G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001453
Gene symbol
PTPN11 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11
Orthologue
G00000204 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000179295 (Ensembl human gene)
5781 (Entrez Gene)
16 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PTPN11 (GeneCards)
Literature
176876 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:9644 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q06124 (UniProt)

Synonyms (5)

  • BPTP3
  • PTP2C
  • SH-PTP2
  • SHP-2
  • SHP2

Diseases (25)

Disease Nervous effect Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (11704759) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (11992261) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000233: Pulmonary valve stenosis N Y (11992261) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000304: Leopard syndrome N Y (12058348) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (12161469) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000304: Leopard syndrome N Y (12161596) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (12325025) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000233: Pulmonary valve stenosis N Y (12325025) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (12529711) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (12717436) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (12717436) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (12717436) Trinucleotide substitution (TriNS) Y
D00000099: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia N Y (12717436) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000099: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia N Y (12717436) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000099: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia N Y (12717436) Trinucleotide substitution (TriNS) Y
D00000117: Myelodysplastic syndrome N Y (12717436) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000117: Myelodysplastic syndrome N Y (12717436) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000117: Myelodysplastic syndrome N Y (12717436) Trinucleotide substitution (TriNS) Y
D00000093: Acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (12717436) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000093: Acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (12717436) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000093: Acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (12717436) Trinucleotide substitution (TriNS) Y
D00000304: Leopard syndrome N Y (14634749) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000099: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia N Y (14644997) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000304: Leopard syndrome N Y (14961557) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (14974085) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000089: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia N Y (14982869) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000093: Acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (14982869) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000304: Leopard syndrome N Y (14991917) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000235: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy N Y (14991917) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (15001945) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000117: Myelodysplastic syndrome N Y (15009076) Unknown (?) N
D00000093: Acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (15009076) Unknown (?) N
D00000099: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia N Y (15085150) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (15211660) Deletion (D) Y
D00000278: Hydrops fetalis N Y (15211660) Deletion (D) Y
D00000099: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia N Y (15211660) Deletion (D) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (15240615) Deletion (D) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (15240615) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000117: Myelodysplastic syndrome N Y (15282682) No mutation found (N) N
D00000093: Acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (15282682) No mutation found (N) N
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (15384080) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000093: Acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (15385933) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000304: Leopard syndrome N Y (15389709) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000307: Noonan-like/multiple giant cell lesion syndrome N Y (15470362) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000304: Leopard syndrome N Y (15520399) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (15539800) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (15539800) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000099: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia N Y (15539800) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000235: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy N Y (15578621) Polymorphism (P) N
D00000042: Breast cancer N Y (15604238) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000028: Lung cancer N Y (15604238) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000018: Gastric cancer N Y (15604238) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000066: Neuroblastoma Y Y (15604238) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000092: Acute myelogenous leukaemia N Y (15604238) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000304: Leopard syndrome N Y (15690106) Microinsertion (MI) ?
D00000117: Myelodysplastic syndrome N Y (15725481) Unknown (?) ?
D00000096: Chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia N Y (15725481) Unknown (?) ?
D00000093: Acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (15749679) Unknown (?) ?
D00000093: Acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (15842656) Unknown (?) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (15886577) Unknown (?) Y
D00000304: Leopard syndrome N Y (15886577) Unknown (?) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (15889278) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000235: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy N Y (15889278) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (15928039) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000119: Myeloproliferative disease N Y (15928039) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000099: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia N Y (15928039) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (15929108) Unknown (?) Y
D00000093: Acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (15929108) Unknown (?) Y
D00000285: Atrioventricular septal defect N Y (15940693) Microinsertion (MI) ?
D00000286: Coarctation of the aorta N Y (15940693) Microinsertion (MI) ?
D00000306: Noonan syndrome with growth hormone resistance N Y (15985475) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000241: Cherubism N Y (15996221) Unknown (?) Y
D00000244: Gastric atrophy N Y (16032704) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (16078230) Duplication (Du) Y
D00000102: Paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (16115145) Unknown (?) ?
D00000304: Leopard syndrome N Y (16172598) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000099: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia N Y (16188759) Unknown (?) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (16188759) Unknown (?) Y
D00000235: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy N Y (16488201) No mutation found (N) N
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (16498234) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000066: Neuroblastoma Y Y (16518851) Microinsertion (MI) N
D00000040: Rhabdomyosarcoma N Y (16518851) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000089: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia N Y (16533526) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000304: Leopard syndrome N Y (16679933) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000304: Leopard syndrome N Y (16733669) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (16804314) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (17020470) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (17052965) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (17184563) Unknown (?) Y
D00000313: Aortic valvar stenosis N Y (17184563) Unknown (?) Y
D00000244: Gastric atrophy N Y (17235629) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000093: Acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (17330262) Deletion (D) Y
D00000093: Acute myeloid leukaemia N Y (17330262) Translocation (T) Y
D00000117: Myelodysplastic syndrome N Y (17339262) Deletion (D) Y
D00000117: Myelodysplastic syndrome N Y (17339262) Translocation (T) Y
D00000305: Noonan syndrome N Y (17339163) Microinsertion (MI) Y

References

  • Mutations of the PTPN11 gene in therapy-related MDS and AML with rare balanced chromosome translocations.

    Christiansen DH, Desta F, Andersen MK and Pedersen-Bjergaard J

    Cytogenetic Laboratory, Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Clinical Genetics, The Juliane Marie Center, Copenhagen DK 2100 Ø, Denmark.

    Activating mutations of the PTPN11 gene encoding the SHP2 tyrosine phosphatase is the most common genetic abnormality in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and is sporadically observed in myelodysplasia (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). An unselected series of 140 patients with therapy-related MDS or AML were investigated for mutations of PTPN11 in Exons 3, 4, 8, and 13. Four cases had mutations of the gene; three of these had deletions or loss of chromosome arm 7q. Two cases had rare balanced translocations to chromosome band 21q22 with rearrangement of the RUNX1 gene and the other two patients had rare balanced translocations to chromosome band 3q26 with rearrangement of the EVI1 gene. The findings support cooperation between so called Class I and Class II mutations in leukemogenesis.

    Genes, chromosomes & cancer 2007;46;6;517-21

  • Patients with functional constipation do not have increased prevalence of colorectal cancer precursors.

    Chan AO, Hui WM, Leung G, Tong T, Hung IF, Chan P, Hsu A, But D, Wong BC, Lam SK and Lam KF

    Gut 2007;56;3;451-2

  • Mutational analysis of PTPN11 gene in Taiwanese children with Noonan syndrome.

