereas preliminary studies suggest that this gene rearrangement is specific for LGFMS, its incidence in this tumor type and the possible existence of variant fusion genes have not yet been addressed. For this purpose, a series of potential LGFMS were obtained from nine different soft-tissue tumor centres and subjected to molecular analysis as well as careful histopathologic review. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis disclosed a FUS/CREB3L2 fusion transcript in 22 of the 23 (96%) cases that remained classified as LGFMS after the histologic re-evaluation and from which RNA of sufficient quality could be extracted, whereas none of the cases that were classified as other tumor types was fusion-positive. In one of the tumors with typical LGFMS appearance, we found that FUS was fused to the CREB3L1 gene instead of CREB3L2. The proteins encoded by these genes both belong to the same basic leucine-zipper family of transcription factors, and display extensive sequence homology in their DNA-binding domains. Thus, it is expected that the novel FUS/CREB3L1 chimera will have a similar impact at the cellular level as the much more common FUS/CREB3L2 fusion protein. Taken together, the results indicate that virtually all LGFMS are characterized by a chimeric FUS/CREB3L2 gene, and that rare cases may display a variant FUS/CREB3L1 fusion.

    Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology 2005;85;3;408-15

  • Gene expression profile identifies a rare epithelioid variant case of pleomorphic liposarcoma carrying FUS-CHOP transcript.

    De Cecco L, Gariboldi M, Reid JF, Lagonigro MS, Tamborini E, Albertini V, Staurengo S, Pilotti S and Pierotti MA

    FIRC Institute for Molecular Oncology Foundation, IFOM, Milano, Italy.

    Aims: To describe a tumour with morphological and immunophenotypic characteristics of epithelioid variant of pleomorphic liposarcoma. Pleomorphic liposarcoma is a very rare variant of liposarcoma defined morphologically by the presence of pleomorphic lipoblasts showing peculiar epithelial-like features that can be confused with primary or metastatic carcinoma.

    Molecular analysis demonstrated for the first time the presence of FUS-CHOP transcript in this liposarcoma variant. Microarray analysis revealed a gene expression profile related to a more aggressive tumour type when compared with other myxoid/round cell liposarcomas.

    Conclusions: The present data show that the epithelioid variant of pleomorphic liposarcoma represents a further variant of myxoid liposarcoma sharing the FUS-CHOP fusion transcript but carrying a distinct expression profile, in keeping with its aggressive clinical course.

    Histopathology 2005;46;3;334-41

  • The chimeric FUS/CREB3l2 gene is specific for low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.

    Panagopoulos I, Storlazzi CT, Fletcher CD, Fletcher JA, Nascimento A, Domanski HA, Wejde J, Brosjö O, Rydholm A, Isaksson M, Mandahl N and Mertens F

    Department of Clinical Genetics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a variant of fibrosarcoma that was recognized as a distinct tumor entity only quite recently. We previously described a translocation, t(7;16)(q33;p11), that resulted in a fusion of the FUS and CREB3L2 (also known as BBF2H7) genes in two soft tissue tumors that fulfilled morphologic criteria for LGFMS. To delineate the spectrum of tumors that may harbor the FUS/CREB3L2 gene, we selected 45 low-grade spindle cell sarcomas for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses; none of these tumors had originally been diagnosed as LGFMS. Furthermore, also included were two benign soft tissue tumors and nine high-grade sarcomas with supernumerary ring chromosomes or 7q3 rearrangement and three tumors diagnosed as LGFMS prior to the genetic analysis. Of the 59 tumors analyzed, 12 were FUS/CREB3L2-positive, all of which were diagnosed at histopathologic re-examination as being LGFMS, of both the classical subtype and the subtype with giant collagen rosettes. The breakpoints in the fusion transcripts were always in exons 6 or 7 of FUS and exon 5 of CREB3L2. The results indicated that FUS/CREB3L2 is specifically associated with LGFMS and that RT-PCR or FISH analysis may be useful for the differential diagnosis.

    Genes, chromosomes & cancer 2004;40;3;218-28

  • Fusion of the FUS and BBF2H7 genes in low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.

    Storlazzi CT, Mertens F, Nascimento A, Isaksson M, Wejde J, Brosjo O, Mandahl N and Panagopoulos I

    Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

    The FUS gene at 16p11 fuses with DDIT3 and ATF1 as the result of translocations with chromosome band 12q13 in myxoid liposarcoma and angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma, respectively, and with ERG as the result of a t(16;21)(p11;q22) in acute myeloid leukemia. We here show that a t(7;16)(q33;p11) in two cases of low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma fuses the FUS gene to BBF2H7, a previously uncharacterized gene that is homologous to the Drosophila Bbf-2 gene. BBF2H7 spans more than 120 kbp genomic DNA, is composed of 12 exons and contains a 1560 bp open reading frame. It codes for a 519 amino acid protein that contains a basic DNA binding and leucine zipper dimerization (B-ZIP) motif, highly similar to that in the OASIS, CREB-H, CREB4 and CREB3 transcription factors, followed by a hydrophobic region predicted to be an alpha-helical transmembrane domain. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), using FUS forward and BBF2H7 reverse primers, amplified FUS/BBF2H7 chimeric transcripts composed of the first five exons and part of exon 6 of FUS and part of exon 5 and exons 6-12 of BBF2H7. The FUS/BBF2H7 chimera codes for a protein containing the N-terminus of FUS and the B-ZIP domain and the C-terminus of BBF2H7.

    Human molecular genetics 2003;12;18;2349-58

  • A novel FUS/CHOP chimera in myxoid liposarcoma.

    Panagopoulos I, Mertens F, Isaksson M and Mandahl N

    Department of Clinical Genetics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, S-221 85, Sweden. ioannis.panagopoulos@klingen.lu.se

    The cytogenetic hallmark of myxoid liposarcoma is the chromosomal aberration t(12;16)(q13;p11), which is pathognomonic for this tumor type. The translocation results in the hybrid gene FUS/CHOP, where the central and C-terminal parts of FUS, coding for the RNA binding domain and the RGG triplet motif, are replaced by the full length CHOP protein. Thus, CHOP is under the control of the FUS promoter and the FUS/CHOP chimera contains the 5'-terminal part of FUS which provides a transcriptional activation function. Although different structural variations of the FUS/CHOP chimeric transcript have been reported, none of them contains the parts of FUS encoding the RNA binding properties. An explanation is the location of the genomic breakpoint in FUS, which frequently occurs in the region spanning exon 5 to intron 8. We describe here a case of myxoid liposarcoma containing two novel FUS/CHOP chimeric transcripts and with the breakpoint occurring in intron 14 of FUS. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, using FUS forward and CHOP reverse primers, amplified strongly a 2.1-kbp DNA fragment and weakly a 0.9-kbp DNA fragment. Direct sequencing showed that in the 2.1-kbp transcript nt 1474, which corresponds to the third nucleotide of exon 14 of FUS, was in-frame fused to exon 2 of CHOP. In the 0.9-kbp DNA fragment, exon 3 of FUS was in-frame fused to exon 2 of CHOP. Genomic analyses revealed that the breaks were located at the end of exon 14/beginning of intron 14 of FUS and in intron 1 of CHOP and that microdeletions had occurred in the close vicinity of the breakpoints.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2000;279;3;838-45

  • The possibility of neurotoxicity in the hippocampus in major depression: a primer on neuron death.

    Sapolsky RM

    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, California 94305, USA.

    A number of studies indicate that prolonged, major depression is associated with a selective loss of hippocampal volume that persists long after the depression has resolved. This review is prompted by two ideas. The first is that overt neuron loss may be a contributing factor to the decrease in hippocampal volume. As such, the first half of this article reviews current knowledge about how hippocampal neurons die during insults, focusing on issues related to the trafficking of glutamate and calcium, glutamate receptor subtypes, oxygen radical generation, programmed cell death, and neuronal defenses. This is meant to orient the reader toward the biology that is likely to underlie any such instances of neuron loss in major depression. The second idea is that glucocorticoids, the adrenal steroids secreted during stress, may play a contributing role to any such neuron loss. The subtypes of depression associated with the hippocampal atrophy typically involve significant hypersecretion of glucocorticoids, and the steroid has a variety of adverse effects in the hippocampus, including causing overt neuron loss. The second half of this article reviews the steps in this cascade of hippocampal neuron death that are regulated by glucocorticoids.

    Biological psychiatry 2000;48;8;755-65

  • Specificity of TLS-CHOP rearrangement for classic myxoid/round cell liposarcoma: absence in predominantly myxoid well-differentiated liposarcomas.

    Antonescu CR, Elahi A, Humphrey M, Lui MY, Healey JH, Brennan MF, Woodruff JM, Jhanwar SC and Ladanyi M

    Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    Myxoid liposarcoma (LS), the most common subtype of LS, is known to be characterized by the specific t(12;16) resulting in a TLS-CHOP fusion in almost all cases. We wished to address the following questions: (i) Is this genetic hallmark also present in other types of LS with predominant myxoid change? (ii) What is the proportion of cases with the variant EWS-CHOP fusion? (iii) What is the optimal approach for Southern blot detection of TLS breakpoints? We identified 59 LS characterized histologically by >90% myxoid component, in which frozen tissue tumor was available for DNA extraction. These 59 LS with myxoid features were divided into 2 groups: 42 LS with classic myxoid/round cell appearance (myxoid LS) and 17 well-differentiated LS (WDLS) with a predominant (>90%) myxoid component. Within the myxoid LS group, 29 tumors were low grade and 13 high grade (>20% round cell component). Among the 17 predominantly myxoid WDLS, there were 15 low grade and 2 focally high grade tumors. In addition, we selected as control group, 20 LS of other histological types with minimal or no myxoid change (17 WDLS and 3 pleomorphic LS) and 13 myxofibrosarcomas. Southern blot analysis was performed in all cases using a CHOP cDNA probe, and in all CHOP rearranged cases using a TLS cDNA probe. Probe/enzyme combinations for Southern blot analysis were CHOP exon 3-4 cDNA probe with BamHI or SacI, TLS exon 3-6 cDNA probe with BclI. All 42 cases of myxoid LS showed a CHOP rearrangement and 38 of them also had a TLS rearrangement. Among the 4 myxoid LS without Southern blot evidence of TLS rearrangement, 1 showed an EWS-CHOP fusion by Southern blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in another case, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction detected a TLS-CHOP fusion transcript. None of the predominantly myxoid WDLS and none of the tumors included in the control group showed rearranegements with CHOP probe. In addition, 12 predominantly myxoid WDLS, 10 other LS, and 5 myxofibrosarcoma from the control group were also tested for TLS rearrangement; all were negative. The TLS-CHOP fusion is highly sensitive and specific for the entity of classic myxoid/round cell LS. Other types of LS, even with a predominant myxoid component, lack the TLS-CHOP rearrangement, confirming that they represent a genetically distinct group of LS. The prevalence of the EWS-CHOP variant fusion was approximately 2% in this series. The optimal enzyme for TLS genomic breakpoint detection is BclI.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA47179, P01 CA047179

    The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD 2000;2;3;132-8

  • A rare chimeric TLS/FUS-CHOP transcript in a patient with multiple liposarcomas: a case report.

    Schneider-Stock R, Rys J, Walter H, Limon J, Iliszko M, Niezabitowski A and Roessner A

    Department of Pathology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.

    Myxoid liposarcomas harbor a unique and specific t(12;16)(q13,p11) chromosomal translocation. The breakpoint has recently been identified, and involvement of the TLS/FUS gene on chromosome 16 and the CHOP gene on chromosome 12 was demonstrated. We report a case of a 45-year-old woman who developed multiple malignant lipomatous tumors of unknown origin and myxoid/round cell histology at different locations. To examine the diagnostic potential of this translocation and to develop a hypothesis on the origin of the tumors, we used cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic methods (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR). We identified a chimeric RNA transcript in the second recurrence in the thigh/groin, as well as in another tumor in the mediastinum, which has an additional sequence of 33 bp, known as fusion transcript type III. Cytogenetic analysis of another tumor in retroperitoneal space revealed a rare type of unbalanced translocation der(16)t(12;16). We hypothesize that these tumors are metastases rather than multicentric tumors. The detection of the chimeric message in the present case is not only useful for differential diagnosis, but also for analyzing the origin of multiple neoplasms.

    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 1999;111;2;130-3

  • Analysis of FUS-CHOP fusion transcripts in different types of soft tissue liposarcoma and their diagnostic implications.

    Willeke F, Ridder R, Mechtersheimer G, Schwarzbach M, Duwe A, Weitz J, Lehnert T, Herfarth C and von Knebel Doeberitz M

    Department of Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Germany. frank_willeke@ukl.uni-heidelberg.de

    In myxoid and round cell liposarcomas, a specific chromosomal translocation [(12;16)(q13;p11)] results in the expression of chimeric fusion transcripts encompassing parts of the FUS gene (16p11) at their 5' ends and the CHOP gene (12q13) at their 3' ends. Using a reverse transcription-PCR protocol, we determined the prevalence of FUS-CHOP fusion transcripts in a series of liposarcoma samples. Fusion transcripts were detected in 13 of 30 biopsy samples from soft tissue liposarcomas. Expression of fusion transcripts was not restricted to myxoid and round cell liposarcomas, as suggested previously; it was also detected in 1 of 3 well-differentiated and 4 of 14 pleomorphic liposarcomas. Sequence analysis revealed four different FUS-CHOP fusion transcript variants, two of which have not been described before. Furthermore, using FUS-CHOP fusion transcripts as targets in reverse transcription-PCR assays, we detected disseminated tumor cells in peripheral blood or bone marrow in 3 of 5 patients undergoing surgery for soft tissue liposarcoma.

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 1998;4;7;1779-84

  • Characteristic sequence motifs at the breakpoints of the hybrid genes FUS/CHOP, EWS/CHOP and FUS/ERG in myxoid liposarcoma and acute myeloid leukemia.

    Panagopoulos I, Lassen C, Isaksson M, Mitelman F, Mandahl N and Aman P

    Department of Clinical Genetics, Lund University Hospital, Sweden.

    We have sequenced the breakpoint regions in one acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(16;21)(p11;q22) resulting in the formation of a FUS/ERG hybrid gene and in four myxoid liposarcomas (MLS), three of which had the translocation t(12;16) (q13;p11) and a FUS/CHOP fusion gene and one with t(12;22;20)(q13;q12;q11) and an EWS/CHOP hybrid gene. The breakpoints were localized to intron 7 of FUS, intron 1 of CHOP, an intronic sequence of ERG and intron 7 of EWS. In two MLS cases with t(12;16) and in the AML, the breaks in intron 7 of FUS had occurred close to each other, a few nucleotides downstream from a TG dinucleotide repeat region. The break in the two MLS had occurred in the same ATGGTG hexamer and in the AML 40 nucleotides upstream from the hexamer. The third case of t(12;16) MLS had a break upstream and near a TC-dinucleotide repeat region and a sequence similar to the chi bacterial recombination element was found to flank the breakpoint. In the MLS with the EWS/ CHOP hybrid gene, the break in intron 7 of EWS had occurred close to an Alu sequence. Similarly, in all 4 MLS, the breaks in intron 1 of CHOP were near an Alu sequence. No Alu or other repetitive sequences were found 250 bp upstream or downstream from the break in the ERG intron involved in the AML case. In the AML, the MLS with ESW/CHOP and in one MLS with FUS/CHOP there were one, two and six, respectively, nucleotide identity between the contributing germline sequences in the breakpoint. In the other two MLS cases, two and three extra nucleotides of unknown origin were inserted between the FUS and CHOP sequences. At the junction and/or in its close vicinity, identical oligomers, frequently containing a trinucleotide TGG, were found in both partner genes. Our data thus show that all four genes-FUS, EWS, CHOP and ERG-contain characteristic motifs in the breakpoint regions which may serve as specific recognition sites for DNA-binding proteins and have functional importance in the recombination events taking place between the chromosomes. Different sequence motifs may, however, play a role in each individual case.

    Oncogene 1997;15;11;1357-62

  • Consistent detection of TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric transcripts in acute myeloid leukemia with t(16;21)(p11;q22) and identification of a novel transcript.

    Kong XT, Ida K, Ichikawa H, Shimizu K, Ohki M, Maseki N, Kaneko Y, Sako M, Kobayashi Y, Tojou A, Miura I, Kakuda H, Funabiki T, Horibe K, Hamaguchi H, Akiyama Y, Bessho F, Yanagisawa M and Hayashi Y

    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Japan.

    16;21 translocation is a recurrent primary abnormality in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The genes involved in this translocation are ERG on chromosome 21 and TLS/FUS on chromosome 16. The rearrangement of the two chromosomes forms the TLS/FUS-ERG fusion gene and produces a consistent chimeric transcript on the der (21) chromosome. In this study, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of 19 patients with t(16;21)-AML, including 2 patients who evolved from myelodysplastic syndrome, and detected the chimeric transcripts of the TLS/FUS-ERG fusion gene in the patients during various clinical stages by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. We found that the patients with t(16;21) are characterized by a relatively younger age (median age, 22 years old), involvement of various subtypes of French-American-British classification and a poor prognosis: 18 of the 19 patients died of the disease (median survival was 16 months). Four types of TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric transcripts including a novel type were noted in the RT-PCR analysis. The novel transcript contained an additional 138 nucleotides consisting of TLS/FUS exon 8 and ERG exons 7 and 8 and had an in-frame fusion. These chimeric transcripts were consistently detectable in the samples obtained not only at diagnosis and relapse but also in short and long complete remission, suggesting that t(16;21)-AML is resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Thus, we recommend that t(16;21) should be monitored by RT-PCR even in clinical remission and the patients should be treated by other more powerful modality like stem-cell transplantation in the first remission.

    Blood 1997;90;3;1192-9

  • FUS/TLS-CHOP chimeric transcripts in liposarcoma tissues.

    Yang X, Nagasaki K, Egawa S, Maruyama K, Futami H, Tsukada T, Yokoyama R, Beppu Y, Fukuma H, Shimoda T et al.

    Growth Factor Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo.

    Myxoid liposarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) are common soft tissue sarcomas of adulthood. Histopathologically they often show intratumor heterogeneity. In some cases, differential diagnosis of liposarcoma and MFH is difficult. It has been reported that myxoid liposarcomas are characterized by chromosomal translocation t (12; 16) (q13; p11), and that this results in two types (type I and type II) of FUS/TLS-CHOP fusion transcripts. In this study, the FUS/TLS-CHOP chimeric transcripts in seven malignant soft tissue tumors of Asian patients were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, DNA blot hybridization and nucleotide sequencing. One myxoid liposarcoma and two round cell liposarcomas possessed a chimeric transcript whose fusion point was the same as that of the type I fusion transcript reported previously for myxoid liposarcoma. We were thus able to detect the type I FUS/TLS-CHOP fusion transcript in clinical specimens of liposarcoma from Asian patients, including the first examples of round cell liposarcoma. These results suggest that the detection of FUS/TLS-CHOP chimeric transcripts or chimeric genes can be used as a diagnostic tool for the pathological diagnosis of liposarcomas.

