G2Cdb::Human Disease report

Disease id
D00000092
Name
Acute myelogenous leukaemia
Nervous system disease
no

Genes (2)

Gene Name/Description Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
G00000036 NF1
neurofibromin 1
Y (8528106) Microinsertion (MI) N
G00001453 PTPN11
protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11
Y (15604238) Microinsertion (MI) Y

References

  • Activating mutations of the noonan syndrome-associated SHP2/PTPN11 gene in human solid tumors and adult acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Bentires-Alj M, Paez JG, David FS, Keilhack H, Halmos B, Naoki K, Maris JM, Richardson A, Bardelli A, Sugarbaker DJ, Richards WG, Du J, Girard L, Minna JD, Loh ML, Fisher DE, Velculescu VE, Vogelstein B, Meyerson M, Sellers WR and Neel BG

    Cancer Biology Program, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. mbentire@bidmc.harvard.edu

    The SH2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPN11 (Shp2) is required for normal development and is an essential component of signaling pathways initiated by growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix. In many of these pathways, Shp2 acts upstream of Ras. About 50% of patients with Noonan syndrome have germ-line PTPN11 gain of function mutations. Associations between Noonan syndrome and an increased risk of some malignancies, notably leukemia and neuroblastoma, have been reported, and recent data indicate that somatic PTPN11 mutations occur in children with sporadic juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, myelodysplasic syndrome, B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia patients without PTPN11 mutations have either homozygotic NF-1 deletion or activating RAS mutations. Given the role of Shp2 in Ras activation and the frequent mutation of RAS in human tumors, these data raise the possibility that PTPN11 mutations play a broader role in cancer. We asked whether PTPN11 mutations occur in other malignancies in which activating RAS mutations occur at low but significant frequency. Sequencing of PTPN11 from 13 different human neoplasms including breast, lung, gastric, and neuroblastoma tumors and adult AML and acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed 11 missense mutations. Five are known mutations predicted to result in an activated form of Shp2, whereas six are new mutations. Biochemical analysis confirmed that several of the new mutations result in increased Shp2 activity. Our data demonstrate that mutations in PTPN11 occur at low frequency in several human cancers, especially neuroblastoma and AML, and suggest that Shp2 may be a novel target for antineoplastic therapy.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA43460, R01 CA49152

    Cancer research 2004;64;24;8816-20

  • Analysis of mutations of neurofibromatosis type 1 gene and N-ras gene in acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Lee YY, Kim WS, Bang YJ, Jung CW, Park S, Yoon WJ, Cho KS, Kim IS, Jung TJ, Choi IY et al.

    Department of Internal Medicine, Han Yang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene is a tumor suppressor gene, and the NF1 gene product, neurofibromin, can downregulate the N-ras gene. Because the N-ras gene is often mutated in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), we wondered if the NF1 gene might be mutated in those AML samples not having N-ras mutations. We investigated the mutational status of the N-ras gene and the FLR exon of codons 1371-1423 of the open reading frame of the full-length NF1 cDNA, which has a strong homology with the mammalian ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP), especially for a stretch of three consecutive amino acids (F, L, R), by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing in samples from patients with AML. Of 48 AML patients, 10 (21%) had point (missense) mutations of the N-ras gene involving codons 12, 13 and 61. However, mutations in the FLR exon of the NF1 gene were not detected in any of the AML samples. We also examined the difference of clinical response to induction therapy between AML patients with and without N-ras mutation. A significantly lower rate of complete remission was noted in individuals with N-ras gene mutations. These results suggest that mutation of the NF1 gene, at least in the FLR exon, is very rare in AML and the NF1 gene probably is not a functional complement of the N-ras gene mutation. The presence of N-ras gene mutation may be associated with a lower clinical response to antileukemic therapy.

    Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 1995;13;5;556-63

Literature (2)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • Activating mutations of the noonan syndrome-associated SHP2/PTPN11 gene in human solid tumors and adult acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Bentires-Alj M, Paez JG, David FS, Keilhack H, Halmos B, Naoki K, Maris JM, Richardson A, Bardelli A, Sugarbaker DJ, Richards WG, Du J, Girard L, Minna JD, Loh ML, Fisher DE, Velculescu VE, Vogelstein B, Meyerson M, Sellers WR and Neel BG

    Cancer Biology Program, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. mbentire@bidmc.harvard.edu

    The SH2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPN11 (Shp2) is required for normal development and is an essential component of signaling pathways initiated by growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix. In many of these pathways, Shp2 acts upstream of Ras. About 50% of patients with Noonan syndrome have germ-line PTPN11 gain of function mutations. Associations between Noonan syndrome and an increased risk of some malignancies, notably leukemia and neuroblastoma, have been reported, and recent data indicate that somatic PTPN11 mutations occur in children with sporadic juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, myelodysplasic syndrome, B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia patients without PTPN11 mutations have either homozygotic NF-1 deletion or activating RAS mutations. Given the role of Shp2 in Ras activation and the frequent mutation of RAS in human tumors, these data raise the possibility that PTPN11 mutations play a broader role in cancer. We asked whether PTPN11 mutations occur in other malignancies in which activating RAS mutations occur at low but significant frequency. Sequencing of PTPN11 from 13 different human neoplasms including breast, lung, gastric, and neuroblastoma tumors and adult AML and acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed 11 missense mutations. Five are known mutations predicted to result in an activated form of Shp2, whereas six are new mutations. Biochemical analysis confirmed that several of the new mutations result in increased Shp2 activity. Our data demonstrate that mutations in PTPN11 occur at low frequency in several human cancers, especially neuroblastoma and AML, and suggest that Shp2 may be a novel target for antineoplastic therapy.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA43460, R01 CA49152

    Cancer research 2004;64;24;8816-20

  • Analysis of mutations of neurofibromatosis type 1 gene and N-ras gene in acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Lee YY, Kim WS, Bang YJ, Jung CW, Park S, Yoon WJ, Cho KS, Kim IS, Jung TJ, Choi IY et al.

    Department of Internal Medicine, Han Yang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene is a tumor suppressor gene, and the NF1 gene product, neurofibromin, can downregulate the N-ras gene. Because the N-ras gene is often mutated in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), we wondered if the NF1 gene might be mutated in those AML samples not having N-ras mutations. We investigated the mutational status of the N-ras gene and the FLR exon of codons 1371-1423 of the open reading frame of the full-length NF1 cDNA, which has a strong homology with the mammalian ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP), especially for a stretch of three consecutive amino acids (F, L, R), by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing in samples from patients with AML. Of 48 AML patients, 10 (21%) had point (missense) mutations of the N-ras gene involving codons 12, 13 and 61. However, mutations in the FLR exon of the NF1 gene were not detected in any of the AML samples. We also examined the difference of clinical response to induction therapy between AML patients with and without N-ras mutation. A significantly lower rate of complete remission was noted in individuals with N-ras gene mutations. These results suggest that mutation of the NF1 gene, at least in the FLR exon, is very rare in AML and the NF1 gene probably is not a functional complement of the N-ras gene mutation. The presence of N-ras gene mutation may be associated with a lower clinical response to antileukemic therapy.

    Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 1995;13;5;556-63

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EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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