    Hung CS, Lin JL, Lee YJ, Lin SP, Chao MC and Lo FS

    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder presenting with characteristic facies, short stature, skeletal anomalies, and congenital heart defects. Mutations in protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type 11 (PTPN11), encoding SHP-2, account for 33-50% of NS. This study screened for mutations in the PTPN11 gene in 34 Taiwanese patients with NS. Mutation analysis of the 15 coding exons and exon/intron boundaries was performed by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the PTPN11 gene. We identified 10 different missense mutations in 13 (38%) patients, including a novel missense mutation (855T>G, F285L). These mutations were clustered in exon 3 (n = 6) encoding the N-SH2 domain, exon 4 (n = 2) encoding the C-SH2 domain, and in exons 8 (n = 2) and 13 (n = 3) encoding the PTP domain. In conclusion, this study provides further support that PTPN11 mutations are responsible for Noonan syndrome in Taiwanese patients.

    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi 2007;106;2;169-72

  • Severe aortic valvar stenosis in familial Noonan syndrome with mutation of the PTPN11 gene.

    Abadir S, Edouard T and Julia S

    Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Hôpital des Enfants, Toulouse, France. abadir@club-internet.fr

    Noonan's syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disease, in which mutation of the PTPN11 gene is found in from one-third to half of all cases. Pulmonary valvar stenosis and myocardiopathy are frequently associated cardiac malformations, whereas aortic valvar stenosis is rarely described. We report, as far as we know, the first case of familial Noonan syndrome with severe aortic valvar stenosis, demonstrating mutation of the PTPN11 gene in the father of the patient.

    Cardiology in the young 2007;17;1;95-7

  • Mild variable Noonan syndrome in a family with a novel PTPN11 mutation.

    Zenker M, Voss E and Reis A

    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Erlangen--Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 10, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. mzenker@humgenet.uni-erlangen.de

    Noonan syndrome (OMIM 163950) is a common genetic condition with variable clinical expression and genetic heterogeneity. About half of the cases can be accounted to activating mutations in the PTPN11 gene encoding SHP-2. We report on a family with mild, variable expression of Noonan syndrome in five individuals. Clinical manifestations included short stature, craniofacial anomalies and thorax deformity, but none of the affected family members had a heart defect. Sequencing of the entire coding region of PTPN11 revealed a novel mutation c.1226G-->C in exon 11 predicting the amino acid exchange G409A. This mutation is not located in the previously known mutation clusters. Our observation and the recent report of a mutation affecting a neighbouring residue (T411M) in a family with a variable phenotype suggest that mutations in this particular region of SHP-2 may have effects on the protein that differ from those of the classical mutations.

    European journal of medical genetics 2007;50;1;43-7

  • Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia in a child with Noonan syndrome and clonal duplication of the germline PTPN11 mutation.

    Chantrain CF, Jijon P, De Raedt T, Vermylen C, Poirel HA, Legius E and Brichard B

    Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, St-Luc University Hospital, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium. christophe.chantrain@pedi.ucl.ac.be

    A 4-year-old girl with Noonan syndrome (NS) and constitutive PTPN11 mutation presented with stage 4 neuroblastoma and was treated by intensive chemotherapy. During the treatment, cytogenetic analysis revealed the development of a hyperdiploid clone with duplication of the germline PTPN11 mutation in a morphologically normal bone marrow. A few months later, the patient developed acute myelomonoblastic leukemia with an additional clonal deletion of 7q. Although, we cannot conclude whether there is an association between NS and neuroblastoma, this case suggests that duplication of germline PTPN11 mutations, potentially induced by chemotherapy, contributes to leukemogenesis in patients with NS.

    Pediatric blood & cancer 2007;48;1;101-4

  • PTPN11 gene mutations: linking the Gln510Glu mutation to the "LEOPARD syndrome phenotype".

    Digilio MC, Sarkozy A, Pacileo G, Limongelli G, Marino B and Dallapiccola B

    Medical Genetics, Bambino Gesù Hospital, Rome, Italy, digilio@opbg.net.

    We describe the "LEOPARD syndrome (LS) phenotype" associated with the Gln510Glu mutation of the PTPN11 gene in two patients presenting with rapidly progressive severe biventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and structural abnormalities of the mitral valve, facial anomalies, café-au-lait spots and multiple lentigines.

    European journal of pediatrics 2006;165;11;803-5

  • Mutation screening of the PTPN11 gene in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Limongelli G, Hawkes L, Calabro R, McKenna WJ and Syrris P

    Department of Medicine, University College London and University College London Hospitals Trust, Cobbold Laboratories, 7th Floor, Jules Thorn Institute, Middlesex Hospital, 48 Riding House Street, London W1W 7EY, UK.

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited cardiac disease and a major cause of sudden death. It is an autosomal dominant disorder predominantly caused by mutations in genes encoding for sarcomeric proteins. Only 50-60% of HCM probands have mutations in known genes suggesting the presence of additional disease genes. Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes are characterised by multiple dysmorphia and cardiac defects with HCM present in approximately 20% of cases. Both syndromes are caused by mutations in the PTPN11 gene which codes for the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. It is suspected but unproven that the cardiac phenotype may predominate or even be present in isolation. In order to determine possible involvement of this gene in the pathogenesis of HCM, we performed mutation screening of the PTPN11 coding region in 250 selected HCM probands (200 patients without mutations in sarcomeric genes and 50 with identified mutations). No mutations in PTPN11 were identified. Our data suggests that mutations in the PTPN11 gene are not a cause of HCM in the absence of Noonan/LEOPARD syndromes.

    European journal of medical genetics 2006;49;5;426-30

  • PTPN11, RAS and FLT3 mutations in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Yamamoto T, Isomura M, Xu Y, Liang J, Yagasaki H, Kamachi Y, Kudo K, Kiyoi H, Naoe T and Kojma S

    Departments of Pediatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan. tomotomo@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    PTPN11, the gene which encodes protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, plays an important role in regulating intracellular signaling. Germline mutations in PTPN11 were first observed in Noonan syndrome, while somatic mutations were identified in hematological myeloid malignancies. Recently, PTPN11 mutations have been reported in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of mutations in PTPN11, RAS and FLT3 in samples from 95 Japanese children with ALL. We observed exon 3 and 8 missense mutations of PTPN11 in 6 children with B precursor ALL. One patient with Down syndrome and ALL had PTPN11 mutation. We also identified RAS mutations in ten patients and FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3/ITD) in one patient. None of the patients had simultaneous mutations in PTPN11 and RAS, while one patient had both PTPN11 and FLT3 mutations. These data suggest that PTPN11 mutation may play an important role for leukemogenesis in a proportion of children with ALL, particularly B precursor ALL.

    Leukemia research 2006;30;9;1085-9

  • Mutations of the PTPN11 and RAS genes in rhabdomyosarcoma and pediatric hematological malignancies.