    Japanese journal of clinical oncology 1995;25;6;234-9

  • Chimeric TLS/FUS-CHOP gene expression and the heterogeneity of its junction in human myxoid and round cell liposarcoma.

    Kuroda M, Ishida T, Horiuchi H, Kida N, Uozaki H, Takeuchi H, Tsuji K, Imamura T, Mori S, Machinami R et al.

    Department of Pathology, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Myxoid liposarcomas have a unique and specific t(12;16)q13;p11) chromosomal translocation. The breakpoint has recently been identified and shown to involve the TLS/FUS gene on chromosome 16 and the CHOP gene on chromosome 12. This translocation causes fusion of these genes resulting in the expression of a novel chimeric TLS/FUS-CHOP message. Using the polymerase chain reaction with primer sets derived from sequences of TLS/FUS and CHOP cDNAs, we could amplify three types of the fusion transcripts from seven of seven samples of myxoid and round cell liposarcomas. In six of the seven positive samples, two kinds of chimeric messenger RNAs were found that have been reported previously. However, the last sample had a novel chimeric message that had an extra sequence of 33 bp derived from the TLS/FUS gene. Thus, it was shown that these fusion transcripts had a varying extent of the sequence of TLS/FUS gene incorporated at the site of the fusion. However, the TLS/FUS-CHOP fusion transcripts were not detected in two pleomorphic liposarcomas or in three myxoid variants of malignant fibrous histiocytomas. Our findings indicate that in liposarcomas TLS/FUS-CHOP fusion transcripts have variations at the junction of chimeric messages, which was the case for Ewing's sarcoma. Detection of the chimeric message by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was also suggested to be a useful approach for the diagnosis of myxoid and round cell liposarcomas that have (12;16) translocation, and for distinguishing them from pleomorphic liposarcoma and myxoid variant of malignant fibrous histiocytomas.

    The American journal of pathology 1995;147;5;1221-7

  • Two distinct FUS breakpoint clusters in myxoid liposarcoma and acute myeloid leukemia with the translocations t(12;16) and t(16;21).

    Panagopoulos I, Mandahl N, Mitelman F and Aman P

    Department of Clinical Genetics, Lund University Hospital, Sweden.

    The FUS gene, which maps to 16p11, is fused to the CHOP gene in the t(12;16) (q13;p11) that characterizes myxoid liposarcomas (MLS) and to the ERG gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(16;21) (p11;q22). In the present study we have mapped the breakpoints within FUS in 13 MLS with t(12;16) and in one AML with t(16;21). This region of FUS is about 3.9 kb and contains four exons. The breakpoints clustered to two zones (1 and 2). A strong association was found between the two known types of FUS/CHOP transcripts and the genomic localization of the breakpoints. In all cases expressing only type I or both type I and II FUS/CHOP transcript the genomic breakpoints mapped to zone 1. In all cases expressing only the type II transcript the breakpoints occurred in zone 2. The breakpoint in the AML case was in zone 1, suggesting that in-frame fusion transcripts are selected by similar mechanisms in both MLS and AML.

    Oncogene 1995;11;6;1133-7

  • Translocation t(12;16)(q13;p11) in myxoid liposarcoma and round cell liposarcoma: molecular and cytogenetic analysis.

    Knight JC, Renwick PJ, Dal Cin P, Van den Berghe H and Fletcher CD

    Department of Histopathology, U.M.D.S. St. Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

    Translocation t(12;16)(q13;p11) is regarded as a diagnostic marker for myxoid liposarcoma. Cytogenetic data on round cell liposarcomas and combined myxoid and round cell tumors is scarce, and the genetic basis of progression of myxoid tumors to high grade, round cell lesions is unknown. We have accumulated six round cell, four combined myxoid and round cell, and three myxoid liposarcomas for analysis. t(12;16)(q13;p11) was present in three round cell lesions and was detectable in all of the tumors by DNA analysis. In each tumor type, the CHOP gene in 12q13 was rearranged and fused to the TLS gene in 16p11. A variant TLS-CHOP RNA transcript was detected by polymerase chain reaction but did not correlate with clinicopathological data. No distinguishing cytogenetic or molecular markers for round cell or mixed lesions were found. The histogenic and genetic relatedness of myxoid and round cell liposarcomas is apparent from these data.

    Cancer research 1995;55;1;24-7

  • Characterization of the CHOP breakpoints and fusion transcripts in myxoid liposarcomas with the 12;16 translocation.

    Panagopoulos I, Mandahl N, Ron D, Höglund M, Nilbert M, Mertens F, Mitelman F and Aman P

    Department of Clinical Genetics, Lund University Hospital, Sweden.

    Myxoid liposarcomas are cytogenetically characterized by t(12;16)(q13;p11). The translocation results in rearrangements of the CHOP gene in 12q13 and the FUS gene in 16p11, creating a fusion gene where the RNA-binding domain of FUS is replaced by the DNA-binding and leucine zipper dimerization domain of CHOP. In the present study, we have mapped 16 genomic breakpoints in the region of the CHOP gene and isolated and sequenced a new variant (type II) of the chimeric FUS/CHOP transcript. The genomic breakpoints were dispersed along a 7.50-kilobase pair region from a SstI cleavage site upstream of the promoter of CHOP to a PstI cleavage site within intron 1. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of tumor samples demonstrated the presence of two variant fragments, 654 base pairs (type I) and 378 base pairs (type II) in size. Of the 13 samples analyzed, 7 showed the smaller, 3 showed the larger, and 3 showed both types of transcripts. We cloned and sequenced the two fragments and found in type II a novel fusion point in the FUS mRNA 275 base pairs upstream of that present in the type I transcript. In both types of transcripts the interrupted FUS is followed by the entire exon 2 of CHOP. As a consequence the normally nontranslated exon 2 is translated and in both types there is in the junction between FUS and CHOP a shift from a FUS glycine codon to a valine codon in the chimeric mRNA.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA60945

    Cancer research 1994;54;24;6500-3

  • Fusion of the FUS gene with ERG in acute myeloid leukemia with t(16;21)(p11;q22).

    Panagopoulos I, Aman P, Fioretos T, Höglund M, Johansson B, Mandahl N, Heim S, Behrendtz M and Mitelman F

    Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

    It has been shown that the gene ERG in 21q22 is rearranged in the t(16;21)(p11;q22) associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). ERG is a member of the ETS gene family and is fused with EWS in a subset of Ewing's sarcomas. EWS in 22q12 has a very high homology with FUS (also called TLS) in 16p11; the latter gene is rearranged in the t(12;16)(q13;p11) that characterizes myxoid liposarcoma. To investigate whether FUS is involved in the t(16;21) of AML, we used the Southern blot technique and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to examine the bone marrow of a 3-year-old boy with a t(16;21)(p11;q22)-positive AML. Hybridization of Southern blot filters containing digested DNA with probes for FUS and ERG showed both germline and aberrant fragments. Using specific primers for the 5' part of FUS and the 3' part of ERG, we amplified a 4.4 kb genomic FUS/ERG DNA fragment from the leukemic sample. In a second PCR experiment, in which we used primers upstream of the 5' part of ERG and downstream of the 3' part of FUS, a 5.6 kb fragment was amplified. Blotting and hybridization with specific probes for FUS and ERG revealed that the amplified fragments consisted of FUS/ERG and ERG/FUS hybrid DNA. Both PCR fragments, when used as probes, detected germline ERG and FUS as well as aberrant fragments on Southern blot filters. The results suggest that the t(16;21) in AML leads to rearrangement and fusion of the FUS and ERG genes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Genes, chromosomes & cancer 1994;11;4;256-62

  • Fusion of the dominant negative transcription regulator CHOP with a novel gene FUS by translocation t(12;16) in malignant liposarcoma.

    Rabbitts TH, Forster A, Larson R and Nathan P

    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.

    The search for tumour-specific markers is one of the chief goals in cancer biology. We show that the translocation t(12;16)(q13:p11) in malignant myxoid liposarcoma can be a fusion of the CHOP dominant negative transcription factor gene with a novel gene, FUS, which can result in fusion of the FUS glycine-rich protein with the whole CHOP coding region. The data support the concept that protein fusion may commonly occur in solid tumours resulting in tumour-specific markers of potential clinical importance. The data also indicate the importance of transcription disruption in the pathogenesis of solid tumours.

    Nature genetics 1993;4;2;175-80

Literature (91)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • Molecular detection of FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens.

    Matsuyama A, Hisaoka M, Shimajiri S, Hayashi T, Imamura T, Ishida T, Fukunaga M, Fukuhara T, Minato H, Nakajima T, Yonezawa S, Kuroda M, Yamasaki F, Toyoshima S and Hashimoto H

    Department of Pathology and Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.

    A diagnosis of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) remains problematic because of its bland-looking histologic features that can be potentially confused with other benign or low-grade fibromyxoid lesions. Recent cytogenetic and molecular analyses have shown that most LGFMSs have a characteristic chromosomal abnormality, t(7;16)(q33;p11), resulting in the FUS-CREB3L2 fusion gene. However, such assays have only rarely been used to analyze formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples. In the present study, we conducted a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay to detect the FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue specimens from 16 LGFMSs including 3 cases with giant collagen rosettes. The primers were newly designed to specifically amplify most of the junctional regions of the FUS-CREB3L2 fusion gene transcripts previously reported. The FUS-CREB3L2 fusion gene transcripts were detected in 14/16 (88%) cases of LGFMS. A nucleotide sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed that different portions of the FUS exon 6 or 7 were fused with various sites of the CREB3L2 exon 5, resulting in 12 different nucleotide sequences. We also tested a primer set to detect the FUS-CREB3L1 fusion transcript, which is a rare variant of the gene fusion in LGFMS, although no PCR products were identified in any case. The FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts were not detected in any of the 123 other soft-tissue tumors, including desmoid-type fibromatoses, myxofibrosarcomas, soft-tissue perineuriomas, and congenital or adult fibrosarcomas. These data suggest that our reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay is a reliable method to detect FUS-CREB3L2, which can thus help in accurately diagnosing LGFMS.

    The American journal of surgical pathology 2006;30;9;1077-84

  • ELF4 is fused to ERG in a case of acute myeloid leukemia with a t(X;21)(q25-26;q22).

    Moore SD, Offor O, Ferry JA, Amrein PC, Morton CC and Dal Cin P

    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    We report a novel chromosomal translocation in AML, t(X;21)(q25-26;q22), resulting in a fusion transcript between two ETS domain family members, ELF4 (at Xq25) and ERG (at 21q22). ERG has been associated previously with other fusion partners, specifically FUS and EWSR1, and implicated in both AML and Ewing's sarcoma. RT-PCR analysis of RNA isolated from bone marrow samples from the patient demonstrates that the translocation occurs within intron 1 of ERG isoform 1 (ERG-1) and intron 2 of ELF4 resulting in an in-frame fusion joining exon 2 from ELF4 with exon 2 of ERG. This is the first reported case of an ELF4-ERG fusion and identification of the specific ERG exon involved in the fusion that differentiates ERG isoforms. In addition, this case also directly implicates a new role for ELF4 in cancer.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA006516

    Leukemia research 2006;30;8;1037-42

  • Unusual type of TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric transcript in a pediatric acute myelocytic leukemia with 47,XX,+10,t(16;21)(p11;q22).

    Choi HW, Shin MG, Sawyer JR, Cho D, Kee SJ, Baek HJ, Kook H, Kim HJ, Shin JH, Suh SP, Hwang TJ and Ryang DW

    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Ilsimri-160, Hwasun-eup, Hwasun-gun, South Korea 519-809.

    We report on a case of pediatric acute myelocytic leukemia showing 47,XX,+10,t(16;21)(p11;q22) that resulted in an unusual TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric transcript. The leukemic cells showed erythrophagocytosis, positive reactions for myeloperoxidase and Sudan black B stains, and negative reactions for periodic acid-Schiff and alpha-naphtyl butyrate esterase stains as well as expression of myeloid antigens. We also confirmed a very rare type of TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric transcript by fusion of the 5' part of the TLS/FUS gene in chromosome 16p11 and the 3' part of the ERG gene in chromosome 21q22 using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. After achieving a complete remission with two cycles of induction chemotherapy, the patient received an umbilical cord blood transplantation.

    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 2006;167;2;172-6

  • Detection of TLS/FUS-CHOP fusion transcripts in a case of oral liposarcoma.

    Rivero ER, Mesquita RA, de Sousa SC and Nunes FD

    Department of Oral Pathology, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, 05508-900 São Paulo, Brazil.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to detect the chromosomal translocation t(12;16)(q13;p11) that leads to a gene fusion encoding a FUS-CHOP chimeric protein and has been shown to be highly characteristic of myxoid and round cell subtypes of liposarcoma, in a case of oral myxoid liposarcoma.

    Nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to detect the TLS/FUS-CHOP fusion gene transcript was performed. A case of inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia and a case of oral lipoma were included as negative controls.

    Results: Only the myxoid oral liposarcoma showed a 103-base pair product, specific of TLS/FUS-CHOP fusion type II transcript.

    Conclusion: The identification of FUS-CHOP transcript is potentially useful in the diagnosis and research of oral liposarcomas.

    Annals of diagnostic pathology 2006;10;1;36-8

  • Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma arising in the big toe.

    Kusumi T, Nishikawa S, Tanaka M, Ogawa T, Jin H, Sato F, Toh S, Hasegawa T and Kijima H

    Department of Pathology, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan. kusumito@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare tumor. Reported herein is a case of LGFMS arising in the big toe. The patient was a 58-year-old man who underwent excision of the tumor. The tumor was well-demarcated. Histologically, there were proliferating spindle-shaped tumor cells arranged in a whorled growth pattern, and the stroma showed hyalinized collagen bundles and a myxoid matrix. Nuclear mitotic figures were conspicuous in part. A large rosette-like structure with hyalinized stroma was found, which is characteristic of LGFMS. The differential diagnosis included tumor occurrence in adults; tending to arise in distal extremities; and having bland fibromyxoid histological features, such as fibroma of tendon sheath, low-grade myxofibrosarcoma and acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma. It was not possible to detect the FUS/CREB3L2 and FUS/CREB3L1 fusion genes from the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue, although the histological features of the present case were typical of LGFMS. LGFMS may become more common with time, and unique cases may accumulate.

    Pathology international 2005;55;12;802-6

  • TLS/FUS-ERG fusion gene in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with t(16;21)(p11;q22) and monitoring of minimal residual disease.

    Kanazawa T, Ogawa C, Taketani T, Taki T, Hayashi Y and Morikawa A

    Department of Pediatrics and Developmental Medicine, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan. tkanazaw@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp

    This study reports a 1-year-old boy with precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) carrying t(16;21)(p11;q22). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct sequence analysis showed TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric mRNA with a novel junctional pattern of exon 7 of TLS/FUS and exon 6 of ERG. He did not respond to ALL-oriented therapy. Complete remission (CR) was achieved by chemotherapy oriented for acute myeloid leukemia. Allogenic bone marrow transplantation was done and he has been in CR for 24 months. TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric mRNA was not detected after CR. This is the first report of an ALL patient with a TLS/FUS-ERG fusion transcript.

    Leukemia & lymphoma 2005;46;12;1833-5

  • Clinicopathologic and molecular genetic characterization of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, and cloning of a novel FUS/CREB3L1 fusion gene.

    Mertens F, Fletcher CD, Antonescu CR, Coindre JM, Colecchia M, Domanski HA, Downs-Kelly E, Fisher C, Goldblum JR, Guillou L, Reid R, Rosai J, Sciot R, Mandahl N and Panagopoulos I

    Department of Clinical Genetics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. fredrik.mertens@klingen.lu.se

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is an indolent, late-metastasizing malignant soft-tissue tumor that is often mistaken for either more benign or more malignant tumor types. Cytogenetic analyses have identified a recurrent balanced translocation t(7;16) (q32-34;p11), later shown by molecular genetic approaches to result in a FUS/CREB3L2 fusion gene. Whereas preliminary studies suggest that this gene rearrangement is specific for LGFMS, its incidence in this tumor type and the possible existence of variant fusion genes have not yet been addressed. For this purpose, a series of potential LGFMS were obtained from nine different soft-tissue tumor centres and subjected to molecular analysis as well as careful histopathologic review. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis disclosed a FUS/CREB3L2 fusion transcript in 22 of the 23 (96%) cases that remained classified as LGFMS after the histologic re-evaluation and from which RNA of sufficient quality could be extracted, whereas none of the cases that were classified as other tumor types was fusion-positive. In one of the tumors with typical LGFMS appearance, we found that FUS was fused to the CREB3L1 gene instead of CREB3L2. The proteins encoded by these genes both belong to the same basic leucine-zipper family of transcription factors, and display extensive sequence homology in their DNA-binding domains. Thus, it is expected that the novel FUS/CREB3L1 chimera will have a similar impact at the cellular level as the much more common FUS/CREB3L2 fusion protein. Taken together, the results indicate that virtually all LGFMS are characterized by a chimeric FUS/CREB3L2 gene, and that rare cases may display a variant FUS/CREB3L1 fusion.

    Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology 2005;85;3;408-15

  • Gene expression profile identifies a rare epithelioid variant case of pleomorphic liposarcoma carrying FUS-CHOP transcript.

    De Cecco L, Gariboldi M, Reid JF, Lagonigro MS, Tamborini E, Albertini V, Staurengo S, Pilotti S and Pierotti MA

    FIRC Institute for Molecular Oncology Foundation, IFOM, Milano, Italy.

    Aims: To describe a tumour with morphological and immunophenotypic characteristics of epithelioid variant of pleomorphic liposarcoma. Pleomorphic liposarcoma is a very rare variant of liposarcoma defined morphologically by the presence of pleomorphic lipoblasts showing peculiar epithelial-like features that can be confused with primary or metastatic carcinoma.

    Molecular analysis demonstrated for the first time the presence of FUS-CHOP transcript in this liposarcoma variant. Microarray analysis revealed a gene expression profile related to a more aggressive tumour type when compared with other myxoid/round cell liposarcomas.

    Conclusions: The present data show that the epithelioid variant of pleomorphic liposarcoma represents a further variant of myxoid liposarcoma sharing the FUS-CHOP fusion transcript but carrying a distinct expression profile, in keeping with its aggressive clinical course.

    Histopathology 2005;46;3;334-41

  • The chimeric FUS/CREB3l2 gene is specific for low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.

    Panagopoulos I, Storlazzi CT, Fletcher CD, Fletcher JA, Nascimento A, Domanski HA, Wejde J, Brosjö O, Rydholm A, Isaksson M, Mandahl N and Mertens F

    Department of Clinical Genetics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a variant of fibrosarcoma that was recognized as a distinct tumor entity only quite recently. We previously described a translocation, t(7;16)(q33;p11), that resulted in a fusion of the FUS and CREB3L2 (also known as BBF2H7) genes in two soft tissue tumors that fulfilled morphologic criteria for LGFMS. To delineate the spectrum of tumors that may harbor the FUS/CREB3L2 gene, we selected 45 low-grade spindle cell sarcomas for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses; none of these tumors had originally been diagnosed as LGFMS. Furthermore, also included were two benign soft tissue tumors and nine high-grade sarcomas with supernumerary ring chromosomes or 7q3 rearrangement and three tumors diagnosed as LGFMS prior to the genetic analysis. Of the 59 tumors analyzed, 12 were FUS/CREB3L2-positive, all of which were diagnosed at histopathologic re-examination as being LGFMS, of both the classical subtype and the subtype with giant collagen rosettes. The breakpoints in the fusion transcripts were always in exons 6 or 7 of FUS and exon 5 of CREB3L2. The results indicated that FUS/CREB3L2 is specifically associated with LGFMS and that RT-PCR or FISH analysis may be useful for the differential diagnosis.

    Genes, chromosomes & cancer 2004;40;3;218-28

  • A novel FUS/CHOP chimera in myxoid liposarcoma.

    Panagopoulos I, Mertens F, Isaksson M and Mandahl N

    Department of Clinical Genetics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, S-221 85, Sweden. ioannis.panagopoulos@klingen.lu.se

    The cytogenetic hallmark of myxoid liposarcoma is the chromosomal aberration t(12;16)(q13;p11), which is pathognomonic for this tumor type. The translocation results in the hybrid gene FUS/CHOP, where the central and C-terminal parts of FUS, coding for the RNA binding domain and the RGG triplet motif, are replaced by the full length CHOP protein. Thus, CHOP is under the control of the FUS promoter and the FUS/CHOP chimera contains the 5'-terminal part of FUS which provides a transcriptional activation function. Although different structural variations of the FUS/CHOP chimeric transcript have been reported, none of them contains the parts of FUS encoding the RNA binding properties. An explanation is the location of the genomic breakpoint in FUS, which frequently occurs in the region spanning exon 5 to intron 8. We describe here a case of myxoid liposarcoma containing two novel FUS/CHOP chimeric transcripts and with the breakpoint occurring in intron 14 of FUS. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, using FUS forward and CHOP reverse primers, amplified strongly a 2.1-kbp DNA fragment and weakly a 0.9-kbp DNA fragment. Direct sequencing showed that in the 2.1-kbp transcript nt 1474, which corresponds to the third nucleotide of exon 14 of FUS, was in-frame fused to exon 2 of CHOP. In the 0.9-kbp DNA fragment, exon 3 of FUS was in-frame fused to exon 2 of CHOP. Genomic analyses revealed that the breaks were located at the end of exon 14/beginning of intron 14 of FUS and in intron 1 of CHOP and that microdeletions had occurred in the close vicinity of the breakpoints.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2000;279;3;838-45

  • The possibility of neurotoxicity in the hippocampus in major depression: a primer on neuron death.

    Sapolsky RM

    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, California 94305, USA.

    A number of studies indicate that prolonged, major depression is associated with a selective loss of hippocampal volume that persists long after the depression has resolved. This review is prompted by two ideas. The first is that overt neuron loss may be a contributing factor to the decrease in hippocampal volume. As such, the first half of this article reviews current knowledge about how hippocampal neurons die during insults, focusing on issues related to the trafficking of glutamate and calcium, glutamate receptor subtypes, oxygen radical generation, programmed cell death, and neuronal defenses. This is meant to orient the reader toward the biology that is likely to underlie any such instances of neuron loss in major depression. The second idea is that glucocorticoids, the adrenal steroids secreted during stress, may play a contributing role to any such neuron loss. The subtypes of depression associated with the hippocampal atrophy typically involve significant hypersecretion of glucocorticoids, and the steroid has a variety of adverse effects in the hippocampus, including causing overt neuron loss. The second half of this article reviews the steps in this cascade of hippocampal neuron death that are regulated by glucocorticoids.

    Biological psychiatry 2000;48;8;755-65

  • Specificity of TLS-CHOP rearrangement for classic myxoid/round cell liposarcoma: absence in predominantly myxoid well-differentiated liposarcomas.

    Antonescu CR, Elahi A, Humphrey M, Lui MY, Healey JH, Brennan MF, Woodruff JM, Jhanwar SC and Ladanyi M

    Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    Myxoid liposarcoma (LS), the most common subtype of LS, is known to be characterized by the specific t(12;16) resulting in a TLS-CHOP fusion in almost all cases. We wished to address the following questions: (i) Is this genetic hallmark also present in other types of LS with predominant myxoid change? (ii) What is the proportion of cases with the variant EWS-CHOP fusion? (iii) What is the optimal approach for Southern blot detection of TLS breakpoints? We identified 59 LS characterized histologically by >90% myxoid component, in which frozen tissue tumor was available for DNA extraction. These 59 LS with myxoid features were divided into 2 groups: 42 LS with classic myxoid/round cell appearance (myxoid LS) and 17 well-differentiated LS (WDLS) with a predominant (>90%) myxoid component. Within the myxoid LS group, 29 tumors were low grade and 13 high grade (>20% round cell component). Among the 17 predominantly myxoid WDLS, there were 15 low grade and 2 focally high grade tumors. In addition, we selected as control group, 20 LS of other histological types with minimal or no myxoid change (17 WDLS and 3 pleomorphic LS) and 13 myxofibrosarcomas. Southern blot analysis was performed in all cases using a CHOP cDNA probe, and in all CHOP rearranged cases using a TLS cDNA probe. Probe/enzyme combinations for Southern blot analysis were CHOP exon 3-4 cDNA probe with BamHI or SacI, TLS exon 3-6 cDNA probe with BclI. All 42 cases of myxoid LS showed a CHOP rearrangement and 38 of them also had a TLS rearrangement. Among the 4 myxoid LS without Southern blot evidence of TLS rearrangement, 1 showed an EWS-CHOP fusion by Southern blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in another case, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction detected a TLS-CHOP fusion transcript. None of the predominantly myxoid WDLS and none of the tumors included in the control group showed rearranegements with CHOP probe. In addition, 12 predominantly myxoid WDLS, 10 other LS, and 5 myxofibrosarcoma from the control group were also tested for TLS rearrangement; all were negative. The TLS-CHOP fusion is highly sensitive and specific for the entity of classic myxoid/round cell LS. Other types of LS, even with a predominant myxoid component, lack the TLS-CHOP rearrangement, confirming that they represent a genetically distinct group of LS. The prevalence of the EWS-CHOP variant fusion was approximately 2% in this series. The optimal enzyme for TLS genomic breakpoint detection is BclI.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA47179, P01 CA047179

    The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD 2000;2;3;132-8

  • A rare chimeric TLS/FUS-CHOP transcript in a patient with multiple liposarcomas: a case report.

    Schneider-Stock R, Rys J, Walter H, Limon J, Iliszko M, Niezabitowski A and Roessner A

    Department of Pathology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.

    Myxoid liposarcomas harbor a unique and specific t(12;16)(q13,p11) chromosomal translocation. The breakpoint has recently been identified, and involvement of the TLS/FUS gene on chromosome 16 and the CHOP gene on chromosome 12 was demonstrated. We report a case of a 45-year-old woman who developed multiple malignant lipomatous tumors of unknown origin and myxoid/round cell histology at different locations. To examine the diagnostic potential of this translocation and to develop a hypothesis on the origin of the tumors, we used cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic methods (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR). We identified a chimeric RNA transcript in the second recurrence in the thigh/groin, as well as in another tumor in the mediastinum, which has an additional sequence of 33 bp, known as fusion transcript type III. Cytogenetic analysis of another tumor in retroperitoneal space revealed a rare type of unbalanced translocation der(16)t(12;16). We hypothesize that these tumors are metastases rather than multicentric tumors. The detection of the chimeric message in the present case is not only useful for differential diagnosis, but also for analyzing the origin of multiple neoplasms.

    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 1999;111;2;130-3

  • Analysis of FUS-CHOP fusion transcripts in different types of soft tissue liposarcoma and their diagnostic implications.

    Willeke F, Ridder R, Mechtersheimer G, Schwarzbach M, Duwe A, Weitz J, Lehnert T, Herfarth C and von Knebel Doeberitz M

    Department of Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Germany. frank_willeke@ukl.uni-heidelberg.de

    In myxoid and round cell liposarcomas, a specific chromosomal translocation [(12;16)(q13;p11)] results in the expression of chimeric fusion transcripts encompassing parts of the FUS gene (16p11) at their 5' ends and the CHOP gene (12q13) at their 3' ends. Using a reverse transcription-PCR protocol, we determined the prevalence of FUS-CHOP fusion transcripts in a series of liposarcoma samples. Fusion transcripts were detected in 13 of 30 biopsy samples from soft tissue liposarcomas. Expression of fusion transcripts was not restricted to myxoid and round cell liposarcomas, as suggested previously; it was also detected in 1 of 3 well-differentiated and 4 of 14 pleomorphic liposarcomas. Sequence analysis revealed four different FUS-CHOP fusion transcript variants, two of which have not been described before. Furthermore, using FUS-CHOP fusion transcripts as targets in reverse transcription-PCR assays, we detected disseminated tumor cells in peripheral blood or bone marrow in 3 of 5 patients undergoing surgery for soft tissue liposarcoma.

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 1998;4;7;1779-84

  • Characteristic sequence motifs at the breakpoints of the hybrid genes FUS/CHOP, EWS/CHOP and FUS/ERG in myxoid liposarcoma and acute myeloid leukemia.

    Panagopoulos I, Lassen C, Isaksson M, Mitelman F, Mandahl N and Aman P

    Department of Clinical Genetics, Lund University Hospital, Sweden.

    We have sequenced the breakpoint regions in one acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(16;21)(p11;q22) resulting in the formation of a FUS/ERG hybrid gene and in four myxoid liposarcomas (MLS), three of which had the translocation t(12;16) (q13;p11) and a FUS/CHOP fusion gene and one with t(12;22;20)(q13;q12;q11) and an EWS/CHOP hybrid gene. The breakpoints were localized to intron 7 of FUS, intron 1 of CHOP, an intronic sequence of ERG and intron 7 of EWS. In two MLS cases with t(12;16) and in the AML, the breaks in intron 7 of FUS had occurred close to each other, a few nucleotides downstream from a TG dinucleotide repeat region. The break in the two MLS had occurred in the same ATGGTG hexamer and in the AML 40 nucleotides upstream from the hexamer. The third case of t(12;16) MLS had a break upstream and near a TC-dinucleotide repeat region and a sequence similar to the chi bacterial recombination element was found to flank the breakpoint. In the MLS with the EWS/ CHOP hybrid gene, the break in intron 7 of EWS had occurred close to an Alu sequence. Similarly, in all 4 MLS, the breaks in intron 1 of CHOP were near an Alu sequence. No Alu or other repetitive sequences were found 250 bp upstream or downstream from the break in the ERG intron involved in the AML case. In the AML, the MLS with ESW/CHOP and in one MLS with FUS/CHOP there were one, two and six, respectively, nucleotide identity between the contributing germline sequences in the breakpoint. In the other two MLS cases, two and three extra nucleotides of unknown origin were inserted between the FUS and CHOP sequences. At the junction and/or in its close vicinity, identical oligomers, frequently containing a trinucleotide TGG, were found in both partner genes. Our data thus show that all four genes-FUS, EWS, CHOP and ERG-contain characteristic motifs in the breakpoint regions which may serve as specific recognition sites for DNA-binding proteins and have functional importance in the recombination events taking place between the chromosomes. Different sequence motifs may, however, play a role in each individual case.

    Oncogene 1997;15;11;1357-62

  • Consistent detection of TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric transcripts in acute myeloid leukemia with t(16;21)(p11;q22) and identification of a novel transcript.

    Kong XT, Ida K, Ichikawa H, Shimizu K, Ohki M, Maseki N, Kaneko Y, Sako M, Kobayashi Y, Tojou A, Miura I, Kakuda H, Funabiki T, Horibe K, Hamaguchi H, Akiyama Y, Bessho F, Yanagisawa M and Hayashi Y

    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Japan.

    16;21 translocation is a recurrent primary abnormality in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The genes involved in this translocation are ERG on chromosome 21 and TLS/FUS on chromosome 16. The rearrangement of the two chromosomes forms the TLS/FUS-ERG fusion gene and produces a consistent chimeric transcript on the der (21) chromosome. In this study, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of 19 patients with t(16;21)-AML, including 2 patients who evolved from myelodysplastic syndrome, and detected the chimeric transcripts of the TLS/FUS-ERG fusion gene in the patients during various clinical stages by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. We found that the patients with t(16;21) are characterized by a relatively younger age (median age, 22 years old), involvement of various subtypes of French-American-British classification and a poor prognosis: 18 of the 19 patients died of the disease (median survival was 16 months). Four types of TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric transcripts including a novel type were noted in the RT-PCR analysis. The novel transcript contained an additional 138 nucleotides consisting of TLS/FUS exon 8 and ERG exons 7 and 8 and had an in-frame fusion. These chimeric transcripts were consistently detectable in the samples obtained not only at diagnosis and relapse but also in short and long complete remission, suggesting that t(16;21)-AML is resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Thus, we recommend that t(16;21) should be monitored by RT-PCR even in clinical remission and the patients should be treated by other more powerful modality like stem-cell transplantation in the first remission.

    Blood 1997;90;3;1192-9

  • FUS/TLS-CHOP chimeric transcripts in liposarcoma tissues.

    Yang X, Nagasaki K, Egawa S, Maruyama K, Futami H, Tsukada T, Yokoyama R, Beppu Y, Fukuma H, Shimoda T et al.

    Growth Factor Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo.

    Myxoid liposarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) are common soft tissue sarcomas of adulthood. Histopathologically they often show intratumor heterogeneity. In some cases, differential diagnosis of liposarcoma and MFH is difficult. It has been reported that myxoid liposarcomas are characterized by chromosomal translocation t (12; 16) (q13; p11), and that this results in two types (type I and type II) of FUS/TLS-CHOP fusion transcripts. In this study, the FUS/TLS-CHOP chimeric transcripts in seven malignant soft tissue tumors of Asian patients were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, DNA blot hybridization and nucleotide sequencing. One myxoid liposarcoma and two round cell liposarcomas possessed a chimeric transcript whose fusion point was the same as that of the type I fusion transcript reported previously for myxoid liposarcoma. We were thus able to detect the type I FUS/TLS-CHOP fusion transcript in clinical specimens of liposarcoma from Asian patients, including the first examples of round cell liposarcoma. These results suggest that the detection of FUS/TLS-CHOP chimeric transcripts or chimeric genes can be used as a diagnostic tool for the pathological diagnosis of liposarcomas.

    Japanese journal of clinical oncology 1995;25;6;234-9

  • Chimeric TLS/FUS-CHOP gene expression and the heterogeneity of its junction in human myxoid and round cell liposarcoma.

    Kuroda M, Ishida T, Horiuchi H, Kida N, Uozaki H, Takeuchi H, Tsuji K, Imamura T, Mori S, Machinami R et al.

    Department of Pathology, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Myxoid liposarcomas have a unique and specific t(12;16)q13;p11) chromosomal translocation. The breakpoint has recently been identified and shown to involve the TLS/FUS gene on chromosome 16 and the CHOP gene on chromosome 12. This translocation causes fusion of these genes resulting in the expression of a novel chimeric TLS/FUS-CHOP message. Using the polymerase chain reaction with primer sets derived from sequences of TLS/FUS and CHOP cDNAs, we could amplify three types of the fusion transcripts from seven of seven samples of myxoid and round cell liposarcomas. In six of the seven positive samples, two kinds of chimeric messenger RNAs were found that have been reported previously. However, the last sample had a novel chimeric message that had an extra sequence of 33 bp derived from the TLS/FUS gene. Thus, it was shown that these fusion transcripts had a varying extent of the sequence of TLS/FUS gene incorporated at the site of the fusion. However, the TLS/FUS-CHOP fusion transcripts were not detected in two pleomorphic liposarcomas or in three myxoid variants of malignant fibrous histiocytomas. Our findings indicate that in liposarcomas TLS/FUS-CHOP fusion transcripts have variations at the junction of chimeric messages, which was the case for Ewing's sarcoma. Detection of the chimeric message by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was also suggested to be a useful approach for the diagnosis of myxoid and round cell liposarcomas that have (12;16) translocation, and for distinguishing them from pleomorphic liposarcoma and myxoid variant of malignant fibrous histiocytomas.

    The American journal of pathology 1995;147;5;1221-7

  • Two distinct FUS breakpoint clusters in myxoid liposarcoma and acute myeloid leukemia with the translocations t(12;16) and t(16;21).

    Panagopoulos I, Mandahl N, Mitelman F and Aman P

    Department of Clinical Genetics, Lund University Hospital, Sweden.

    The FUS gene, which maps to 16p11, is fused to the CHOP gene in the t(12;16) (q13;p11) that characterizes myxoid liposarcomas (MLS) and to the ERG gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(16;21) (p11;q22). In the present study we have mapped the breakpoints within FUS in 13 MLS with t(12;16) and in one AML with t(16;21). This region of FUS is about 3.9 kb and contains four exons. The breakpoints clustered to two zones (1 and 2). A strong association was found between the two known types of FUS/CHOP transcripts and the genomic localization of the breakpoints. In all cases expressing only type I or both type I and II FUS/CHOP transcript the genomic breakpoints mapped to zone 1. In all cases expressing only the type II transcript the breakpoints occurred in zone 2. The breakpoint in the AML case was in zone 1, suggesting that in-frame fusion transcripts are selected by similar mechanisms in both MLS and AML.

    Oncogene 1995;11;6;1133-7

  • Translocation t(12;16)(q13;p11) in myxoid liposarcoma and round cell liposarcoma: molecular and cytogenetic analysis.

    Knight JC, Renwick PJ, Dal Cin P, Van den Berghe H and Fletcher CD

    Department of Histopathology, U.M.D.S. St. Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

    Translocation t(12;16)(q13;p11) is regarded as a diagnostic marker for myxoid liposarcoma. Cytogenetic data on round cell liposarcomas and combined myxoid and round cell tumors is scarce, and the genetic basis of progression of myxoid tumors to high grade, round cell lesions is unknown. We have accumulated six round cell, four combined myxoid and round cell, and three myxoid liposarcomas for analysis. t(12;16)(q13;p11) was present in three round cell lesions and was detectable in all of the tumors by DNA analysis. In each tumor type, the CHOP gene in 12q13 was rearranged and fused to the TLS gene in 16p11. A variant TLS-CHOP RNA transcript was detected by polymerase chain reaction but did not correlate with clinicopathological data. No distinguishing cytogenetic or molecular markers for round cell or mixed lesions were found. The histogenic and genetic relatedness of myxoid and round cell liposarcomas is apparent from these data.