    Chen Y, Takita J, Hiwatari M, Igarashi T, Hanada R, Kikuchi A, Hongo T, Taki T, Ogasawara M, Shimada A and Hayashi Y

    Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

    PTPN11 has been identified as a causative gene in Noonan syndrome (NS), responsible for about 50% of cases of NS. Given the association between NS and an increased risk of some malignancies, notably leukemia and probably some solid tumors including neuroblastoma (NB) and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), recent studies have reported that gain-of-function somatic mutations in PTPN11 occur in some hematological malignancies, especially de novo juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and in some solid tumors such as NB, although at a low frequency. In a screen for mutations of PTPN11 in 7 cell lines and 30 fresh tumors of RMS and in 25 cell lines and 40 fresh tumors of NB, we identified a missense mutation (A72T) in an embryonal RMS patient. In the RMS samples, we also detected mutations of NRAS in 1 cell line and 1 patient; both mutations were in embryonal RMSs and had no PTPN11 mutations. No mutations of PTPN11 were detected in NB. In 95 leukemia cell lines and 261 fresh leukemia samples including 22 JMMLs, 9 kinds of missense mutations were detected in 17 leukemia samples, which included 11 (50.0%) mutations in JMML samples and lower frequencies in other hematological malignancies. Furthermore, we identified 4 (18.2%) NRAS mutations and 1 (4.5%) KRAS mutation in 5 JMML samples, 1 of which had a concomitant PTPN11 mutation. Our data suggest that mutations of PTPN11 as well as RAS play a role in the pathogenesis of not only myeloid hematological malignancies but also a subset of RMS malignancies.

    Genes, chromosomes & cancer 2006;45;6;583-91

  • A PTPN11 gene mutation (Y63C) causing Noonan syndrome is not associated with short stature in general population.

    Takahashi I, Utsunomiya M, Inoue K, Takahashi T, Nozaki J, Wada Y, Takada G and Koizumi A

    Department of Pediatrics, Akita University School of Medicine, Japan. tomy@med.akita-u.ac.jp

    Human growth is a highly complicated process, but it is obviously influenced by a genetic factor. Recent genome-wide linkage analyses suggested some genetic regions underlying stature variations. However, any specific genes underlying stature variations have not been identified. Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder clinically characterized by short stature, minor facial anomalies, and congenital heart defects. Recently, PTPN11 (protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type 11) has been identified as a major responsible gene for NS, causing about half of the affected individuals. We herein report a large family demonstrating NS caused by one of the common PTPN11 mutations, c.188 A > G (Y63C). In this family, the patients were apparently healthy, but heterozygosity of the c.188 A > G (Y63C) mutation was related to growth impairment. This finding suggested that PTPN11 genetic variants contribute to adult height in the general population. However, c.188 A > G (Y63C) was not identified in 96 short individuals from the general population of 2,281 healthy adults. Thus, it is unlikely that PTPN11 is one of the genes underlying stature variations in the general population.

    The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine 2006;208;3;255-9

  • Acute myelomonocytic leukemia in a boy with LEOPARD syndrome (PTPN11 gene mutation positive).

    Uçar C, Calýskan U, Martini S and Heinritz W

    Pediatric Hematology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Selçuk University, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Konya, Turkey. canan.ucar@deu.edu.tr

    The LEOPARD syndrome is a complex of multisystemic congenital abnormalities characterized by lentiginosis, electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormalities of genitalia, retardation of growth, and deafness (sensorineural). Mutations in PTPN11, a gene encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 located on chromosome 12q24.1, have been identified in 88% of patients with LEOPARD syndrome. A missense mutation (836-->G; Tyr279Cys) in exon 7 of PTPN11 gene was identified in this patient and his mother with LEOPARD syndrome. This mutation is one of the two recurrent mutations most often associated with the syndrome. Leukemia has not previously been reported in patients with LEOPARD syndrome. The authors describe a 13-year-old boy diagnosed with both LEOPARD syndrome and acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4).

    Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology 2006;28;3;123-5

  • Association between serum pepsinogens and polymorphismof PTPN11 encoding SHP-2 among Helicobacter pylori seropositive Japanese.

    Goto Y, Ando T, Yamamoto K, Tamakoshi A, El-Omar E, Goto H and Hamajima N

    Department of Gastroenterology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays a crucial role in the development of gastric atrophy and cancer, and cagA-positive strains, which are universal in Japan, increase the risk of these outcomes substantially. The CagA protein is injected from attached H. pylori into gastric epithelial cells and undergoes Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the eukaryotic phosphatase SHP-2. The CagA/SHP-2 interactions elicit cellular changes that increase the risk of carcinogenesis. We investigated the association of a frequent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; JST057927; G-to-A) in the PTPN11 gene that encodes SHP-2 with gastric atrophy and gastric cancer in Japan. Gastric atrophy was assessed by measuring serum pepsinogen I and II levels. The subjects comprised 454 healthy controls (126 males; mean age, 58.4) and 202 gastric cancer cases (134 males and 68 females; mean age, 66.7). All gastric cancer cases and 250 (55%) controls were H. pylori seropositive; 179 (89%) of the gastric cancer cases had gastric atrophy compared to 137 (55%) of the H. pylori seropositive controls (p < 0.001). Among HP seropositive controls compared to the common PTPN11 G/G genotype, the odds ratio of atrophy was nonsignificantly reduced with the G/A genotype (0.70; 95% CI = 0.39-1.25) and significantly reduced with the A/A genotype (0.09; 95% CI = 0.01-0.72). Lower risk for gastric atrophy had a gene-dose association with the A allele (p = 0.01, trend test). There was a clear deficiency of the A/A genotype in those with atrophy compared to those without (1 subject in the gastric atrophy group vs. 8 in the group without). Cancer cases differed from controls in frequencies of PTPN11 G/A genotype only because of a higher prevalence of atrophy among the cancer cases. The G/A SNP in the PTPN11 gene appears to be a risk factor for gastric atrophy in subjects infected with cagA-positive H. pylori. This may explain why only a proportion of CagA-positive individuals develop gastric atrophy and gastric cancer, even though infection with cagA strains is universal in Asian countries such as Japan. The functional consequences of the G/A polymorphism remain to be elucidated.

    International journal of cancer 2006;118;1;203-8

  • Does the rare A172G mutation of PTPN11 gene convey a mild Noonan syndrome phenotype?

    Kitsiou-Tzeli S, Papadopoulou A, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Fretzayas A, Daskalopoulos D, Kanavakis E and Nicolaidou P

    Department of Medical Genetics, University of Athens, Aghia Sophia Children's Hospital, Thivon & Levadias, Goudi, Athens, Greece. skitsiou@uoa.med.gr

    Background: Noonan syndrome NS (OMIM 163950) is an autosomal dominant developmental disorder characterized mainly by typical facial dysmorphism, growth retardation and variable congenital heart defects. In unrelated individuals with sporadic or familial NS, heterozygous missense point mutations in the gene PTPN11 (OMIM 176876) have been confirmed, with a clustering of mutations in exons 3 and 8, the mutation A922G Asn308Asp accounting for nearly 25% of cases.

    We report a 7-year-old boy with short stature and some other clinical features of NS, who has been investigated by molecular analysis for the presence of mutations in the PTPN11 gene.

    Result: The de novo mutation A172G in the exon 3 of the PTPN11 gene, predicting an Asn58Asp substitution, has been found. To the best of our knowledge, this specific mutation has only been described once before, but this is the first report of detailed clinical data suggesting a mild phenotype.

    Conclusion: Detailed clinical phenotype in every patient with major or minor features of NS and molecular identification of PTPN11 gene mutation may contribute to a better phenotype-genotype correlation.

    Hormone research 2006;66;3;124-31

  • PTPN11 gene analysis in 74 Brazilian patients with Noonan syndrome or Noonan-like phenotype.

    Bertola DR, Pereira AC, Albano LM, De Oliveira PS, Kim CA and Krieger JE

    Clinical Genetics Unit, Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. deborarb@icr.hcnet.usp.br

    Mutations in the PTPN11 gene are known to cause a large fraction of the cases of Noonan syndrome. The objective of this study was to determine the PTPN11 gene mutation rate in a cohort of clinically well-characterized Brazilian patients with Noonan or Noonan-like syndromes and to study the genotype-phenotype correlation. Fifty probands with Noonan syndrome ascertained according to well-established diagnostic criteria, 3 with LEOPARD syndrome, 5 with Noonan-like/multiple giant cell lesion syndrome, and 3 with neurofibromatosis/ Noonan were enrolled in this study. Mutational analysis was performed using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) followed by sequencing of amplicons with an aberrant elution profile. We detected missense mutations in the PTPN11 gene in 21 probands with Noonan syndrome (42%), in all 3 patients with LEOPARD syndrome, and in 1 case with Noonan-like/multiple giant cell lesion syndrome. One patient with neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome had a mutation in both the PTPN11 and NF1 genes. The only anomalies that reached statistical significance when comparing probands with and without mutations were the hematological abnormalities. Our data confirms that Noonan syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, with mutations in the PTPN11 gene responsible for roughly 50% of the cases. A definitive genotype-phenotype correlation has not been established, but the T73I mutation seems to predispose to a myeloproliferative disorder. Regarding Noonan-like syndromes, mutation of the PTPN11 gene is the main causal factor in LEOPARD syndrome, and it also plays a role in neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Noonan- like/multiple giant cell lesion syndrome, part of the spectrum of Noonan syndrome, is also heterogeneous.

    Genetic testing 2006;10;3;186-91

  • Significant association between PTPN11 polymorphism and gastric atrophy among Japanese Brazilians.

    Kawai S, Goto Y, Ito LS, Oba-Shinjo SM, Uno M, Shinjo SK, Marie SK, Ishida Y, Nishio K, Naito M and Hamajima N

    Department of Preventive Medicine/Biostatistics and Medical Decision Making, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

    Background: Helicobacter pylori, especially the cytotoxin-associated antigen A (cagA)-positive strains, plays a crucial role in the development of gastric atrophy and gastric cancer. CagA delivered into gastric epithelial cells combines with src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2), possibly leading to atrophy/cancer. Our previous study found that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; IMS-JST057927) of the PTPN11 gene encoding SHP-2, was associated with gastric atrophy among H. pylori-seropositive subjects. This study aimed to examine the reproducibility of the association among Japanese residing in a different circumstance.

    Methods: The subjects were 918 healthy adult Japanese Brazilians from four different areas in Brazil. Blood was sampled from March to May 2001. The target SNP in intron 3 of PTPN11 was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction with confronting two-pair primers (PCR-CTPP). Gastric atrophy was evaluated with serum pepsinogens (PGs); PG I, less than 70 ng/dl and PG I/II ratio, less than 3.

    Results: The genotype frequency of PTPN11 was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: 65.5% for G/G, 30.4% for G/A, and 4.1% for A/A. The PTPN11 polymorphism had no significant association with H. pylori seropositivity. Among the H. pylori-seropositive subjects, the odds ratios (ORs) of gastric atrophy were 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-1.47) for the G/A genotype and 0.31 (95% CI, 0.10-0.95) for the A/A genotype, compared with the G/G genotype.

    Conclusions: The present study reproduced the significant association between the A/A genotype and reduced risk of gastric atrophy among Japanese outside Japan. According to the Japan Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (JSNP) database (db)SNP data, the G allele is very frequent among Japanese and rare in Caucasians. This fact may partly explain the distribution of gastric atrophy/cancer in the world.

    Gastric cancer : official journal of the International Gastric Cancer Association and the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association 2006;9;4;277-83

  • The mutational spectrum of PTPN11 in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and Noonan syndrome/myeloproliferative disease.

    Kratz CP, Niemeyer CM, Castleberry RP, Cetin M, Bergsträsser E, Emanuel PD, Hasle H, Kardos G, Klein C, Kojima S, Stary J, Trebo M, Zecca M, Gelb BD, Tartaglia M and Loh ML

    University of California, Room HSE-302 Box 0519, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    Germ line PTPN11 mutations cause 50% of cases of Noonan syndrome (NS). Somatic mutations in PTPN11 occur in 35% of patients with de novo, nonsyndromic juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), either transient or more fulminant forms, can also occur in infants with NS (NS/MPD). We identified PTPN11 mutations in blood or bone marrow specimens from 77 newly reported patients with JMML (n = 69) or NS/MPD (n = 8). Together with previous reports, we compared the spectrum of PTPN11 mutations in 3 groups: (1) patients with JMML (n = 107); (2) patients with NS/MPD (n = 19); and (3) patients with NS (n = 243). Glu76 was the most commonly affected residue in JMML (n = 45), with the Glu76Lys alteration (n = 29) being most frequent. Eight of 19 patients with NS/MPD carried the Thr73Ile substitution. These data suggest that there is a genotype/phenotype correlation in the spectrum of PTPN11 mutations found in patients with JMML, NS/MPD, and NS. This supports the need to characterize the spectrum of hematologic abnormalities in individuals with NS and to better define the impact of the PTPN11 lesion on the disease course in patients with NS/MPD and JMML.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: K24 CA80916, P30 CA82103, R01 CA104282, R01 CA95621; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL074728, HL71207; NICHD NIH HHS: HD01294; Telethon: GGP04172

    Blood 2005;106;6;2183-5

  • Differences in the prevalence of PTPN11 mutations in FAB M5 paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Goemans BF, Zwaan CM, Martinelli S, Harrell P, de Lange D, Carta C, Reinhardt D, Hählen K, Creutzig U, Tartaglia M, Heinrich MC and Kaspers GJ

    British journal of haematology 2005;130;5;801-3

  • PTPN11 mutations are associated with mild growth hormone resistance in individuals with Noonan syndrome.