    Cancer research 1995;55;1;24-7

  • Fusion of the FUS gene with ERG in acute myeloid leukemia with t(16;21)(p11;q22).

    Panagopoulos I, Aman P, Fioretos T, Höglund M, Johansson B, Mandahl N, Heim S, Behrendtz M and Mitelman F

    Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

    It has been shown that the gene ERG in 21q22 is rearranged in the t(16;21)(p11;q22) associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). ERG is a member of the ETS gene family and is fused with EWS in a subset of Ewing's sarcomas. EWS in 22q12 has a very high homology with FUS (also called TLS) in 16p11; the latter gene is rearranged in the t(12;16)(q13;p11) that characterizes myxoid liposarcoma. To investigate whether FUS is involved in the t(16;21) of AML, we used the Southern blot technique and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to examine the bone marrow of a 3-year-old boy with a t(16;21)(p11;q22)-positive AML. Hybridization of Southern blot filters containing digested DNA with probes for FUS and ERG showed both germline and aberrant fragments. Using specific primers for the 5' part of FUS and the 3' part of ERG, we amplified a 4.4 kb genomic FUS/ERG DNA fragment from the leukemic sample. In a second PCR experiment, in which we used primers upstream of the 5' part of ERG and downstream of the 3' part of FUS, a 5.6 kb fragment was amplified. Blotting and hybridization with specific probes for FUS and ERG revealed that the amplified fragments consisted of FUS/ERG and ERG/FUS hybrid DNA. Both PCR fragments, when used as probes, detected germline ERG and FUS as well as aberrant fragments on Southern blot filters. The results suggest that the t(16;21) in AML leads to rearrangement and fusion of the FUS and ERG genes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Genes, chromosomes & cancer 1994;11;4;256-62

Pubmed - other

  • C-terminal FUS/TLS mutations in familial and sporadic ALS in Germany.

    Drepper C, Herrmann T, Wessig C, Beck M and Sendtner M

    Institute for Clinical Neurobiology, Zinklesweg 10, University of Wuerzburg, D-97078 Wuerzburg, Germany.

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the major form of motor neuron disease in the adult occurs as a sporadic disease in more than 95% of all cases. Analysis of familial forms is considered as a key to understand the pathophysiology of the disease. It is expected that mutations responsible for familial forms are also found in sporadic ALS. During the past years, several loci and genes have been identified in which disease associated mutations have been discovered. We report here on the screening of 596 sporadic ALS patients, 41 familial ALS cases and other motor neuron disease patients from Germany for mutations in the FUS/TLS gene. Sequencing of the last two exons in all patients revealed the C1561T transversion, which leads to the amino acid substitution at R521C, in one familial and one sporadic ALS patient. In addition three patients with a synonymous mutation at codon 522 were identified. None of these variants were present in the control population. Our results indicate that mutations in FUS/TLS are not a major cause of sporadic ALS in the German population.

    Neurobiology of aging 2011;32;3;548.e1-4

  • FUS mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: clinical, pathological, neurophysiological and genetic analysis.

    Blair IP, Williams KL, Warraich ST, Durnall JC, Thoeng AD, Manavis J, Blumbergs PC, Vucic S, Kiernan MC and Nicholson GA

    Northcott Neuroscience Laboratory, ANZAC Research Institute, Concord Hospital, Sydney, Australia. iblair@med.usyd.edu.au

    Objective: FUS gene mutations were recently identified in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The present studies sought to define the clinical, post-mortem and neurophysiological phenotypes in ALS families with FUS mutations and to determine the frequency of FUS mutations in familial and sporadic ALS.

    Methods: FUS was screened for mutations in familial and sporadic ALS cases. Clinical, post-mortem and neurophysiological features of large families with FUS mutations are described.

    FUS mutations were evident in 3.2% (4/124) of familial ALS, representing the second most common gene abnormality to be described in familial ALS after SOD1. No mutations were present in 247 sporadic ALS cases. The clinical presentation in 49 affected patients was consistent with a predominantly lower motor neuron disorder, supported by post-mortem findings. Upper motor neuron involvement varied, with Wallerian degeneration of corticospinal tracts present in one post-mortem case but absent in a second case from the same family. Features of cortical hyperexcitability demonstrated upper motor neuron involvement consistent with other forms of familial and sporadic ALS. One case presented with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) indicating that this may be a rare presenting feature in families with FUS mutation. Ubiquitin-positive cytoplasmic skein-like inclusions were present in lower motor neurons, but in contrast to sporadic ALS, no TDP-43 pathology was evident. Mutation-specific clinical features were identified. Patients with a R521C mutation were significantly more likely to develop disease at a younger age, and dropped-head syndrome was a frequent feature. Reduced disease penetrance was evident among most affected families.

    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 2010;81;6;639-45

  • Genetic contribution of FUS to frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    Van Langenhove T, van der Zee J, Sleegers K, Engelborghs S, Vandenberghe R, Gijselinck I, Van den Broeck M, Mattheijssens M, Peeters K, De Deyn PP, Cruts M and Van Broeckhoven C

    Neurodegenerative Brain Diseases Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, VIB, University of Antwerp-CDE, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerpen, Belgium.

    Background: Recently, the FUS gene was identified as a new causal gene for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in approximately 4% of patients with familial ALS. Since ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are part of a clinical, pathologic, and genetic disease spectrum, we investigated a potential role of FUS in FTLD.

    Methods: We performed mutational analysis of FUS in 122 patients with FTLD and 15 patients with FTLD-ALS, as well as in 47 patients with ALS. Mutation screening was performed by sequencing of PCR amplicons of the 15 FUS exons.

    Results: We identified 1 patient with FTLD with a novel missense mutation, M254V, that was absent in 638 control individuals. In silico analysis predicted this amino acid substitution to be pathogenic. The patient did not have a proven family history of neurodegenerative brain disease. Further, we observed the known R521H mutation in 1 patient with ALS. No FUS mutations were detected in the patients with FTLD-ALS. While insertions/deletions of 2 glycines (G) were suggested to be pathogenic in the initial FUS reports, we observed an identical GG-deletion in 2 healthy individuals and similar G-insertions/deletions in 4 other control individuals, suggesting that G-insertions/deletions within this G-rich region may be tolerated.

    Conclusions: In a first analysis of FUS in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), we identified a novel FUS missense mutation, M254V, in 1 patient with pure FTLD. At this point, the biologic relevance of this mutation remains elusive. Screening of additional FTLD patient cohorts will be needed to further elucidate the contribution of FUS mutations to FTLD pathogenesis.

    Neurology 2010;74;5;366-71

  • FUS mutations in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Netherlands.

    Groen EJ, van Es MA, van Vught PW, Spliet WG, van Engelen-Lee J, de Visser M, Wokke JH, Schelhaas HJ, Ophoff RA, Fumoto K, Pasterkamp RJ, Dooijes D, Cuppen E, Veldink JH and van den Berg LH

    Department of Neurology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

    Objectives: To assess the frequency of FUS mutations in 52 probands with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) and to provide careful documentation of clinical characteristics.

    Design: FUS mutation analysis was performed using capillary sequencing on all coding regions of the gene in a cohort of patients with FALS. The clinical characteristics of patients carrying FUS mutations were described in detail.

    Setting: Three university hospitals in the Netherlands (referral centers for neuromuscular diseases).

    Patients: Fifty-two probands from unrelated pedigrees with FALS.

    FUS mutations.

    Results: We identified 3 mutations in 4 of 52 probands. We observed 2 previously identified mutations (p.Arg521Cys and p.Arg521His) and 1 novel mutation (p.Ser462Phe). In addition, a p.Gln210His polymorphism was identified in 1 proband and 3 healthy control subjects. Phenotypic analysis demonstrated that patients may lack upper motor neuron signs, which was confirmed at autopsy, and disease survival was short (<36 months for 8 of 10 patients).

    Conclusions: We discovered FUS mutations in Dutch patients with FALS and the occurrence of benign variations in the gene. Therefore, caution is warranted when interpreting results in a clinical setting. Although the phenotype associated with FUS mutations is variable, most patients predominantly demonstrate loss of lower motor neurons and have short disease survival.

    Archives of neurology 2010;67;2;224-30

  • TLS inhibits RNA polymerase III transcription.

    Tan AY and Manley JL

    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.

    RNA transcription by all the three RNA polymerases (RNAPs) is tightly controlled, and loss of regulation can lead to, for example, cellular transformation and cancer. While most transcription factors act specifically with one polymerase, a small number have been shown to affect more than one polymerase to coordinate overall levels of transcription in cells. Here we show that TLS (translocated in liposarcoma), a protein originally identified as the product of a chromosomal translocation and which associates with both RNAP II and the spliceosome, also represses transcription by RNAP III. TLS was found to repress transcription from all three classes of RNAP III promoters in vitro and to associate with RNAP III genes in vivo, perhaps via a direct interaction with the pan-specific transcription factor TATA-binding protein (TBP). Depletion of TLS by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in HeLa cells resulted in increased steady-state levels of RNAP III transcripts as well as increased RNAP III and TBP occupancy at RNAP III-transcribed genes. Conversely, overexpression of TLS decreased accumulation of RNAP III transcripts. These unexpected findings indicate that TLS regulates both RNAPs II and III and supports the possibility that cross-regulation between RNA polymerases is important in maintaining normal cell growth.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2010;30;1;186-96

  • FUS/TLS genetic variability in sporadic frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    Cantoni C, Fenoglio C, Cortini F, Venturelli E, Villa C, Clerici F, Marcone A, Benussi L, Ghidoni R, Gallone S, Scalabrini D, Franceschi M, Cappa S, Binetti G, Mariani C, Rainero I, Giordana MT, Bresolin N, Scarpini E and Galimberti D

    Department of Neurological Sciences, Dino Ferrari Center, University of Milan, IRCCS Fondazione Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

    Two hundred and fifty one Italian patients with sporadic frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and 259 age-matched controls were tested for association with the tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs741810 and rs1052352 in the fused in sarcoma/translated in liposarcoma gene (FUS/TLS). Only patients negative for GRN mutations were included. Considering each SNP alone, no differences in either allelic or genotypic frequencies between patients and controls were found (P > 0.05), even stratifying according to gender or the presence of concomitant motor neuron disease. Haplotype analysis failed to detect haplotypes associated with FTLD. According to these results, FUS/TLS is not a susceptibility factor for the development of sporadic FTLD.

    Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD 2010;19;4;1317-22

  • A new subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with FUS pathology.

    Neumann M, Rademakers R, Roeber S, Baker M, Kretzschmar HA and Mackenzie IR

    Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinical syndrome with a heterogeneous molecular basis. The neuropathology associated with most FTD is characterized by abnormal cellular aggregates of either transactive response DNA-binding protein with Mr 43 kDa (TDP-43) or tau protein. However, we recently described a subgroup of FTD patients, representing around 10%, with an unusual clinical phenotype and pathology characterized by frontotemporal lobar degeneration with neuronal inclusions composed of an unidentified ubiquitinated protein (atypical FTLD-U; aFTLD-U). All cases were sporadic and had early-onset FTD with severe progressive behavioural and personality changes in the absence of aphasia or significant motor features. Mutations in the fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene have recently been identified as a cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, with these cases reported to have abnormal cellular accumulations of FUS protein. Because of the recognized clinical, genetic and pathological overlap between FTD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, we investigated whether FUS might also be the pathological protein in aFTLD-U. In all our aFTLD-U cases (n = 15), FUS immunohistochemistry labelled all the neuronal inclusions and also demonstrated previously unrecognized glial pathology. Immunoblot analysis of protein extracted from post-mortem aFTLD-U brain tissue demonstrated increased levels of insoluble FUS. No mutations in the FUS gene were identified in any of our patients. These findings suggest that FUS is the pathological protein in a significant subgroup of sporadic FTD and reinforce the concept that FTD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are closely related conditions.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 74580; NIA NIH HHS: P50 AG16574

    Brain : a journal of neurology 2009;132;Pt 11;2922-31

  • Abundant FUS-immunoreactive pathology in neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease.

    Neumann M, Roeber S, Kretzschmar HA, Rademakers R, Baker M and Mackenzie IR

    Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.

    Neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID) is an uncommon neurodegenerative condition that typically presents as early-onset, sporadic frontotemporal dementia (FTD), associated with a pyramidal and/or extrapyramidal movement disorder. The neuropathology is characterized by frontotemporal lobar degeneration with neuronal inclusions that are immunoreactive for all class IV intermediate filaments (IF), light, medium and heavy neurofilament subunits and alpha-internexin. However, not all the inclusions in NIFID are IF-positive and the primary molecular defect remains uncertain. Mutations in the gene encoding the fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein have recently been identified as a cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Because of the recognized clinical, genetic and pathological overlap between FTD and ALS, we investigated the possible role of FUS in NIFID. We found abnormal intracellular accumulation of FUS to be a consistent feature of our NIFID cases (n = 5). More neuronal inclusions were labeled using FUS immunohistochemistry than for IF. Several types of inclusions were consistently FUS-positive but IF-negative, including neuronal intranuclear inclusions and glial cytoplasmic inclusions. Double-label immunofluorescence confirmed that many cells had only FUS-positive inclusions and that all cells with IF-positive inclusions also contained pathological FUS. No mutation in the FUS gene was identified in a single case with DNA available. These findings suggest that FUS may play an important role in the pathogenesis of NIFID.

    Funded by: CIHR: 74580; NIA NIH HHS: P50 AG016574, P50 AG016574-116180, P50 AG16574

    Acta neuropathologica 2009;118;5;605-16

  • Analysis of FUS gene mutation in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis within an Italian cohort.

    Ticozzi N, Silani V, LeClerc AL, Keagle P, Gellera C, Ratti A, Taroni F, Kwiatkowski TJ, McKenna-Yasek DM, Sapp PC, Brown RH and Landers JE

    Department of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.

    Objective: Mutations in the FUS gene on chromosome 16 have been recently discovered as a cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). This study determined the frequency and identities of FUS gene mutations in a cohort of Italian patients with FALS.

    Methods: We screened all 15 coding exons of FUS for mutations in 94 Italian patients with FALS.

    Results: We identified 4 distinct missense mutations in 5 patients; 2 were novel. The mutations were not present in 376 healthy Italian controls and thus are likely to be pathogenic.

    Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that FUS mutations cause approximately 4% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases in the Italian population.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NINDS NIH HHS: NS050557, NS050641; Telethon: GUP04009

    Neurology 2009;73;15;1180-5

  • Mutations in FUS cause FALS and SALS in French and French Canadian populations.

    Belzil VV, Valdmanis PN, Dion PA, Daoud H, Kabashi E, Noreau A, Gauthier J, S2D team, Hince P, Desjarlais A, Bouchard JP, Lacomblez L, Salachas F, Pradat PF, Camu W, Meininger V, Dupré N and Rouleau GA

    CHUM Research Centre, Notre-Dame Hospital, Y-3633 Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    Background: The identification of mutations in the TARDBP and more recently the identification of mutations in the FUS gene as the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is providing the field with new insight about the mechanisms involved in this severe neurodegenerative disease.

    Methods: To extend these recent genetic reports, we screened the entire gene in a cohort of 200 patients with ALS. An additional 285 patients with sporadic ALS were screened for variants in exon 15 for which mutations were previously reported.

    Results: In total, 3 different mutations were identified in 4 different patients, including 1 3-bp deletion in exon 3 of a patient with sporadic ALS and 2 missense mutations in exon 15 of 1 patient with familial ALS and 2 patients with sporadic ALS.

    Conclusions: Our study identified sporadic patients with mutations in the FUS gene. The accumulation and description of different genes and mutations helps to develop a more comprehensive picture of the genetic events underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Neurology 2009;73;15;1176-9

  • Identification of potentially damaging amino acid substitutions leading to human male infertility.

    Kuzmin A, Jarvi K, Lo K, Spencer L, Chow GY, Macleod G, Wang Q and Varmuza S

    Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    There are a number of known genetic alterations found in men with nonobstructive azoospermia, or testicular failure, such as Y microdeletions and cytogenetic abnormalities. However, the etiology of nonobstructive azoospermia is unknown in the majority of men. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that unexplained cases of nonobstructive azoospermia are caused by nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding regions of autosomal genes associated with sperm production and fertility. Using a candidate gene approach based on genetics of male infertility in mice, we resequenced nine autosomal genes from 78 infertile men displaying testicular failure using custom-made next-generation resequencing chips. Analysis of the data revealed several novel heterozygous nonsynonymous SNPs in four of nine sequenced genes in 14 of 78 infertile men. Eight SNPs in SBF1, three SNPs in LIMK2, two SNPs in LIPE, and one SNP in TBPL1 were identified. All of the novel mutations were in a heterozygous configuration, suggesting that they may be de novo mutations with dominant negative properties.

    Biology of reproduction 2009;81;2;319-26

  • Two Italian kindreds with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis due to FUS mutation.

    Chiò A, Restagno G, Brunetti M, Ossola I, Calvo A, Mora G, Sabatelli M, Monsurrò MR, Battistini S, Mandrioli J, Salvi F, Spataro R, Schymick J, Traynor BJ, La Bella V and ITALSGEN Consortium

    ALS Center, Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin, Turin, Italy. achio@usa.net

    Recently, fused in sarcoma/translated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS) gene, located on chromosome 16p11.2, has been identified as a disease gene in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). We have analyzed FUS/TLS in a cohort of 52 index cases from seven Italian regions with non-SOD1 and non-TARDBP FALS. We identified a heterozygous c.G1542C missense mutation in a family of northern Italian origin, and a heterozygous c.C1574T missense mutation in a family of Sicilian origin. Both variants are located in exon 15 encoding the RNA-recognition motif, and result in a substitution of an arginine with a serine in position 514 (p.R514S) and substitution of a proline with a leucine at position 525 (p.P525L), respectively. Overall, the two mutations accounted for 3.8% of 52 non-SOD1 and non-TDP43 index cases of FALS. The clinical phenotype was similar within each of the families, with a predominantly upper limb onset in the family carrying the p.R514S mutation and bulbar onset, with very young age and a rapid course in the family carrying the p.P525L mutation.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z01 AG000949, Z99 AG999999; NIA NIH HHS: Z01-AG000949-02

    Neurobiology of aging 2009;30;8;1272-5

  • Rethinking ALS: the FUS about TDP-43.

    Lagier-Tourenne C and Cleveland DW

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla, CA 92093-0670, USA.

    Mutations in TDP-43, a DNA/RNA-binding protein, cause an inherited form of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Two recent studies (Kwiatkowski et al., 2009; Vance et al., 2009) now report that mutations in FUS/TLS, another DNA/RNA-binding protein, also trigger premature degeneration of motor neurons. TDP-43 and FUS/TLS have striking structural and functional similarities, implicating alterations in RNA processing as a key event in ALS pathogenesis.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R37 NS027036, R37 NS027036-23, RC1 NS069144, RC1 NS069144-01

    Cell 2009;136;6;1001-4

  • Structural basis and specificity of human otubain 1-mediated deubiquitination.

    Edelmann MJ, Iphöfer A, Akutsu M, Altun M, di Gleria K, Kramer HB, Fiebiger E, Dhe-Paganon S and Kessler BM

    Henry Wellcome Building for Molecular Physiology, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX37BN, UK.

    OTUB (otubain) 1 is a human deubiquitinating enzyme that is implicated in mediating lymphocyte antigen responsiveness, but whose molecular function is generally not well defined. A structural analysis of OTUB1 shows differences in accessibility to the active site and in surface properties of the substrate-binding regions when compared with its close homologue, OTUB2, suggesting variations in regulatory mechanisms and substrate specificity. Biochemical analysis reveals that OTUB1 has a preference for cleaving Lys(48)-linked polyubiquitin chains over Lys(63)-linked polyubiquitin chains, and it is capable of cleaving NEDD8 (neural-precursor-cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 8), but not SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) 1/2/3 and ISG15 (interferon-stimulated gene 15) conjugates. A functional comparison of OTUB1 and OTUB2 indicated a differential reactivity towards ubiquitin-based active-site probes carrying a vinyl methyl ester, a 2-chloroethyl or a 2-bromoethyl group at the C-terminus. Mutational analysis suggested that a narrow P1' site, as observed in OTUB1, correlates with its ability to preferentially cleave Lys(48)-linked ubiquitin chains. Analysis of cellular interaction partners of OTUB1 by co-immunoprecipitation and MS/MS (tandem mass spectrometry) experiments demonstrated that FUS [fusion involved in t(12;6) in malignant liposarcoma; also known as TLS (translocation in liposarcoma) or CHOP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein)] and RACK1 [receptor for activated kinase 1; also known as GNB2L1 (guanine-nucleotide-binding protein beta polypeptide 2-like 1)] are part of OTUB1-containing complexes, pointing towards a molecular function of this deubiquitinating enzyme in RNA processing and cell adhesion/morphology.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0501068; Wellcome Trust

    The Biochemical journal 2009;418;2;379-90

  • Mutations in FUS, an RNA processing protein, cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 6.

    Vance C, Rogelj B, Hortobágyi T, De Vos KJ, Nishimura AL, Sreedharan J, Hu X, Smith B, Ruddy D, Wright P, Ganesalingam J, Williams KL, Tripathi V, Al-Saraj S, Al-Chalabi A, Leigh PN, Blair IP, Nicholson G, de Belleroche J, Gallo JM, Miller CC and Shaw CE

    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, King's College London, Medical Research Council (MRC) Centre for Neurodegeneration Research, Institute of Psychiatry, London SE5 8AF, UK.

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that is familial in 10% of cases. We have identified a missense mutation in the gene encoding fused in sarcoma (FUS) in a British kindred, linked to ALS6. In a survey of 197 familial ALS index cases, we identified two further missense mutations in eight families. Postmortem analysis of three cases with FUS mutations showed FUS-immunoreactive cytoplasmic inclusions and predominantly lower motor neuron degeneration. Cellular expression studies revealed aberrant localization of mutant FUS protein. FUS is involved in the regulation of transcription and RNA splicing and transport, and it has functional homology to another ALS gene, TARDBP, which suggests that a common mechanism may underlie motor neuron degeneration.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0300329, G0500289, G0501573, G0600676, G0600974, G0900688, MC_G1000733; Wellcome Trust: 078662

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2009;323;5918;1208-1211

  • Mutations in the FUS/TLS gene on chromosome 16 cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Kwiatkowski TJ, Bosco DA, Leclerc AL, Tamrazian E, Vanderburg CR, Russ C, Davis A, Gilchrist J, Kasarskis EJ, Munsat T, Valdmanis P, Rouleau GA, Hosler BA, Cortelli P, de Jong PJ, Yoshinaga Y, Haines JL, Pericak-Vance MA, Yan J, Ticozzi N, Siddique T, McKenna-Yasek D, Sapp PC, Horvitz HR, Landers JE and Brown RH

    Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 114 16th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA. tkwiatkowski@partners.org

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal degenerative motor neuron disorder. Ten percent of cases are inherited; most involve unidentified genes. We report here 13 mutations in the fused in sarcoma/translated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS) gene on chromosome 16 that were specific for familial ALS. The FUS/TLS protein binds to RNA, functions in diverse processes, and is normally located predominantly in the nucleus. In contrast, the mutant forms of FUS/TLS accumulated in the cytoplasm of neurons, a pathology that is similar to that of the gene TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP43), whose mutations also cause ALS. Neuronal cytoplasmic protein aggregation and defective RNA metabolism thus appear to be common pathogenic mechanisms involved in ALS and possibly in other neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2009;323;5918;1205-8

  • The myxoid liposarcoma FUS-DDIT3 fusion oncoprotein deregulates NF-kappaB target genes by interaction with NFKBIZ.

    Göransson M, Andersson MK, Forni C, Ståhlberg A, Andersson C, Olofsson A, Mantovani R and Aman P

    Lundberg Laboratory for Cancer Research (LLCR), Department of Pathology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

    FUS (also called TLS), EWSR1 and TAF15 (also called TAF2N) are related genes involved in tumor type-specific fusion oncogenes in human malignancies. The FUS-DDIT3 fusion oncogene results from a t(12;16)(q13;p11) chromosome translocation and has a causative role in the initiation of myxoid/round cell liposarcomas (MLS/RCLS). The FUS-DDIT3 protein induces increased expression of the CAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-controlled gene IL8, and the N-terminal FUS part is required for this activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that FUS-DDIT3 binds the IL8 promoter. Expression studies of the IL8 promoter harboring a C/EBP-NF-kappaB composite site pinpointed the importance of NF-kappaB for IL8 expression in FUS-DDIT3-expressing cells. We therefore probed for possible interaction of FUS-DDIT3 with members of the NF-kappaB family. The nuclear factor NFKBIZ colocalizes with FUS-DDIT3 in nuclear structures, and immunoprecipitation experiments showed that FUS-DDIT3 binds the C-terminal of NFKBIZ. We also report that additional NF-kappaB-controlled genes are upregulated at the mRNA level in FUS-DDIT3-expressing cell lines and they can be induced by NFKBIZ. Taken together, the results indicate that FUS-DDIT3 deregulates some NF-kappaB-controlled genes through interactions with NFKBIZ. Similar mechanisms may be a part of the transformation process in other tumor types carrying FUS, EWSR1 and TAF15 containing fusion oncogenes.

    Oncogene 2009;28;2;270-8

  • Analysis of CHOP rearrangement in pleomorphic liposarcomas using fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Sugita S, Seki K, Yokozawa K, Tochigi N, Furuta K, Hisaoka M, Hashimoto H, Shimoda T and Hasegawa T

    Division of Clinical Laboratory, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan.

    Pleomorphic liposarcoma (PLS) is an aggressive subtype of liposarcoma composed of high-grade sarcoma with pleomorphic lipoblasts. PLS usually exhibits a heterogeneous histology and sometimes has a myxoid or round cell area similar to myxoid/round cell liposarcomas (MLS/RCs). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, we investigated the existence of CHOP split signals in various histological areas of PLS including the MLS/RC-like feature and also estimated the distribution of various signals with polyploidy and amplification. Moreover, to detect CHOP fusion transcripts we performed nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Seven PLSs and three MLS/RCs were selected for FISH analysis using the locus-specific indicator CHOP (12q13) dual color, break apart probe (Vysis, USA). The FISH analysis was applied to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of representative areas in all cases. Six of seven PLS cases showed the CHOP split signal ranging from 0.5% to 3% of counted nuclei, while all cases of MLS/RC exhibited CHOP rearrangement in more than 50% of counted nuclei. All cases of PLS showed a varied distribution of extra signals with polyploidy and amplification in each histological area. No CHOP fusion transcript was found in any case of PLS by nested RT-PCR. A CHOP rearrangement in PLS should be recognized only as a representative part of complex karyotypes, because the number of cells with split signals was minute compared with that of MLS/RC, and the signals were found in any area despite their histological differences. The cytogenetic background of PLS and that of MLS/RC are obviously different despite histological similarity.

    Cancer science 2009;100;1;82-7

  • The multifunctional FUS, EWS and TAF15 proto-oncoproteins show cell type-specific expression patterns and involvement in cell spreading and stress response.

    Andersson MK, Ståhlberg A, Arvidsson Y, Olofsson A, Semb H, Stenman G, Nilsson O and Aman P

    Lundberg Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Pathology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden. mattias.andersson@llcr.med.gu.se

    Background: FUS, EWS and TAF15 are structurally similar multifunctional proteins that were first discovered upon characterization of fusion oncogenes in human sarcomas and leukemias. The proteins belong to the FET (previously TET) family of RNA-binding proteins and are implicated in central cellular processes such as regulation of gene expression, maintenance of genomic integrity and mRNA/microRNA processing. In the present study, we investigated the expression and cellular localization of FET proteins in multiple human tissues and cell types.

    Results: FUS, EWS and TAF15 were expressed in both distinct and overlapping patterns in human tissues. The three proteins showed almost ubiquitous nuclear expression and FUS and TAF15 were in addition present in the cytoplasm of most cell types. Cytoplasmic EWS was more rarely detected and seen mainly in secretory cell types. Furthermore, FET expression was downregulated in differentiating human embryonic stem cells, during induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells and absent in terminally differentiated melanocytes and cardiac muscle cells. The FET proteins were targeted to stress granules induced by heat shock and oxidative stress and FUS required its RNA-binding domain for this translocation. Furthermore, FUS and TAF15 were detected in spreading initiation centers of adhering cells.

    Conclusion: Our results point to cell-specific expression patterns and functions of the FET proteins rather than the housekeeping roles inferred from earlier studies. The localization of FET proteins to stress granules suggests activities in translational regulation during stress conditions. Roles in central processes such as stress response, translational control and adhesion may explain the FET proteins frequent involvement in human cancer.

    BMC cell biology 2008;9;37

  • IGF1 is a common target gene of Ewing's sarcoma fusion proteins in mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Cironi L, Riggi N, Provero P, Wolf N, Suvà ML, Suvà D, Kindler V and Stamenkovic I

    Division of Experimental Pathology, Institute of Pathology CHUV, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    Background: The EWS-FLI-1 fusion protein is associated with 85-90% of Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT), the remaining 10-15% of cases expressing chimeric genes encoding EWS or FUS fused to one of several ets transcription factor family members, including ERG-1, FEV, ETV1 and ETV6. ESFT are dependent on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) for growth and survival and recent evidence suggests that mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells constitute a candidate ESFT origin.

    To address the functional relatedness between ESFT-associated fusion proteins, we compared mouse progenitor cell (MPC) permissiveness for EWS-FLI-1, EWS-ERG and FUS-ERG expression and assessed the corresponding expression profile changes. Whereas all MPC isolates tested could stably express EWS-FLI-1, only some sustained stable EWS-ERG expression and none could express FUS-ERG for more than 3-5 days. Only 14% and 4% of the total number of genes that were respectively induced and repressed in MPCs by the three fusion proteins were shared. However, all three fusion proteins, but neither FLI-1 nor ERG-1 alone, activated the IGF1 promoter and induced IGF1 expression.

    Whereas expression of different ESFT-associated fusion proteins may require distinct cellular microenvironments and induce transcriptome changes of limited similarity, IGF1 induction may provide one common mechanism for their implication in ESFT pathogenesis.

    PloS one 2008;3;7;e2634

  • Induced ncRNAs allosterically modify RNA-binding proteins in cis to inhibit transcription.

    Wang X, Arai S, Song X, Reichart D, Du K, Pascual G, Tempst P, Rosenfeld MG, Glass CK and Kurokawa R

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

    With the recent recognition of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) flanking many genes, a central issue is to obtain a full understanding of their potential roles in regulated gene transcription programmes, possibly through different mechanisms. Here we show that an RNA-binding protein, TLS (for translocated in liposarcoma), serves as a key transcriptional regulatory sensor of DNA damage signals that, on the basis of its allosteric modulation by RNA, specifically binds to and inhibits CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 histone acetyltransferase activities on a repressed gene target, cyclin D1 (CCND1) in human cell lines. Recruitment of TLS to the CCND1 promoter to cause gene-specific repression is directed by single-stranded, low-copy-number ncRNA transcripts tethered to the 5' regulatory regions of CCND1 that are induced in response to DNA damage signals. Our data suggest that signal-induced ncRNAs localized to regulatory regions of transcription units can act cooperatively as selective ligands, recruiting and modulating the activities of distinct classes of RNA-binding co-regulators in response to specific signals, providing an unexpected ncRNA/RNA-binding protein-based strategy to integrate transcriptional programmes.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NCI NIH HHS: CA097134, CA52599, P30 CA008748, P30 CA08748, R01 CA052599, R01 CA052599-19; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL59694, R01 HL059694, R01 HL059694-10; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK074868, DK39949, R01 DK039949, R01 DK091183, R37 DK039949, R37 DK039949-26; NINDS NIH HHS: NS34934, R01 NS034934, R01 NS034934-20A1

    Nature 2008;454;7200;126-30

  • RNA-binding protein TLS is a major nuclear aggregate-interacting protein in huntingtin exon 1 with expanded polyglutamine-expressing cells.

    Doi H, Okamura K, Bauer PO, Furukawa Y, Shimizu H, Kurosawa M, Machida Y, Miyazaki H, Mitsui K, Kuroiwa Y and Nukina N

    Laboratory for Structural Neuropathology, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa Wako-shi, Saitama, Japan.

    Formation of intracellular aggregates is the hallmark of polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases. We analyzed the components of purified nuclear polyQ aggregates by mass spectrometry. As a result, we found that the RNA-binding protein translocated in liposarcoma (TLS) was one of the major components of nuclear polyQ aggregate-interacting proteins in a Huntington disease cell model and was also associated with neuronal intranuclear inclusions of R6/2 mice. In vitro study revealed that TLS could directly bind to truncated N-terminal huntingtin (tNhtt) aggregates but could not bind to monomer GST-tNhtt with 18, 42, or 62Q, indicating that the tNhtt protein acquired the ability to sequester TLS after forming aggregates. Thioflavin T assay and electron microscopic study further supported the idea that TLS bound to tNhtt-42Q aggregates at the early stage of tNhtt-42Q amyloid formation. Immunohistochemistry showed that TLS was associated with neuronal intranuclear inclusions of Huntington disease human brain. Because TLS has a variety of functional roles, the sequestration of TLS to polyQ aggregates may play a role in diverse pathological changes in the brains of patients with polyQ diseases.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;10;6489-500

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Fat-specific FUS-DDIT3-transgenic mice establish PPARgamma inactivation is required to liposarcoma development.

    Pérez-Mancera PA, Vicente-Dueñas C, González-Herrero I, Sánchez-Martín M, Flores-Corral T and Sánchez-García I

    Experimental Therapeutics and Translational Oncology Program, Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular del Cáncer, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas/Universidad de Salamanca, Campus Unamuno, 37007 Salamanca, Spain.

    FUS-DDIT3 is a chimeric oncogene generated by the most common chromosomal translocation t(12;16)(q13;p11) associated to liposarcomas. The application of transgenic methods and the use of primary mesenchymal progenitor cells to the study of this sarcoma-associated FUS-DDIT3 gene fusion have provided insights into their in vivo functions and suggested mechanisms by which lineage selection may be achieved. These studies indicate that FUS-DDIT3 contributes to differentiation arrest acting at a point in the adipocyte differentiation process after induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) expression. To test this idea within a living mouse, we generated mice expressing FUS-DDIT3 within aP2-positive cells, because aP2 is a downstream target of PPARgamma expressed at the immature adipocyte stage. Here, we report that FUS-DDIT3 expression was successfully induced at the aP2 stage of differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. aP2-FUS-DDIT3 mice do not develop liposarcomas and exhibit an increase in white adipose tissue size. Consistent with in vivo data, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) obtained from aP2-FUS-DDIT3 mice not only were capable of terminal differentiation but also showed an increased capacity for adipogenesis in vitro compared with wild-type MEFs. Taken together, this study provides genetic evidence that the presence of FUS-DDIT3 in an aP2-positive cell is not enough to cause liposarcoma development and establishes that PPARgamma inactivation is required for liposarcoma development.

    Carcinogenesis 2007;28;10;2069-73

  • Translocation-positive low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: clinicopathologic and molecular analysis of a series expanding the morphologic spectrum and suggesting potential relationship to sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma: a study from the French Sarcoma Group.

    Guillou L, Benhattar J, Gengler C, Gallagher G, Ranchère-Vince D, Collin F, Terrier P, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, Leroux A, Marquès B, Aubain Somerhausen Nde S, Keslair F, Pedeutour F and Coindre JM

    University Institute of Pathology, Lausanne, Switzerland. louis.guillou@chuv.ch

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas (LGFMS) bear either the t(7,16) (q32-34;p11) or t(11,16) (p11;p11) translocations, resulting in FUS-CREB3L2 or FUS-CREB3L1 fusions, respectively. Heretofore, fusion transcripts were mainly detected in frozen tissues, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In this study, we aimed to develop a reliable method to detect these in paraffin-embedded tissues, and to examine the clinicopathologic characteristics of a series of translocation-positive LGFMS. Sixty-three neoplasms with typical morphologic features of LGFMS and 66 non-LGFMS tumors selected for their resemblance to LGFMS (LGFMS-like tumors) were examined. RNA of sufficient quality could be extracted from 111/129 (86%) cases (59 LGFMS, 52 non-LGFMS). Of all, 48/59 (sensitivity, 81%) LGFMS contained detectable transcripts (45 FUS-CREB3L2, 3 FUS-CREB3L1). Most relevant clinicopathologic features of fusion-positive LGFMS included predominance in lower extremities (22/48; thigh: 13/48), deep situation (46/48), and occasional presence of unusual histologic features, for example, hypercellular areas (16/48), foci of epithelioid cells (13/48), and giant rosettes (6/48). Most tumors expressed EMA (41/45), at least focally, CD99 (38/41) and bcl-2 (36/41) while being essentially negative for CD34 (2/45), mdm2 (1/41), smooth muscle actin (1/45), S100 protein (0/46), desmin (0/44), h-caldesmon (0/42), keratins (0/44), and CD117 (0/40). Eleven presumed LGFMS were fusion negative. Of all, 7/52 non-LGMFS neoplasms contained FUS-CREB3L2 transcripts, of which 4 had been diagnosed as sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma. In conclusion, FUS-CREB3L1/L2 fusion transcripts can be detected in paraffin-embedded LGFMS in a sensitive manner, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Most fusion-positive LGFMS are EMA-positive and CD34/S100/smooth muscle actin negative. The presence of epithelioid cells and fusion transcripts in both LGFMS and a subset of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma suggest that these neoplasms might be related.