    Binder G, Neuer K, Ranke MB and Wittekindt NE

    Pediatric Endocrinology Section, University-Children's Hospital, Hoppe Seyler Strasse 1, 72076 Tubingen, Germany. gerhard.binder@med.uni-tuebingen.de

    Context: Noonan syndrome is frequently associated with an unclear disturbance of GH secretion. Half the individuals with Noonan syndrome carry a heterozygous mutation of the nonreceptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase, Src homology region 2-domain phosphatase-2 (SHP-2), encoded by PTPN11, which has a role in GH receptor signaling.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare GH secretion and IGF-I/IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels of the SHP-2 mutation-positive (mut+ group) vs. mutation-negative individuals (mut- group).

    All children presenting to us with short stature plus at least three typical anomalies of Noonan syndrome or pulmonic stenosis during the last 5 yr (n = 29; 10 females and 19 males) were recruited. Auxological data, dysmorphic features, and cardiac morphology were documented. Hormone levels were measured by RIA. All coding exons of PTPN11 were sequenced after PCR amplification.

    Intervention: A prepubertal subgroup (n = 11) was treated with recombinant human GH (rhGH) to promote growth.

    Results: Sequencing yielded 11 different PTPN11 missense mutations in 16 of the 29 patients (55% mut+). Pulmonic stenosis (81 vs. 15%; P = 0.0007) and septal defects (63 vs. 15%; P = 0.02) were more frequently found in the mut+ group, whereas minor anomalies, cryptorchidism, and learning disabilities were as frequent in the mut+ group as in the mut- group. The mut+ group was younger at presentation (mean +/- sd, 5.1 +/- 2.7 vs. 10.3 +/- 5.2 yr; P = 0.002), but not significantly shorter [-3.15 +/- 0.92 vs. -3.01 +/- 1.35 height sd score (SDS)]. IGF-I levels (-2.03 +/- 0.69 vs. -1.13 +/- 0.89 SDS; P = 0.005) and IGFBP-3 levels (-0.92 +/- 1.26 vs. 0.40 +/- 1.08 SDS; P = 0.006) were significantly lower in the mut+ group. In contrast, GH levels showed a tendency to be higher in the mut+ group during spontaneous secretion at night and arginine stimulation (P > or = 0.075, not significant). The mean change in height SDS after 1 yr of rhGH therapy (0.043 mg/kg.d) was +0.66 +/- 0.21 in the mut+ group (n = 8), but +1.26 +/- 0.36 in the mut- group (n = 3; P = 0.007).

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that SHP-2 mutations in Noonan syndrome cause mild GH resistance by a postreceptor signaling defect, which seems to be partially compensated for by elevated GH secretion. This defect may contribute to the short stature phenotype in children with SHP-2 mutations and their relatively poor response to rhGH.

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2005;90;9;5377-81

  • A novel mutation in the PTPN11 gene in a patient with Noonan syndrome and rapidly progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Takahashi K, Kogaki S, Kurotobi S, Nasuno S, Ohta M, Okabe H, Wada K, Sakai N, Taniike M and Ozono K

    Department of Developmental Medicine (Paediatrics), Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, 565-0871 Suita, Osaka, Japan.

    Unlabelled: A male infant with clinical features of Noonan syndrome and rapidly progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reported. He manifested severe heart failure and failure to thrive. Administration of propranolol and cibenzoline improved ventricular outflow tract obstruction, leading to catch-up growth. Genetic analysis of the patient revealed a novel missense mutation in the PTPN11 gene.

    Conclusion: This is the first description of a patient with a Gln510Glu mutation in the protein-tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 gene. This specific mutation may be associated with a rapidly progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    European journal of pediatrics 2005;164;8;497-500

  • Noonan-like syndrome mutations in PTPN11 in patients diagnosed with cherubism.

    Jafarov T, Ferimazova N and Reichenberger E

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01RR06192; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR49539

    Clinical genetics 2005;68;2;190-1

  • [PTPN11 gene mutation in LEOPARD syndrome].

    Paradisi M, Pedicelli C, Ciasulli A, Pinto F, Conti E, Sarkozy A and Angelo C

    Sezione di Dermatologia Pediatrica, Istituto Dermopatico dell'Immacolata (IDI), Rome. m.paradisi@idi.it

    The multiple lentigines/LEOPARD syndrome (ML/LS) is a rare and complex genetic syndrome. It is an autosomal dominant disorder with a variable expressivity. The syndrome is mainly characterised by growth retardation, multiple lentigines, and congenital heart diseases with electrocardiographic anomalies, dysmorphia of the face and deafness. The incidence of this pathology is still unknown and a familial inheritance is present in 70% of cases. Some of the ML/LS clinical features are the same as those of the Noonan syndrome (NS), such as congenital cardiac abnormalities, dysmorphia and growth retardation. NS and ML/LS are caused by allele mutations of the PTPN11 gene. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl, who was observed for the presence of widespread lentigines, a 1/6-protosystolic murmur at the mesocardium and growth retardation. The diagnosis of ML/LS was made and thus a molecular analysis of the PTPN11 gene was carried out, directly sequencing the codifying region. The molecular analysis revealed a missense mutation (A836G) in hexone 7 (TYR279CYS) of the PTPNII gene. This mutation is has been observed, at present, in a few cases of ML/LS and Noonan syndrome.

    Minerva pediatrica 2005;57;4;189-93

  • PTPN11 mutations play a minor role in isolated congenital heart disease.

    Weismann CG, Hager A, Kaemmerer H, Maslen CL, Morris CD, Schranz D, Kreuder J and Gelb BD

    Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Justus Liebig Universität, Giessen, Germany. Constance.Weismann@mssn.edu

    PTPN11 missense mutations cause approximately 50% of Noonan syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder presenting with various congenital heart defects, most commonly valvar pulmonary stenosis, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Atrioventricular septal defects and coarctation of the aorta occur in 15% and 9%, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine if PTPN11 mutations exist in non-syndromic patients with these two relevant forms of congenital heart disease. The 15 coding PTPN11 exons and their intron boundaries from subjects with atrioventricular septal defects (n = 24) and coarctation of the aorta (n = 157) were analyzed using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and sequenced if abnormal. One subject with an atrioventricular septal defect but no other known medical problems had a c.127C > T transition in exon 2, predicting a p.L43F substitution. This mutation affected the phosphotyrosine-binding region in the N-terminal src homology 2 domain and was close to a Noonan syndrome mutation (p.T42A). An otherwise healthy patient with aortic coarctation had a silent c.540C > T change in exon 5 corresponding to p.D180D. Our study showed that PTPN11 mutations are rarely found in two isolated forms of congenital heart disease that commonly occur in Noonan syndrome. The p.L43F mutation belongs to a rare class of PTPN11 mutations altering the phosphotyrosine-binding region. These mutations are not predicted to alter the autoinhibition of the PTPN11 protein product, SHP-2, which is the mechanism for the vast majority of mutations causing Noonan syndrome. Future studies will be directed towards understanding these rare phosphotyrosine binding region mutants.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL71207, HL74728; NICHD NIH HHS: HD01294

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2005;136;2;146-51

  • Acute myeloid leukemia in an adult Noonan syndrome patient with PTPN11 mutation.

    Matsubara K, Yabe H, Ogata T, Yoshida R and Fukaya T

    American journal of hematology 2005;79;2;171-2

  • A new PTPN11 mutation in juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia associated with Noonan syndrome.

    Giovannini L, Cavé H, Ferrero-Vacher C, Boutte P and Sirvent N

    Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) 2005;94;5;636-7

  • Somatic PTPN11 mutations in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Tartaglia M, Martinelli S, Iavarone I, Cazzaniga G, Spinelli M, Giarin E, Petrangeli V, Carta C, Masetti R, Aricò M, Locatelli F, Basso G, Sorcini M, Pession A and Biondi A

    Dipartimento di Biologia cellulare e Neuroscienze, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 299-00161 Rome, Italy. mtartaglia@iss.it

    Somatic mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding the transducer SHP-2, have emerged as a novel class of lesions that upregulate RAS signalling and contribute to leukaemogenesis. In a recent study of 69 children and adolescents with de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), we documented a non-random distribution of PTPN11 mutations among French-American-British (FAB) subtypes. Lesions were restricted to FAB-M5 cases, where they were relatively common (four of 12 cases). Here, we report on the results of a molecular screening performed on 181 additional unselected patients, enrolled in participating institutions of the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica-AML Study Group, to provide a more accurate picture of the prevalence, spectrum and distribution of PTPN11 mutations in childhood AML and to investigate their clinical relevance. We concluded that PTPN11 defects do not represent a frequent event in this heterogeneous group of malignancies (4.4%), although they recur in a considerable percentage of patients with FAB-M5 (18%). PTPN11 lesions rarely occur in other subtypes. Within the FAB-M5 group no clear association of PTPN11 mutations with any clinical variable was evident. Nearly two third of the patients with this subtype were found to harbour an activating mutation in PTPN11, NRAS, KRAS2 or FLT3.

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP04172

    British journal of haematology 2005;129;3;333-9

  • Acquired PTPN11 mutations occur rarely in adult patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Loh ML, Martinelli S, Cordeddu V, Reynolds MG, Vattikuti S, Lee CM, Wulfert M, Germing U, Haas P, Niemeyer C, Beran ME, Strom S, Lübbert M, Sorcini M, Estey EH, Gattermann N and Tartaglia M

    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are comprised of a heterogeneous group of stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and susceptibility to transform to acute myeloid leukemia. The molecular pathways underlying disease initiation and evolution are still largely unknown. We recently demonstrated that acquired mutations in PTPN11 are a major event in JMML and occur with variable prevalence in children with other hematologic malignancies, including MDS. Here, we investigated contribution of PTPN11 mutations to adult MDS and CMML pathogenesis. Our results indicate that PTPN11 lesions might play a role in adult MDS/CMML pathogenesis but do not represent a major molecular event.

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP04172

    Leukemia research 2005;29;4;459-62

  • [Noonan syndrome and Leopard syndrome linked to mutation of the gene PTPN11].

    Dereure O

    Service de Dermatologie, Hôpital Saint-Eloi, 80, avenue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5.

    Annales de dermatologie et de venereologie 2005;132;4;400

  • Low frequency of exon 3 PTPN11 mutations in adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia. Analysis of a consecutive series of 173 patients.

    Nomdedéu J, Carricondo MT, Lasa A, Perea G, Aventin A and Sierra J

    A total of 173 samples obtained from adult patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were assayed for exon 3 PTPN11 mutations by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing. Only three monocytic leukemias had point mutations (1.73%).

    Haematologica 2005;90;3;412-3

  • The PTPN11 gene is not implicated in nonsyndromic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Roberts AE, Hult B, Rehm HL, Rehm HL, McDonough B, Barr S, Seidman CE, Seidman JG and Kucherlapati RS

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2005;132A;3;333-4

  • Genetic heterogeneity in LEOPARD syndrome: two families with no mutations in PTPN11.

    Kalidas K, Shaw AC, Crosby AH, Newbury-Ecob R, Greenhalgh L, Temple IK, Law C, Patel A, Patton MA and Jeffery S

    Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Clinical Developmental Sciences, St. George's Hospital Medical School, London, SW17 0RE, UK.

    LEOPARD syndrome (lentigines, electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormal genitalia, retardation of growth, and sensorineural deafness) is an autosomal dominant condition. The main clinical features include multiple lentigines, cardiovascular defects, and facial anomalies, some of which are shared with Noonan syndrome (NS). Recent reports have shown that LEOPARD syndrome can be caused by mutations in PTPN11, the gene in which mutations can produce NS. Here we report the findings of mutation screening and linkage analysis of PTPN11 in three families with LEOPARD syndrome. We identified a novel mutation in one family. The mutation (1529A>C) substitutes proline for glutamine at amino acid 510 (Gln510Pro). No variations in sequence were observed in the other two families, and negative LOD scores excluded linkage to the PTPN11 locus, showing that LEOPARD syndrome is genetically heterogeneous.

    Journal of human genetics 2005;50;1;21-25

  • Activating mutations of the noonan syndrome-associated SHP2/PTPN11 gene in human solid tumors and adult acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Bentires-Alj M, Paez JG, David FS, Keilhack H, Halmos B, Naoki K, Maris JM, Richardson A, Bardelli A, Sugarbaker DJ, Richards WG, Du J, Girard L, Minna JD, Loh ML, Fisher DE, Velculescu VE, Vogelstein B, Meyerson M, Sellers WR and Neel BG

    Cancer Biology Program, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. mbentire@bidmc.harvard.edu