    The American journal of surgical pathology 2007;31;9;1387-402

  • Intracellular characterization of DDX39, a novel growth-associated RNA helicase.

    Sugiura T, Sakurai K and Nagano Y

    Discovery Research Laboratory, Tokyo R&D Center, Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 16-13, Kitakasai 1-Chome, Edogawa-ku, Tokyo 134-8630, Japan. sugiuy79@daiichipharm.co.jp <sugiuy79@daiichipharm.co.jp&gt;

    DDX39 belongs to the DEAD box RNA helicase family and is overexpressed in human lung squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, in order to seek the biological relevance of DDX39, we conducted its intracellular characterization. When expressed in 293 cells, DDX39 undergoes heavy ubiquitylation and the stability of DDX39 is regulated via a ubiqutin-proteasome pathway. DDX39 tethers ALY, an essential mRNA export factor, in vivo, confirming the role of DDX39 in the RNA splicing/export process. Co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analyses detected CIP29, a recently discovered growth and cell cycle-related factor, as a main DDX39-interacting protein. CIP29 binds RNA on its own and enhances RNA unwinding activity of DDX39. Thus, CIP29 physically and functionally associates with DDX39, suggesting their cooperation in the RNA metabolism. Extension of the search for the protein-protein interactions encompassing DDX39 identified FUS/TLS, a nucleic acid binding protein participating in both transcription and splicing, as a CIP29-interacting protein. The connections comprising ALY, DDX39, CIP29 and FUS/TLS may be an integral part of transcription, splicing and RNA export. We simultaneously examined the properties of DDX39-S, a C-terminally truncated variant of DDX39 stemmed from alternative splicing, to understand its biological significance.

    Experimental cell research 2007;313;4;782-90

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Unfolding new mechanisms of alcoholic liver disease in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Kaplowitz N and Ji C

    USC-UCLA Research Center for Alcoholic Liver, USC Research Center for Liver Disease, Division of Gastrointestinal, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA. kaplowit@usc.edu

    Intragastric ethanol feeding in mice induces expression of unfolded protein response/endoplasmic reticulum (UPR/ER) stress response genes. The proximate cause appears to be hyperhomocysteinemia, a well-known cause of ER stress in other contexts. Hyperhomocysteinemia appears to be due to downregulation of methionine synthase. The importance of homocysteine and ER stress in the pathogenesis of liver disease was suggested by the prevention of the alcohol-induced changes by feeding sufficient betaine to lower homocysteine via betaine homocysteine methyl transferase. The ER stress, via CHOP, causes apoptosis and CHOP null mice exhibit no apoptosis. Alcohol-induced ER stress can activate sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c and SREBP-2, which contribute to the accumulation of triglyceride and cholesterol. Hyperhomocysteinemia, ER stress and pathological changes of alcohol were minimally affected by absence of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and the effect of betaine was also independent of TNF signaling. At present ER stress as an important factor in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease is an exciting new hypothesis and ongoing research will need to further clarify its contribution. Among the issues in need of further elucidation are the role of ER stress induced by alcohol in SREBP regulation and fatty liver, as well as the precise mechanism of protection by betaine: decreased homocysteine, decreased S-adenosylhomocysteine, or increased S-adenosylmethionine.

    Funded by: NIAAA NIH HHS: P50-AA11999, R01 AA018612, R01 AA018846, R01-AA014428; NIDDK NIH HHS: P30-DK-48522

    Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology 2006;21 Suppl 3;S7-9

  • The myxoid/round cell liposarcoma fusion oncogene FUS-DDIT3 and the normal DDIT3 induce a liposarcoma phenotype in transfected human fibrosarcoma cells.

    Engström K, Willén H, Kåbjörn-Gustafsson C, Andersson C, Olsson M, Göransson M, Järnum S, Olofsson A, Warnhammar E and Aman P

    Department of Oncology, Lundberg Laboratory for Cancer Research, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.

    Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (MLS/RCLS) is the most common subtype of liposarcoma. Most MLS/RCLS carry a t(12;16) translocation, resulting in a FUS-DDIT3 fusion gene. We investigated the role of the FUS-DDIT3 fusion in the development of MLS/RCLS in FUS-DDIT3- and DDIT3-transfected human HT1080 sarcoma cells. Cells expressing FUS-DDIT3 and DDIT3 grew as liposarcomas in severe combined immunodeficient mice and exhibited a capillary network morphology that was similar to networks of MLS/RCLS. Microarray-based comparison of HT1080, the transfected cells, and an MLS/RCLS-derived cell line showed that the FUS-DDIT3- and DDIT3-transfected variants shifted toward an MLS/RCLS-like expression pattern. DDIT3-transfected cells responded in vitro to adipogenic factors by accumulation of fat and transformation to a lipoblast-like morphology. In conclusion, because the fusion oncogene FUS-DDIT3 and the normal DDIT3 induce a liposarcoma phenotype when expressed in a primitive sarcoma cell line, MLS/RCLS may develop from cell types other than preadipocytes. This may explain the preferential occurrence of MLS/RCLS in nonadipose tissues. In addition, development of lipoblasts and the typical MLS/RCLS capillary network could be an effect of the DDIT3 transcription factor partner of the fusion oncogene.

    The American journal of pathology 2006;168;5;1642-53

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Beta-catenin interacts with the FUS proto-oncogene product and regulates pre-mRNA splicing.

    Sato S, Idogawa M, Honda K, Fujii G, Kawashima H, Takekuma K, Hoshika A, Hirohashi S and Yamada T

    Chemotherapy Division and Cancer Proteomics Project, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

    beta-Catenin is a downstream effector of the Wnt signaling pathway and is believed to exert its oncogenic function by activating T-cell factor (TCF)/lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF) family transcriptional factors. However, it is still uncertain whether the diverse effects of beta-catenin are caused solely by aberrant gene transactivation. In this study, we used a proteomics approach to obtain further insight into the functional properties of nuclear beta-catenin.

    Methods: The protein assembly of a native beta-catenin-containing complex in nuclear extracts from a colorectal cancer cell line, DLD-1, was identified using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry.

    Results: beta-Catenin physically interacted with fusion (FUS)/translocated in liposarcoma (TLS) and various RNA-binding proteins. The expression of FUS/TLS was closely associated with the accumulation of beta-catenin and with the undifferentiated status of intestinal epithelial cells. The transient transfection of FUS suppressed beta-catenin-evoked gene transactivation of TCF/LEF, and beta-catenin transfection affected the splicing pattern of the E1A minigene and induced a novel splicing variant of estrogen receptor (ER)-beta exerting a dominant-negative activity.

    Conclusions: Human cancer expresses a large variety of alternatively spliced messenger RNA (mRNA), but the precise molecular mechanisms responsible for cancer-related alternative splicing are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated the interaction of beta-catenin with FUS/TLS and other RNA-binding proteins involved in the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing. Certain mRNA splicing abbreviations seen in human cancers may be induced by the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway.

    Gastroenterology 2005;129;4;1225-36

  • [Detection of fusion genes resulting from chromosome abnormalities in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    He J, Chen ZX, Xue YQ, Li JQ, He HL, Huang YP, He YX, Chai YH and Zhu LL

    Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, the First Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, PR China. junhe1964@sina.com

    Objective: To detect the expression of the fusion genes resulting from chromosome abnormalities in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL) and its conformity to WHO classification.

    Methods: Sixty-two children with ALL were investigated. The expression of fusion genes was determined by multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), karyotyping (R band) and immunophenotyping (by flow cytometry) were also performed.

    Results: Of the 62 patients, 23(37.1%) were found to carry 13 different fusion genes. The patients with immunophenotype of Pre-B-ALL were found to carry: TEL/AML1(3 cases); E2A/PBX1, E2A/HLF, TLS/ERG, MLL/AF4, MLL/AF9, MLL/AF10, MLL/AFX-MLL/AF6-MLL/ELL, MLL/AF6-MLL/ELL, dupMLL (one case for each); and HOX11 (6 cases). The patients with immunophenotype of Pre-T-ALL were found to carry: TAL1D (4 cases, one is also found to have HOX11 expression); and HOX11 (2 cases). The multiplex RT-PCR in combination with chromosome analysis revealed genetic abnormalities in 69.4%(43/62) of childhood ALL.

    Conclusion: Multiplex RT-PCR combined with chromosome analysis and immunophenotyping can provide reliable and helpful information for the diagnosis, therapy evaluation and prognosis prediction in childhood ALL, which may also serve as a basis on which to implement the criteria of WHO classification.

    Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics 2005;22;5;551-3

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Mass spectroscopy identifies the splicing-associated proteins, PSF, hnRNP H3, hnRNP A2/B1, and TLS/FUS as interacting partners of the ZNF198 protein associated with rearrangement in myeloproliferative disease.

    Kasyapa CS, Kunapuli P and Cowell JK

    Department of Cancer Genetics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.

    ZNF198 is fused with FGFR1 in an atypical myeloproliferative disease that results in constitutive activation of the kinase domain and mislocalization to the cytoplasm. We have used immunoprecipitation of a GFP-tagged ZNF198 combined with MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy to identify interacting proteins. P splicing factor (PSF) was identified as one of the proteins and this interaction was confirmed by Western blotting. Other proteins identified were the spliceosomal components hnRNP A2/B1, hnRNP H3, and TLS/FUS. PSF is also known to interact with PTB, another member of the hnRNP family of proteins, and we further demonstrated that PTB interacts with ZNF198. The interaction between TLS/FUS and ZNF198 was confirmed using Western blot analysis. In 293 cells expressing the ZNF198/FGFR1 fusion protein, neither PSF nor PTB binds to the fusion protein, possibly because of their differential localization in the cell.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 16056, CA 76167

    Experimental cell research 2005;309;1;78-85

  • Myxoid liposarcoma FUS-DDIT3 fusion oncogene induces C/EBP beta-mediated interleukin 6 expression.

    Göransson M, Elias E, Ståhlberg A, Olofsson A, Andersson C and Aman P

    Lundberg Laboratory for Cancer Research (LLCR), Department of Pathology, Goteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden. melker.goransson@llcr.med.gu.se

    The myxoid/round cell liposarcoma oncogene FUS-DDIT3 is the result of a translocation derived gene fusion between the splicing factor FUS and DDIT3. In order to investigate the downstream targets of DDIT3, and the transforming effects of the FUS-DDIT3 fusion protein, we have introduced DDIT3-GFP and FUS-DDIT3-GFP constructs into a human fibrosarcoma cell line. The gene expression profiles of stable transfectants were compared to the original fibrosarcoma cell line by microarray analysis. We here report that the NFkappaB and C/EBP beta controlled gene IL6 is upregulated in DDIT3- and FUS-DDIT3-expressing fibrosarcoma cell lines and in myxoid liposarcoma cell lines. Strong expression of the tumor associated multifunctional cytokine interleukin 6 was confirmed both at mRNA and protein level. Knockdown experiments using siRNA against CEBPB transcripts showed that the effect of FUS-DDIT3 on IL6 expression is C/EBP beta dependent. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed direct interaction between the IL6 promoter and the C/EBP beta protein. In addition, the effect of DDIT3 and FUS-DDIT3 on the expression of other acute phase genes was examined using real-time PCR. We demonstrate for the first time that DDIT3 and FUS-DDIT3 show opposite transcriptional regulation of IL8 and suggest that FUS-DDIT3 may affect the synergistic activation of promoters regulated by C/EBP beta and NFkappaB.

    International journal of cancer 2005;115;4;556-60

  • The oncogenic TLS-ERG fusion protein exerts different effects in hematopoietic cells and fibroblasts.

    Zou J, Ichikawa H, Blackburn ML, Hu HM, Zielinska-Kwiatkowska A, Mei Q, Roth GJ, Chansky HA and Yang L

    Department of Orthopedics, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA.

    The oncogenic TLS-ERG fusion protein is found in human myeloid leukemia and Ewing's sarcoma as a result of specific chromosomal translocation. To unveil the potential mechanism(s) underlying cellular transformation, we have investigated the effects of TLS-ERG on both gene transcription and RNA splicing. Here we show that the TLS protein forms complexes with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and the serine-arginine family of splicing factors in vivo. Deletion analysis of TLS-ERG in both mouse L-G myeloid progenitor cells and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts revealed that the RNA Pol II-interacting domain of TLS-ERG resides within the first 173 amino acids. While TLS-ERG repressed expression of the luciferase reporter gene driven by glycoprotein IX promoter in L-G cells but not in NIH 3T3 cells, the fusion protein was able to affect splicing of the E1A reporter in NIH 3T3 cells but not in L-G cells. To identify potential target genes of TLS-ERG, the fusion protein and its mutants were stably expressed in both L-G and NIH 3T3 cells through retroviral transduction. Microarray analysis of RNA samples from these cells showed that TLS-ERG activates two different sets of genes sharing little similarity in the two cell lines. Taken together, these results suggest that the oncogenic TLS-ERG fusion protein transforms hematopoietic cells and fibroblasts via different pathways.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R01CA090941, R01 CA090941; NIAMS NIH HHS: 1R01AR051455, R01 AR051455

    Molecular and cellular biology 2005;25;14;6235-46

  • Nucleolar proteome dynamics.

    Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond AI and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The nucleolus is a key organelle that coordinates the synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits and forms in the nucleus around the repeated ribosomal gene clusters. Because the production of ribosomes is a major metabolic activity, the function of the nucleolus is tightly linked to cell growth and proliferation, and recent data suggest that the nucleolus also plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, senescence and stress responses. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based organellar proteomics and stable isotope labelling, we perform a quantitative analysis of the proteome of human nucleoli. In vivo fluorescent imaging techniques are directly compared to endogenous protein changes measured by proteomics. We characterize the flux of 489 endogenous nucleolar proteins in response to three different metabolic inhibitors that each affect nucleolar morphology. Proteins that are stably associated, such as RNA polymerase I subunits and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle complexes, exit from or accumulate in the nucleolus with similar kinetics, whereas protein components of the large and small ribosomal subunits leave the nucleolus with markedly different kinetics. The data establish a quantitative proteomic approach for the temporal characterization of protein flux through cellular organelles and demonstrate that the nucleolar proteome changes significantly over time in response to changes in cellular growth conditions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073980

    Nature 2005;433;7021;77-83

  • Identifying and quantifying in vivo methylation sites by heavy methyl SILAC.

    Ong SE, Mittler G and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense M 5230, Denmark.

    Protein methylation is a stable post-translational modification (PTM) with important biological functions. It occurs predominantly on arginine and lysine residues with varying numbers of methyl groups, such as mono-, di- or trimethyl lysine. Existing methods for identifying methylation sites are laborious, require large amounts of sample and cannot be applied to complex mixtures. We have previously described stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) for quantitative comparison of proteomes. In heavy methyl SILAC, cells metabolically convert [(13)CD(3)]methionine to the sole biological methyl donor, [(13)CD(3)]S-adenosyl methionine. Heavy methyl groups are fully incorporated into in vivo methylation sites, directly labeling the PTM. This provides markedly increased confidence in identification and relative quantitation of protein methylation by mass spectrometry. Using antibodies targeted to methylated residues and analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 59 methylation sites, including previously unknown sites, considerably extending the number of in vivo methylation sites described in the literature.

    Nature methods 2004;1;2;119-26

  • Domain architectures and characterization of an RNA-binding protein, TLS.

    Iko Y, Kodama TS, Kasai N, Oyama T, Morita EH, Muto T, Okumura M, Fujii R, Takumi T, Tate S and Morikawa K

    Biomolecular Engineering Research Institute, 6-2-3 Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565-0874, Japan.

    Translocated in liposarcoma (TLS) is an important protein component of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex involved in the splicing of pre-mRNA and the export of fully processed mRNA to the cytoplasm. We examined the domain organization of human TLS by a combined approach using limited proteolysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, circular dichroism, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy. We found that the RNA recognition motif (RRM) and zinc finger-like domains exclusively form protease-resistant core structures within the isolated TLS protein fragments, while the remaining regions, including the Arg-Gly-Gly repeats, appear to be completely unstructured. Thus, TLS contains the unstructured N-terminal half followed by the RRM and zinc finger-like domains, which are connected to each other by a flexible linker. We also carried out NMR analyses to obtain more detailed insights into the individual RRM and zinc finger-like domains. The 113Cd NMR analysis of the zinc finger-like domain verified that zinc is coordinated with four cysteines in the C4 type scheme. We also investigated the interaction of each domain with an oligo-RNA containing the GGUG sequence, which appears to be critical for the TLS function in splicing. The backbone amide NMR chemical shift perturbation analyses indicated that the zinc finger domain binds GGUG-containing RNA with a dissociation constant of about 1.0 x 10(-5) m, whereas the RRM domain showed no observable interaction with this RNA. This surprising result implies that the zinc finger domain plays a more predominant role in RNA recognition than the RRM domain.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;43;44834-40

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Comparable transforming capacities and differential gene expression patterns of variant FUS/CHOP fusion transcripts derived from soft tissue liposarcomas.

    Schwarzbach MH, Koesters R, Germann A, Mechtersheimer G, Geisbill J, Winkler S, Niedergethmann M, Ridder R, Buechler MW, von Knebel Doeberitz M and Willeke F

    Department of Surgery, University of Heidelberg, INF 110, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

    The chromosomal translocation t(12;16)(q13;p11) is a common genetic alteration in myxoid and round-cell liposarcomas. It results in transcription of various chimeric FUS/CHOP fusion transcripts that encode different oncogenic proteins. Recent reports suggest that these may have different neoplastic transformation activities. To audit this hypothesis, we transfected expression plasmids for the two major variant FUS/CHOP transcripts I and II in NIH 3T3 cells and determined the number of outgrowing foci as well as their growth potential in soft agar. In addition, we compared tumour growth in nude mice upon subcutaneous injection of the respective transfectants. No significant differences in transformation assays in vitro and in vivo were observed, suggesting that both variant transcripts confer comparable transforming activities. The histopathological picture of tumours derived from both cell populations resembles high-grade spindle cell sarcomas. This suggests that both FUS/CHOP variants cause similar patterns of differential gene expression. This hypothesis was confirmed by mRNA-expression profiles of the respective cell clones. Strong overexpression of the pentaxin-related gene (PTX), the osteoblast-specific factor 2 (osf-2), the basic Kruppel-like factor (bklf), the leucoprotease inhibitor, and the cyclophilin B were observed in both types of FUS/CHOP-transfected cell clones. Taken together, our data suggest that different FUS/CHOP variants cause transformation of mesenchymal cells via the same pathways with comparable efficacy.

    Oncogene 2004;23;40;6798-805

  • Fusion of the FUS and BBF2H7 genes in low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.

    Storlazzi CT, Mertens F, Nascimento A, Isaksson M, Wejde J, Brosjo O, Mandahl N and Panagopoulos I

    Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

    The FUS gene at 16p11 fuses with DDIT3 and ATF1 as the result of translocations with chromosome band 12q13 in myxoid liposarcoma and angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma, respectively, and with ERG as the result of a t(16;21)(p11;q22) in acute myeloid leukemia. We here show that a t(7;16)(q33;p11) in two cases of low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma fuses the FUS gene to BBF2H7, a previously uncharacterized gene that is homologous to the Drosophila Bbf-2 gene. BBF2H7 spans more than 120 kbp genomic DNA, is composed of 12 exons and contains a 1560 bp open reading frame. It codes for a 519 amino acid protein that contains a basic DNA binding and leucine zipper dimerization (B-ZIP) motif, highly similar to that in the OASIS, CREB-H, CREB4 and CREB3 transcription factors, followed by a hydrophobic region predicted to be an alpha-helical transmembrane domain. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), using FUS forward and BBF2H7 reverse primers, amplified FUS/BBF2H7 chimeric transcripts composed of the first five exons and part of exon 6 of FUS and part of exon 5 and exons 6-12 of BBF2H7. The FUS/BBF2H7 chimera codes for a protein containing the N-terminus of FUS and the B-ZIP domain and the C-terminus of BBF2H7.

    Human molecular genetics 2003;12;18;2349-58

  • A new familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis locus on chromosome 16q12.1-16q12.2.

    Abalkhail H, Mitchell J, Habgood J, Orrell R and de Belleroche J

    Department of Neuromuscular Diseases, Division of Neuroscience and Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

    Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) affects 5%-10% of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and is inherited as an autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetrance. One-fifth of these cases of FALS are associated with mutations in copper/zinc-dependent superoxide dismutase (SOD1), but the gene defect in the remaining 80% of familial cases is, as yet, unknown. We have carried out a preliminary genome screen, using a U.K. resource of families lacking SOD1 mutations, to identify other potential disease loci and have identified a putative locus on chromosome 16q12.1-q12.2. The region associated with disease was further refined in the major family that contributed to this result and was localized to D16S409-D16S3032, a 14.74-cM genetic interval that corresponds to a physical distance of 6.6 Mb, which coincides with a region independently identified by two further research groups in the United States and the United Kingdom.

    American journal of human genetics 2003;73;2;383-9

  • Identification of two novel loci for dominantly inherited familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Sapp PC, Hosler BA, McKenna-Yasek D, Chin W, Gann A, Genise H, Gorenstein J, Huang M, Sailer W, Scheffler M, Valesky M, Haines JL, Pericak-Vance M, Siddique T, Horvitz HR and Brown RH

    Cecil B. Day Laboratory for Neuromuscular Research, Massachusetts General Hospital East, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive, adult-onset motor neuron disease that arises as a dominantly inherited trait in approximately 10% of ALS cases. Mutations in one gene, cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), account for approximately 25% of familial ALS (FALS) cases. We have performed a genetic linkage screen in 16 pedigrees with FALS with no evidence for mutations in the SOD1 gene and have identified novel ALS loci on chromosomes 16 and 20. The analysis of these genes will delineate pathways implicated as determinants of motor-neuron viability and provide insights into possible therapies for ALS.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 1PO1NS31248-02, R01NS37912

    American journal of human genetics 2003;73;2;397-403

  • Two families with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are linked to a novel locus on chromosome 16q.

    Ruddy DM, Parton MJ, Al-Chalabi A, Lewis CM, Vance C, Smith BN, Leigh PN, Powell JF, Siddique T, Meyjes EP, Baas F, de Jong V and Shaw CE

    Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Guy's, King's, and St. Thomas' School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset disease in which motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord degenerate by largely unknown mechanisms. ALS is familial (FALS) in 10% of cases, and the inheritance is usually dominant, with variable penetrance. Mutations in copper/zinc super oxide dismutase (SOD1) are found in 20% of familial and 3% of sporadic ALS cases. Five families with ALS and frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD) are linked to 9q21, whereas one family with pure ALS is linked to 18q21. We identified two large European families with ALS without SOD1 mutations or linkage to known FALS loci and conducted a genomewide linkage screen using 400 microsatellite markers. In both families, two-point LOD scores >1 and a haplotype segregating with disease were demonstrated only across regions of chromosome 16. Subsequent fine mapping in family 1 gave a maximum two-point LOD score of 3.62 at D16S3137 and a three-point LOD score of 3.85 for markers D16S415 and D16S3137. Haplotype analysis revealed no recombination > approximately 30 cM, (flanking markers at D16S3075 and D16S3112). The maximum two-point LOD score for family 2 was 1.84 at D16S415, and the three-point LOD score was 2.10 for markers D16S419 and D16S415. Definite recombination occurred in several individuals, which narrowed the shared haplotype in affected individuals to a 10.1-cM region (flanking markers: D16S3396 and D16S3112). The region shared by both families on chromosome 16q12 corresponds to approximately 4.5 Mb on the Marshfield map. Bioinformatic analysis of the region has identified 18 known genes and 70 predicted genes in this region, and sequencing of candidate genes has now begun.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    American journal of human genetics 2003;73;2;390-6

  • Proto-oncoprotein TLS/FUS is associated to the nuclear matrix and complexed with splicing factors PTB, SRm160, and SR proteins.

    Meissner M, Lopato S, Gotzmann J, Sauermann G and Barta A

    Institute of Cancer Research, Borschkegasse 8a, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.

    TLS/FUS is a nucleic acid-binding protein whose N-terminal half functions as a transcriptional activator domain in fusion oncoproteins found in human leukemias and liposarcomas. Previous reports have suggested a role for TLS/FUS in transcription and splicing processes. Here we report the association of TLS/FUS with the nuclear matrix and investigate its role in splicing. Splicing of two pre-mRNAs was inhibited in a TLS/FUS-immunodepleted extract and could only be partly restored by addition of recombinant TLS/FUS or/and SR proteins, known interaction partners of TLS/FUS. The subsequent analysis of TLS/FUS immunoprecipitates revealed that, in addition to the SR proteins SC35 and SRp75, the splicing factor PTB (hnRNPI) and the splicing coactivator SRm160 are complexed with TLS/FUS, thus explaining the inability to restore splicing completely. Coimmunolocalization confirmed the nuclear matrix association and interaction of TLS/FUS with PTB, SR proteins, and SRm160. Our results suggest that the matrix protein TLS/FUS plays a role in spliceosome assembly.

    Experimental cell research 2003;283;2;184-95

  • Comprehensive proteomic analysis of the human spliceosome.

    Zhou Z, Licklider LJ, Gygi SP and Reed R

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

    The precise excision of introns from pre-messenger RNA is performed by the spliceosome, a macromolecular machine containing five small nuclear RNAs and numerous proteins. Much has been learned about the protein components of the spliceosome from analysis of individual purified small nuclear ribonucleoproteins and salt-stable spliceosome 'core' particles. However, the complete set of proteins that constitutes intact functional spliceosomes has yet to be identified. Here we use maltose-binding protein affinity chromatography to isolate spliceosomes in highly purified and functional form. Using nanoscale microcapillary liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we identify approximately 145 distinct spliceosomal proteins, making the spliceosome the most complex cellular machine so far characterized. Our spliceosomes comprise all previously known splicing factors and 58 newly identified components. The spliceosome contains at least 30 proteins with known or putative roles in gene expression steps other than splicing. This complexity may be required not only for splicing multi-intronic metazoan pre-messenger RNAs, but also for mediating the extensive coupling between splicing and other steps in gene expression.

    Nature 2002;419;6903;182-5

  • Identification of methylated proteins by protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1, PRMT1, with a new expression cloning strategy.

    Wada K, Inoue K and Hagiwara M

    Department of Functional Genomics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan.

    Methylation at arginines has recently come to attention as a posttranslational modification of proteins, which is implicated in processes from signaling, transcriptional activation, to mRNA processing. Here we report that several proteins extracted from HeLa cells were methylated by PRMT1 (protein arginine N-methyltransferease 1) even on a nitrocellulose membrane, while proteins from Escherichia coli are not methylated with this protein. Screening PRMT1 substrates from a lambdagt11-HeLa cDNA library, we found that more than half of the 48 cDNA clones obtained encode putative RNA-binding proteins that have RGG (arginine-glycine-glycine) motifs, such as hnRNP R (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R) and hnRNP K. We cloned two novel arginine methylation substrates, ZF5 (zinc finger 5) and p137GPI (GPI-anchor protein p137), which do not possess typical RGG motifs. We also cloned a novel protein that has RGG motifs, but does not have any other RNA-binding motifs. We tentatively termed this clone SAMT1 (substrate of arginine methyl transferase 1). A(63-)VLD(-65) to AAA mutation of PRMT1 suppressed the methylation of recombinant SAMT1 and other RGG proteins in the HeLa extracts. This systematic screening of substrate proteins with the solid phase methylation reaction will contribute to identify new roles of PRMT family.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2002;1591;1-3;1-10

  • Temperature-dependent localization of TLS-CHOP to splicing factor compartments.

    Göransson M, Wedin M and Aman P

    Lundberg Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Pathology, Göteborg University, Gula straket 8, S-413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden. Melker.Goransson@lcr.med.gu.se

    The myxoid/round cell liposarcoma oncogene TLS-CHOP belongs to a growing family of tumor type specific fusion genes generated by chromosome translocations. We have recently found that the TLS-CHOP fusion protein is localized to well-defined nuclear structures, a pattern distinct from normal TLS or CHOP cellular distribution. Since location and function are intimately coupled in the organized nucleus, the aberrant localization of the fusion protein most certainly reflects the oncogenic activities of TLS-CHOP. We have investigated the role of the functionally unknown, SYGQ-rich, TLS N-terminal in the localization of TLS-CHOP to nuclear structures. Here, we report the temperature-dependent localization of TLS-CHOP to splicing factor compartments and association with Cajal bodies. Further, mutational analysis of the N-terminal part of green fluorescent protein-tagged TLS-CHOP identifies a region within the N-terminal required for colocalization with the splicing factor SC-35.

    Experimental cell research 2002;278;2;125-32

  • RNA splicing mediated by YB-1 is inhibited by TLS/CHOP in human myxoid liposarcoma cells.

    Rapp TB, Yang L, Conrad EU, Mandahl N and Chansky HA

    Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98108, USA.

    Human myxoid liposarcoma contains a characteristic t(12;16) chromosomal translocation that results in fusion of the N-terminal domain of the translocated in liposarcoma (TLS) protein to the C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). TLS possesses structural motifs that suggest it may participate in RNA processing. We demonstrate that in human myxoid liposarcoma cells, wild-type TLS binds to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) via its N-terminal domain and to the transcription and translation factor Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) through its C-terminal domain. The liposarcoma fusion protein TLS/CHOP retains the ability to bind RNA Pol II but lacks the ability to recruit YB-1 due to replacement of the C-terminal domain of TLS by CHOP. In an in vivo splicing assay, YB-1 promotes splicing of adenovirus EIA pre-mRNA predominantly to the 13S isoform. The oncogenic TLS/CHOP fusion protein inhibits this splicing function of YB-1 in a dominant negative manner. When considered in conjunction with studies on other sarcoma fusion proteins, these data suggest that aberrant RNA splicing may be a common feature of human sarcomas.

    Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society 2002;20;4;723-9

  • PABP1 identified as an arginine methyltransferase substrate using high-density protein arrays.

    Lee J and Bedford MT

    The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, PO Box 389, Smithville, TX 78957, USA.

    The arginine methyltransferases CARM1 and PRMT1 associate with the p160 family of nuclear hormone receptor coactivators. This association enhances transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors. We describe a method for identifying arginine N-methyltransferase substrates using arrayed high-density protein membranes to perform solid-phase supported enzyme reactions in the presence of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-l-methionine. Using this screen, we identified distinct substrates for CARM1 and PRMT1. All PRMT1 substrates harbor the expected GGRGG methylation motif, whereas the peptide sequence comparisons of the CARM1 substrates revealed no such motif. The predominant CARM1 substrate identified in this screen was PABP1. We mapped the methylated region of this RNA binding molecule in vitro and demonstrate that PABP1 is indeed methylated in vivo. Prior to these findings, the only known substrate for CARM1 was histone H3. We broaden the number of CARM1 targets and suggest a role for CARM1 in regulating transcription/translation.

    Funded by: NIEHS NIH HHS: ES07784, P30 ES007784

    EMBO reports 2002;3;3;268-73

  • Characterization of two evolutionarily conserved, alternatively spliced nuclear phosphoproteins, NFAR-1 and -2, that function in mRNA processing and interact with the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR.

    Saunders LR, Perkins DJ, Balachandran S, Michaels R, Ford R, Mayeda A and Barber GN

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA.

    We report here the isolation and characterization of two proteins, NFAR-1 and -2, which were isolated through their ability to interact with the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. The NFAR proteins, of 90 and 110 kDa, are derived from a single gene through alternative splicing and are evolutionarily conserved nuclear phosphoproteins that interact with double-stranded RNA. Both NFAR-1 and -2 are phosphorylated by PKR, reciprocally co-immunoprecipitate with PKR, and colocalize with the kinase in a diffuse nuclear pattern within the cell. Transfection studies indicate that the NFARs regulate gene expression at the level of transcription, probably during the processing of pre-mRNAs, an activity that was increased in fibroblasts lacking PKR. Subsequent functional analyses indicated that amino acids important for NFAR's activity were localized to the C terminus of the protein, a region that was found to specifically interact with FUS and SMN, proteins also known as regulators of RNA processing. Accordingly, both NFARs were found to associate with both pre-mRNAs and spliced mRNAs in post-transcriptional studies, similar to the known splicing factor ASF/SF-2. Collectively, our data indicate that the NFARs may facilitate double-stranded RNA-regulated gene expression at the level of post-transcription and possibly contribute to host defense-related mechanisms in the cell.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA83166, CA84247; NIGMS NIH HHS: T32 GM008490

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;34;32300-12

  • Involvement of the pro-oncoprotein TLS (translocated in liposarcoma) in nuclear factor-kappa B p65-mediated transcription as a coactivator.

    Uranishi H, Tetsuka T, Yamashita M, Asamitsu K, Shimizu M, Itoh M and Okamoto T

    Department of Molecular Genetics and First Department of Internal Medicine, Nagoya City University Medical School, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601, Japan.

    In this study, we have demonstrated that translocated in liposarcoma (TLS), also termed FUS, is an interacting molecule of the p65 (RelA) subunit of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) using a yeast two-hybrid screen. We confirmed the interaction between TLS and p65 by the pull-down assay in vitro and by a coimmunoprecipitation experiment followed by Western blot of the cultured cell in vivo. TLS was originally identified as part of a fusion protein with CHOP arising from chromosomal translocation in human myxoid liposarcomas. TLS has been shown to be involved in TFIID complex formation and associated with RNA polymerase II. However, the role of TLS in transcriptional regulation has not yet been clearly elucidated. We found that TLS enhanced the NF-kappaB-mediated transactivation induced by physiological stimuli such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta, and overexpression of NF-kappaB-inducing kinase. TLS augmented NF-kappaB-dependent promoter activity of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 gene and interferon-beta gene. These results suggest that TLS acts as a coactivator of NF-kappaB and plays a pivotal role in the NF-kappaB-mediated transactivation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;16;13395-401

  • Proteomic analysis of NMDA receptor-adhesion protein signaling complexes.

    Husi H, Ward MA, Choudhary JS, Blackstock WP and Grant SG

    Centre for Genome Research, Centre for Neuroscience, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JQ, UK.

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) mediate long-lasting changes in synapse strength via downstream signaling pathways. We report proteomic characterization with mass spectrometry and immunoblotting of NMDAR multiprotein complexes (NRC) isolated from mouse brain. The NRC comprised 77 proteins organized into receptor, adaptor, signaling, cytoskeletal and novel proteins, of which 30 are implicated from binding studies and another 19 participate in NMDAR signaling. NMDAR and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes were linked to cadherins and L1 cell-adhesion molecules in complexes lacking AMPA receptors. These neurotransmitter-adhesion receptor complexes were bound to kinases, phosphatases, GTPase-activating proteins and Ras with effectors including MAPK pathway components. Several proteins were encoded by activity-dependent genes. Genetic or pharmacological interference with 15 NRC proteins impairs learning and with 22 proteins alters synaptic plasticity in rodents. Mutations in three human genes (NF1, Rsk-2, L1) are associated with learning impairments, indicating the NRC also participates in human cognition.

    Nature neuroscience 2000;3;7;661-9

  • TLS-ERG leukemia fusion protein inhibits RNA splicing mediated by serine-arginine proteins.

    Yang L, Embree LJ and Hickstein DD

    Medical Research Service, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA.

    The translocation liposarcoma (TLS) gene is fused to the ETS-related gene (ERG) in human myeloid leukemia, resulting in the generation of a TLS-ERG protein. We demonstrate that both TLS and the TLS-ERG leukemia fusion protein bind to RNA polymerase II through the TLS N-terminal domain, which is retained in the fusion protein; however, TLS recruits members of the serine-arginine (SR) family of splicing factors through its C-terminal domain, whereas the TLS-ERG fusion protein lacks the ability to recruit SR proteins due to replacement of the C-terminal domain by the fusion partner ERG. In transient-transfection assays, the TLS-ERG fusion protein inhibits E1A pre-mRNA splicing mediated by these TLS-associated SR proteins (TASR), and stable expression of the TLS-ERG fusion protein in K562 cells alters the splicing profile of CD44 mRNA. These results suggest that TLS fusion proteins may lead to cellular abnormalities by interfering with the splicing of important cellular regulators.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2000;20;10;3345-54

  • Human 75-kDa DNA-pairing protein is identical to the pro-oncoprotein TLS/FUS and is able to promote D-loop formation.

    Baechtold H, Kuroda M, Sok J, Ron D, Lopez BS and Akhmedov AT

    Basel Institute for Immunology, Grenzacherstrasse 487, CH-4005 Basel, Switzerland.