    The SH2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPN11 (Shp2) is required for normal development and is an essential component of signaling pathways initiated by growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix. In many of these pathways, Shp2 acts upstream of Ras. About 50% of patients with Noonan syndrome have germ-line PTPN11 gain of function mutations. Associations between Noonan syndrome and an increased risk of some malignancies, notably leukemia and neuroblastoma, have been reported, and recent data indicate that somatic PTPN11 mutations occur in children with sporadic juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, myelodysplasic syndrome, B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia patients without PTPN11 mutations have either homozygotic NF-1 deletion or activating RAS mutations. Given the role of Shp2 in Ras activation and the frequent mutation of RAS in human tumors, these data raise the possibility that PTPN11 mutations play a broader role in cancer. We asked whether PTPN11 mutations occur in other malignancies in which activating RAS mutations occur at low but significant frequency. Sequencing of PTPN11 from 13 different human neoplasms including breast, lung, gastric, and neuroblastoma tumors and adult AML and acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed 11 missense mutations. Five are known mutations predicted to result in an activated form of Shp2, whereas six are new mutations. Biochemical analysis confirmed that several of the new mutations result in increased Shp2 activity. Our data demonstrate that mutations in PTPN11 occur at low frequency in several human cancers, especially neuroblastoma and AML, and suggest that Shp2 may be a novel target for antineoplastic therapy.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA43460, R01 CA49152

    Cancer research 2004;64;24;8816-20

  • A novel PTPN11 gene mutation bridges Noonan syndrome, multiple lentigines/LEOPARD syndrome and Noonan-like/multiple giant cell lesion syndrome.

    Sarkozy A, Obregon MG, Conti E, Esposito G, Mingarelli R, Pizzuti A and Dallapiccola B

    CSS Hospital, IRCCS, San Giovanni Rotondo and CSS-Mendel Institute, Rome, Italy.

    Noonan (NS) and multiple lentigines/LEOPARD syndromes (LS) have proved to be associated with distinct PTPN11 mutations. Noonan-like/multiple giant cell lesion syndrome (NLS) is a rare disease, characterised by short stature, facial dysmorphisms, congenital heart defect (CHD) and central giant cell lesions. PTPN11 gene mutations have been reported in a single NLS family and two sporadic patients. Here we report a patient with a complex phenotype progressing throughout the years from NS at birth towards LS and NLS. PTPN11 gene analysis disclosed a novel missense mutation (Ala461Thr) in exon 12, affecting the consensus sequence of the SHP2-active site. This observation joins together NS and LS to NLS into a unique genetic defect, broadening the clinical and molecular spectrum of PTPN11-related disorders.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2004;12;12;1069-72

  • Clinical variability in a Noonan syndrome family with a new PTPN11 gene mutation.

    Bertola DR, Pereira AC, de Oliveira PS, Kim CA and Krieger JE

    Genetics Clinic Unit, Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo, 05403-900 São Paulo, Brazil. drbetola@attglobal.net

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder comprising short stature, facial dysmorphism, short and/or webbed neck, heart defects, and cryptorchidism in males. The gene responsible for the disorder (PTPN11) was recently identified, and explains 30-50% of the cases clinically diagnosed as NS. Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome, a similar but distinct entity, is characterized by relative macrocephaly, characteristic facial appearance, ectodermal abnormalities (sparse and friable hair, sparse eyebrows, hyperkeratotic skin), congenital heart defects, and growth and mental retardation. We describe on a young woman who presents clinical features of NS (short stature, triangular facies, with downslanting palpebral fissures and apparent hypertelorism, webbed neck, pulmonary stenosis, bleeding diathesis, prominent corneal nerves), but with a more prominent ectodermal involvement (sparse and very coarse hair, sparse eyebrows and eyelashes) and developmental delay/mental retardation, which are characteristic of CFC patients. Sequencing of the PTPN11 gene showed a T411M substitution, not previously described in patients with NS. The same mutation was found in her mother and older sister, not initially considered to be affected by NS, but with very subtle clinical findings compatible with this diagnosis. Molecular dynamic studies indicate that this new mutation, similar to other previously described mutations, favors a more active protein conformation. However, the main disruptive effect is not directly in the catalytic domain, suggesting that the location of this mutation could make the protein more susceptible to gene-gene or gene-environment interactions. Atypical cases of NS should be screened for mutations in the PTPN11 gene and in the case of a positive result, first-degree relatives should also be tested for the specific mutation.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2004;130A;4;378-83

  • Two novel and one recurrent PTPN11 mutations in LEOPARD syndrome.

    Yoshida R, Nagai T, Hasegawa T, Kinoshita E, Tanaka T and Ogata T

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2004;130A;4;432-4

  • PTPN11 mutations in patients with LEOPARD syndrome: a French multicentric experience.

    Keren B, Hadchouel A, Saba S, Sznajer Y, Bonneau D, Leheup B, Boute O, Gaillard D, Lacombe D, Layet V, Marlin S, Mortier G, Toutain A, Beylot C, Baumann C, Verloes A, Cavé H and French Collaborative Noonan Study Group

    Laboratoire de Biochimie Génétique, Hôpital Robert Debré, 48, Boulevard Sérurier, 75019 Paris, France. cave@infobiogen.fr.

    Journal of medical genetics 2004;41;11;e117

  • PTPN11 mutations in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia: results from the Children's Cancer Group.

    Loh ML, Reynolds MG, Vattikuti S, Gerbing RB, Alonzo TA, Carlson E, Cheng JW, Lee CM, Lange BJ, Meshinchi S and Children's Cancer Group

    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. lohm@itsa.ucsf.edu <lohm@itsa.ucsf.edu&gt;

    The PTPN11 gene encodes SHP-2, a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that relays signals from activated growth factor receptors to p21(ras) (Ras) and other signaling molecules. Somatic PTPN11 mutations are common in patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and have been reported in some other hematologic malignancies. We analyzed specimens from 278 pediatric patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who were enrolled on Children's Cancer Group trials 2941 and 2961 for PTPN11 mutations. Missense mutations of PTPN11 were detected in 11 (4%) of these samples. None of these patients had mutations in NRAS; however, one patient had evidence of a FLT3 alteration. Four of the patients with PTPN11 mutations (36%) were boys with French-American-British (FAB) morphology M5 AML (P=0.012). Patients with mutations also presented with elevated white blood cell counts. There was no difference in clinical outcome for patients with and without PTPN11 mutations. These characteristics identify a subset of pediatric AML with PTPN11 mutations that share clinical and biologic features with JMML.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: K23 CA80915

    Leukemia 2004;18;11;1831-4

  • Mutations in PTPN11 are rare in adult myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia.

    Watkins F, Fidler C, Boultwood J and Wainscoat JS

    American journal of hematology 2004;76;4;417

  • Genetic evidence for lineage-related and differentiation stage-related contribution of somatic PTPN11 mutations to leukemogenesis in childhood acute leukemia.