    Homologous recombination plays a fundamental role in DNA double-strand break repair. Previously, we detected two mammalian nuclear proteins of 100 and 75 kDa (POMp100 and POMp75, respectively) that are able to promote homologous DNA pairing, a key step in homologous recombination. Here we describe the identification of human (h) POMp75 as the pro-oncoprotein TLS/FUS. hPOMp75/TLS binds both single- and double-stranded DNAs and mediates annealing of complementary DNA strands. More important, it promotes the uptake of a single-stranded oligonucleotide into a homologous superhelical DNA to form a D-loop. The formation of a D-loop is an essential step in DNA double-strand break repair through recombination. DNA annealing and D-loop formation catalyzed by hPOMp75/TLS require Mg(2+) and are ATP-independent. Interestingly, the oncogenic fusion form TLS-CHOP is not able to promote DNA pairing. These data suggest a possible role for hPOMp75/TLS in maintenance of genomic integrity.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA60945

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;48;34337-42

  • Human POMp75 is identified as the pro-oncoprotein TLS/FUS: both POMp75 and POMp100 DNA homologous pairing activities are associated to cell proliferation.

    Bertrand P, Akhmedov AT, Delacote F, Durrbach A and Lopez BS

    CEA, DSV, DRR, CNRS UMR 217, Fontenay aux Roses, France.

    We have previously developed an assay to measure DNA homologous pairing activities in crude extracts: The POM blot. In mammalian nuclear extracts, we detected two major DNA homologous pairing activities: POMp100 and POMp75. Here, we present the purification and identification of POMp75 as the pro-oncoprotein TLS/FUS. Because of the pro-oncogene status of TLS/FUS, we studied in addition, the relationships between cell proliferation and POM activities. We show that transformation of human fibroblasts by SV40 large T antigen results in a strong increase of both POMpl00 and TLS/POMp75 activities. Although detectable levels of both POMp100 and TLS/POMp75 are observed in non-immortalized fibroblasts or lymphocytes, fibroblasts at mid confluence or lymphocytes stimulated by phytohaemaglutinin, show higher levels of POM activities. Moreover, induction of differentiation of mouse F9 line by retinoic acid leads to the inhibition of both POMp100 and TLS/POMp75 activities. Comparison of POM activity of TLS/FUS with the amount of TLS protein detected by Western blot, suggests that the POM activity could be regulated by post-translation modification. Taken together, these results indicate that POMp100 and TLS/POMp75 activities are present in normal cells but are connected to cell proliferation. Possible relationship between cell proliferation, response to DNA damage and DNA homologous pairing activity of the pro-oncoprotein TLS/FUS are discussed.

    Oncogene 1999;18;31;4515-21

  • Genomic structure of the human RBP56/hTAFII68 and FUS/TLS genes.

    Morohoshi F, Ootsuka Y, Arai K, Ichikawa H, Mitani S, Munakata N and Ohki M

    Radiobiology Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan. fmorohos@ncc.go.jp

    We previously isolated RBP56 cDNA by PCR using mixed primers designed from the conserved sequences of the RNA binding domain of FUS/TLS and EWS proteins. RBP56 protein turned out to be hTAFII68 which was isolated as a TATA-binding protein associated factor (TAF) from a sub-population of TFIID complexes (Bertolotti A., Lutz, Y., Heard, D.J., Chambon, P., Tora, L., 1996. hTAFII68, a novel RNA/ssDNA-binding protein with homology to the proto-oncoproteins TLS/FUS and EWS is associated with both TFIID and RNA polymerase II. EMBO J. 15, 5022-5031). The RBP56/hTAFII68, FUS/TLS and EWS proteins comprise a sub-family of RNA binding proteins, which consist of an N-terminal Ser, Gly, Gln and Tyr-rich region, an RNA binding domain, a Cys2/Cys2 zinc finger motif and a C-terminal RGG-containing region. Rearrangement of the FUS/TLS gene and the EWS gene has been found in several types of malignant tumors, and the resultant fusion proteins play an important role in the pathogenesis of these tumors. In the present study, we determined the genomic structure of the RBP56/hTAFII68 gene. The RBP56/hTAFII68 gene spans about 37kb and consists of 16 exons from 33bp to 562bp. The longest exon, exon 15, encodes the C-terminal region containing 19 repeats of a degenerate DR(S)GG(G)YGG sequence. While the structure of the FUS/TLS gene has been reported previously, we determined the total DNA sequence of the FUS/TLS gene, consisting of 12kb. The RBP56/hTAFII68, FUS/TLS and EWS genes consist of similar numbers of exons. Comparison of the structures of these three genes showed that the organization of exons in the central part encoding a homologous RNA binding domain and a cysteine finger motif is highly conserved, and other exon boundaries are also located at similar sites, indicating that these three genes most likely originate from the same ancestor gene.

    Gene 1998;221;2;191-8

  • Oncoprotein TLS interacts with serine-arginine proteins involved in RNA splicing.

    Yang L, Embree LJ, Tsai S and Hickstein DD

    Medical Research Service, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA.

    The gene encoding the human TLS protein, also termed FUS, is located at the site of chromosomal translocations in human leukemias and sarcomas where it forms a chimeric fusion gene with one of several different genes. To identify interacting partners of TLS, we screened a yeast two-hybrid cDNA library constructed from mouse hematopoietic cells using the C-terminal region of TLS in the bait plasmid. Two cDNAs encoding members of the serine-arginine (SR) family of proteins were isolated. The first SR protein is the mouse homolog of human splicing factor SC35, and the second SR member is a novel 183-amino acid protein that we term TASR (TLS-associated serine-arginine protein). cDNA cloning of human TASR indicated that mouse and human TASR have identical amino acid sequences. The interactions between TLS and these two SR proteins were confirmed by co-transfection and immunoprecipitation studies. In vivo splicing assays indicated that SC35 and TASR influence splice site selection of adenovirus E1A pre-mRNA. TLS may recruit SR splicing factors to specific target genes through interaction with its C-terminal region, and chromosomal translocations that truncate the C-terminal region of TLS may prevent this interaction. Thus TLS translocations may alter RNA processing and play a role in malignant transformation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;43;27761-4

  • The transcriptional repressor ZFM1 interacts with and modulates the ability of EWS to activate transcription.

    Zhang D, Paley AJ and Childs G

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.

    The ZFM1 protein is both a transcriptional repressor and identical to the splicing factor SF1. ZFM1 was shown to interact with and repress transcription from the glycine, glutamine, serine, and threonine-rich transcription activation domain of the sea urchin transcription factor, stage-specific activator protein (SSAP). EWS, a human protein involved in cellular transformation in Ewing's sarcoma tumors, contains an NH2-terminal transcriptional activation domain (NTD) which resembles that of SSAP in both amino acid composition and the ability to drive transcription to levels higher than VP16 in most cell types. Here we report that ZFM1 also interacts with EWS in both two-hybrid assays and glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments. The region on EWS which interacts with ZFM1 maps to 37 amino acids within its NTD. Overexpression of ZFM1 in HepG2 cells represses the transactivation of reporter gene expression driven by Gal4-EWS-NTD fusion protein and this repression correlates with ZFM1 binding to EWS. Furthermore, two proteins, TLS and hTAFII68, which have extensive homology to EWS, also interact with ZFM1. Recently, it was discovered that EWS/TLS/hTAFII68 are each present in distinct TFIID populations and EWS and hTAFII68 were also found to be associated with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. The association of ZFM1 with these proteins implies that one normal cellular function for ZFM1 may be to negatively modulate transcription of target genes coordinated by these cofactors.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM30333

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;29;18086-91

  • The transcription factor Spi-1/PU.1 interacts with the potential splicing factor TLS.

    Hallier M, Lerga A, Barnache S, Tavitian A and Moreau-Gachelin F

    INSERM U 248, Institut Curie, 26, rue d'Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France.

    Spi-1/PU.1 is an Ets protein deregulated by insertional mutagenesis during the murine Friend erythroleukemia. The overexpression of the normal protein in a proerythroblastic cell prevents its terminal differentiation. In normal hematopoiesis Spi-1/PU.1 is a transcription factor that plays a key role in normal myeloid and B lymphoid differentiation. Moreover, Spi-1/PU.1 binds RNA and interferes in vitro with the splicing process. Here we report that Spi-1 interacts in vivo with TLS (translocated in liposarcoma), a RNA-binding protein involved in human tumor-specific chromosomal translocations. This interaction appears functionally relevant, since TLS is capable of reducing the abilities of Spi-1/PU.1 to bind DNA and to transactivate the expression of a reporter gene. In addition, we observe that TLS is potentially a splicing factor. It promotes the use of the distal 5' splice site during the E1A pre-mRNA splicing. This effect is counterpoised in vivo by Spi-1. These data suggest that alteration of pre-mRNA alternative splicing by Spi-1 could be involved in the transformation of an erythroblastic cell.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;9;4838-42

  • TLS (translocated-in-liposarcoma) is a high-affinity interactor for steroid, thyroid hormone, and retinoid receptors.

    Powers CA, Mathur M, Raaka BM, Ron D and Samuels HH

    Division of Molecular Endocrinology, New York University Medical Center 10016, USA.

    Nuclear receptors for steroid hormones, thyroid hormone, retinoids, and vitamin D are thought to mediate their transcriptional effects in concert with coregulator proteins that modulate receptor interactions with components of the basal transcription complex. In an effort to identify potential coregulators, receptor fusions with glutathione-S-transferase were used to isolate proteins in nuclear extracts capable of binding nuclear hormone receptors. Glutathione-S-transferase fusions with mouse retinoid X receptor-alpha enabled the selective isolation of a 65-kDa protein (p65) from nuclear extracts of rat and human cells. Binding of p65 to mouse retinoid X receptor-alpha was centered around the DNA-binding domain. p65 also bound regions encompassing the DNA-binding domain in estrogen, thyroid hormone, and glucocorticoid receptors. p65 was identified as TLS (translocated-in-liposarcoma), a recently identified member of the RNP family of nuclear RNA-binding proteins whose members are thought to function in RNA processing. The N-terminal half of TLS bound to thyroid hormone receptor with high affinity while the receptor was bound to appropriate DNA target sites. Functional studies indicated that the N-terminal half of TLS can interact with thyroid hormone receptor in vivo. TLS was originally discovered as part of a fusion protein arising from a chromosomal translocation causing human myxoid liposarcomas. TLS contains a potent transactivation domain whose translocation-induced fusion with a DNA-binding protein (CHOP) yields a powerful transforming oncogene and transcription factor. The transactivation and RNA-binding properties of TLS and the nature of its interaction with nuclear receptors suggest a novel role in nuclear receptor function.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-60945; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-09211, DK-16636; ...

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 1998;12;1;4-18

  • TLS (FUS) binds RNA in vivo and engages in nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling.

    Zinszner H, Sok J, Immanuel D, Yin Y and Ron D

    Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, the Deparment of Medicine, NYU Medical Center, New York 10016, USA.

    TLS, the product of a gene commonly translocated in liposarcomas (TLS), is prototypical of a newly identified class of nuclear proteins that contain a C-terminal domain with a distinct RNA recognition motif (RRM) surrounded by Arg-Gly-Gly (RGG) repeats. Its unique N terminus serves as an essential transforming domain for a number of fusion oncoproteins in human sarcomas and leukemias. In this study we use an in vivo UV crosslinking procedure to probe the interactions of TLS with RNA. TLS is found to bind RNA in vivo and the association of TLS with RNA is rapidly diminished by treating cells with transcriptional inhibitors. This suggests that the species bound by TLS turns over rapidly. Surprisingly, the RRM was found to be dispensable for RNA binding by TLS in vivo, suggesting that at any one time most of the interactions between TLS and RNA in the cell are not sequence specific. Analysis of inter specific heterokaryons formed between human and mouse or Xenopus cells revealed that TLS engages in rapid nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, a finding confirmed by the ability of anti-TLS antibodies to trap TLS when injected into the cytoplasm of HeLa cells. Cellular fractionation experiments suggest that TLS binds to RNA in both the nucleus and cytoplasm and support the hypothesis that TLS functions as a heterogeneous ribonuclear protein (hnRNP)-like chaperone of RNA. These findings are discussed in the context of the role altered forms of TLS play in cellular transformation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-60945; NIGMS NIH HHS: 5 T32 GM 07038

    Journal of cell science 1997;110 ( Pt 15);1741-50

  • Expression patterns of the human sarcoma-associated genes FUS and EWS and the genomic structure of FUS.

    Aman P, Panagopoulos I, Lassen C, Fioretos T, Mencinger M, Toresson H, Höglund M, Forster A, Rabbitts TH, Ron D, Mandahl N and Mitelman F

    Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital of Lund, Sweden.

    FUS (TLS) was first identified as the 5'-part of a fusion gene with CHOP (GADD153, DDIT3) in myxoid liposarcomas with t(12; 16)(q13; p11). Homologies were found with the EWS oncogene, which is rearranged in Ewing sarcomas and other neoplasias. The genomic structure of FUS shows extensive similarities with that of EWS, but the exon/intron structures differ in the 5' parts, and overall FUS is smaller than EWS. Exon 3 of FUS corresponds to exons 3 and 4 in EWS. FUS exons 4-6 correspond to EWS exons 5-8. Exons 7 to 15 of FUS are very similar to those in EWS, although the EWS exons are larger than the corresponding FUS exons. FUS and EWS were expressed in all tissues investigated. The transcripts were stable within the 160-min half-life experiments. No or little variation in FUS or EWS expression was seen when resting lymphocytes were activated. These observations indicate that FUS and EWS belong to the housekeeping type of genes. This view is supported by the presence of the housekeeping gene type of promoter region in both genes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01-CA60945

    Genomics 1996;37;1;1-8

  • Characterization of the CHOP breakpoints and fusion transcripts in myxoid liposarcomas with the 12;16 translocation.

    Panagopoulos I, Mandahl N, Ron D, Höglund M, Nilbert M, Mertens F, Mitelman F and Aman P

    Department of Clinical Genetics, Lund University Hospital, Sweden.

    Myxoid liposarcomas are cytogenetically characterized by t(12;16)(q13;p11). The translocation results in rearrangements of the CHOP gene in 12q13 and the FUS gene in 16p11, creating a fusion gene where the RNA-binding domain of FUS is replaced by the DNA-binding and leucine zipper dimerization domain of CHOP. In the present study, we have mapped 16 genomic breakpoints in the region of the CHOP gene and isolated and sequenced a new variant (type II) of the chimeric FUS/CHOP transcript. The genomic breakpoints were dispersed along a 7.50-kilobase pair region from a SstI cleavage site upstream of the promoter of CHOP to a PstI cleavage site within intron 1. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of tumor samples demonstrated the presence of two variant fragments, 654 base pairs (type I) and 378 base pairs (type II) in size. Of the 13 samples analyzed, 7 showed the smaller, 3 showed the larger, and 3 showed both types of transcripts. We cloned and sequenced the two fragments and found in type II a novel fusion point in the FUS mRNA 275 base pairs upstream of that present in the type I transcript. In both types of transcripts the interrupted FUS is followed by the entire exon 2 of CHOP. As a consequence the normally nontranslated exon 2 is translated and in both types there is in the junction between FUS and CHOP a shift from a FUS glycine codon to a valine codon in the chimeric mRNA.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA60945

    Cancer research 1994;54;24;6500-3

  • An RNA-binding protein gene, TLS/FUS, is fused to ERG in human myeloid leukemia with t(16;21) chromosomal translocation.

    Ichikawa H, Shimizu K, Hayashi Y and Ohki M

    Radiobiology Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

    The t(16;21)(p11;q22) translocation is a recurrent chromosomal abnormality found in several types of myeloid leukemia. We have previously demonstrated that the breakpoints of this translocation are clustered in a specific intron of the ERG gene on chromosome 21, which has recently been reported to be involved in Ewing's sarcoma. We show here that the TLS/FUS gene on chromosome 16 is fused with the ERG gene to produce the TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric transcript by this translocation. The TLS/FUS gene has been identified as a translocated gene in myxoid liposarcoma by the t(12;16)(q13;p11) translocation and encodes an RNA-binding protein that is highly homologous to the product of the EWS gene involved in Ewing's sarcoma. Thus, the TLS/FUS-ERG gene fusion in t(16;21) leukemia is predicted to produce a protein that is very similar to the EWS-ERG chimeric protein responsible for Ewing's sarcoma.

    Cancer research 1994;54;11;2865-8

  • Fusion of CHOP to a novel RNA-binding protein in human myxoid liposarcoma.

    Crozat A, Aman P, Mandahl N and Ron D

    Department of Medicine, NYU Medical Center, New York 10016.

    Human myxoid liposarcomas contain a characteristic chromosomal translocation, t(12;16)(q13;p11), that is associated with a structural rearrangement of the gene encoding CHOP, a growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible member of the C/EBP family of transcription factors residing on 12q13.1. Using a CHOP-specific complementary probe and antiserum we report here the presence of an abnormal CHOP transcript and protein in these tumours. Cloning of the translocation-associated CHOP gene product revealed a fusion between CHOP and a gene provisionally named TLS (translocated in liposarcoma). TLS is a novel nuclear RNA-binding protein with extensive sequence similarity to EWS, the product of a gene commonly translocated in Ewing's sarcoma. In TLS-CHOP the RNA-binding domain of TLS is replaced by the DNA-binding and leucine zipper dimerization domain of CHOP. Targeting of a conserved effector domain of RNA-binding proteins to DNA may play a role in tumour formation.

    Nature 1993;363;6430;640-4

  • Fusion of the dominant negative transcription regulator CHOP with a novel gene FUS by translocation t(12;16) in malignant liposarcoma.

    Rabbitts TH, Forster A, Larson R and Nathan P

    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.

    The search for tumour-specific markers is one of the chief goals in cancer biology. We show that the translocation t(12;16)(q13:p11) in malignant myxoid liposarcoma can be a fusion of the CHOP dominant negative transcription factor gene with a novel gene, FUS, which can result in fusion of the FUS glycine-rich protein with the whole CHOP coding region. The data support the concept that protein fusion may commonly occur in solid tumours resulting in tumour-specific markers of potential clinical importance. The data also indicate the importance of transcription disruption in the pathogenesis of solid tumours.

    Nature genetics 1993;4;2;175-80

  • Localization of the chromosomal breakpoints of the t(12;16) in liposarcoma to subbands 12q13.3 and 16p11.2.

    Eneroth M, Mandahl N, Heim S, Willén H, Rydholm A, Alberts KA and Mitelman F

    Department of Clinical Genetics, Lund University Hospital, Sweden.

    Short-term cultures of two myxoid liposarcomas and two mixed-type (myxoid and round cell) liposarcomas were cytogenetically analyzed. A t(12;16)(q13;p11) was present in three tumors, whereas the fourth had an unbalanced 12;16-translocation with breaks in 12q13 and 12q22, with loss of the 12q13-q22 segment, and in 16p11. In the two mixed liposarcomas, the breakpoints could be determined at subband level to 12q13.3 and 16p11.2.

    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 1990;48;1;101-7

Gene lists (2)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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