    Tartaglia M, Martinelli S, Cazzaniga G, Cordeddu V, Iavarone I, Spinelli M, Palmi C, Carta C, Pession A, Aricò M, Masera G, Basso G, Sorcini M, Gelb BD and Biondi A

    Dipartimento di Biologia cellulare e Neuroscienze, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299-00161 Rome, Italy. mtartaglia@iss.it

    SHP-2 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase functioning as signal transducer downstream to growth factor and cytokine receptors. SHP-2 is required during development, and germline mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding SHP-2, cause Noonan syndrome. SHP-2 plays a crucial role in hematopoietic cell development. We recently demonstrated that somatic PTPN11 mutations are the most frequent lesion in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and are observed in a smaller percentage of children with other myeloid malignancies. Here, we report that PTPN11 lesions occur in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Mutations were observed in 23 of 317 B-cell precursor ALL cases, but not among 44 children with T-lineage ALL. In the former, lesions prevalently occurred in TEL-AML1(-) cases with CD19(+)/CD10(+)/cyIgM(-) immunophenotype. PTPN11, NRAS, and KRAS2 mutations were largely mutually exclusive and accounted for one third of common ALL cases. We also show that, among 69 children with acute myeloid leukemia, PTPN11 mutations occurred in 4 of 12 cases with acute monocytic leukemia (FAB-M5). Leukemia-associated PTPN11 mutations were missense and were predicted to result in SHP-2 gain-of-function. Our findings provide evidence for a wider role of PTPN11 lesions in leukemogenesis, but also suggest a lineage-related and differentiation stage-related contribution of these lesions to clonal expansion.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL71207; NICHD NIH HHS: HD01294

    Blood 2004;104;2;307-13

  • A 3-bp deletion mutation of PTPN11 in an infant with severe Noonan syndrome including hydrops fetalis and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Yoshida R, Miyata M, Nagai T, Yamazaki T and Ogata T

    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 3-35-31 Taishido, Setagaya, Tokyo 154-8567, Japan.

    A de novo 3-bp deletion (179-181delGTG) was identified at exon 3 of the PTPN11 gene in a female infant with severe Noonan phenotype including hydrops fetalis and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Since the 3-bp deletion is predicted to result in loss of the 60th glycine in the N-SH2 domain that is directly involved in the intramolecular interaction between the N-SH2 and the PTP domains of the PTPN11 protein, this mutation would disrupt the N-SH2/PTP binding in the absence of a phosphopeptide, leading to an excessive phosphatase activity. The results expand the spectrum of PTPN11 mutations in Noonan syndrome (NS), and suggest that a PTPN11 mutation leads to a wide range of clinical features of Noonan syndrome.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2004;128A;1;63-6

  • Protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 11 mutation analysis and clinical assessment in 45 patients with Noonan syndrome.

    Yoshida R, Hasegawa T, Hasegawa Y, Nagai T, Kinoshita E, Tanaka Y, Kanegane H, Ohyama K, Onishi T, Hanew K, Okuyama T, Horikawa R, Tanaka T and Ogata T

    Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

    We report on PTPN11 (protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 11) mutation analysis and clinical assessment in 45 patients with Noonan syndrome. Sequence analysis was performed for all of the coding exons 1-15 of PTPN11, revealing a novel 3-bp deletion mutation and 10 recurrent missense mutations in 18 patients. Clinical assessment showed that 1) the growth pattern was similar in mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients, with no significant difference in birth length [-0.6 +/- 2.2 sd (n = 10) vs. -0.6 +/- 1.4 sd (n = 21); P = 0.95], childhood height [-2.6 +/- 1.1 sd (n = 14) vs. -2.1 +/- 1.6 sd (n = 23); P = 0.28], or target height [-0.4 +/- 0.9 sd (n = 14) vs. -0.2 +/- 0.7 sd (n = 17); P = 0.52]; 2) pulmonary valve stenosis was more frequent in mutation-positive patients than in mutation-negative patients (10 of 18 vs. 6 of 27; P = 0.02), as was atrial septal defect (10 of 18 vs. 4 of 27; P = 0.005), whereas hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was present in five mutation-negative patients only; and 3) other features were grossly similar in the prevalence between mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients, but hematological abnormalities, such as bleeding diathesis and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, were exclusively present in mutation-positive patients (5 of 18 vs. 0 of 27; P = 0.007). The results suggest that PTPN11 mutations account for approximately 40% of Noonan syndrome patients, as has been reported previously. Furthermore, assessment of clinical features, in conjunction with data reported previously, implies that the type of cardiovascular lesions and the occurrence of hematological abnormalities are different in mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients, whereas the remaining findings are similar in the two groups of patients.

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2004;89;7;3359-64

  • Somatic PTPN11 mutation with a heterogeneous clonal origin in children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Shimada H, Mori T, Shimasaki N, Shimizu K, Takahashi T and Kosaki K

    Leukemia 2004;18;6;1142-4

  • Mutations in PTPN11 implicate the SHP-2 phosphatase in leukemogenesis.

    Loh ML, Vattikuti S, Schubbert S, Reynolds MG, Carlson E, Lieuw KH, Cheng JW, Lee CM, Stokoe D, Bonifas JM, Curtiss NP, Gotlib J, Meshinchi S, Le Beau MM, Emanuel PD and Shannon KM

    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Rm HSE-302 Box 0519, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. lohm@itsa.ucsf.edu

    The PTPN11 gene encodes SHP-2 (Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine Phosphatase), a nonreceptor tyrosine protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) that relays signals from activated growth factor receptors to p21Ras (Ras) and other signaling molecules. Mutations in PTPN11 cause Noonan syndrome (NS), a developmental disorder characterized by cardiac and skeletal defects. NS is also associated with a spectrum of hematologic disorders, including juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). To test the hypothesis that PTPN11 mutations might contribute to myeloid leukemogenesis, we screened the entire coding region for mutations in 51 JMML specimens and in selected exons from 60 patients with other myeloid malignancies. Missense mutations in PTPN11 were detected in 16 of 49 JMML specimens from patients without NS, but they were less common in other myeloid malignancies. RAS, NF1, and PTPN11 mutations are largely mutually exclusive in JMML, which suggests that mutant SHP-2 proteins deregulate myeloid growth through Ras. However, although Ba/F3 cells engineered to express leukemia-associated SHP-2 proteins cells showed enhanced growth factor-independent survival, biochemical analysis failed to demonstrate hyperactivation of the Ras effectors extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) or Akt. We conclude that SHP-2 is an important cellular PTPase that is mutated in myeloid malignancies. Further investigation is required to clarify how these mutant proteins interact with Ras and other effectors to deregulate myeloid growth.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA80916, K23 CA80915, P01 CA40046, P30 CA82103; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL04409; NICHD NIH HHS: HD28825

    Blood 2004;103;6;2325-31

  • Genotype-phenotype correlations in Noonan syndrome.

    Zenker M, Buheitel G, Rauch R, Koenig R, Bosse K, Kress W, Tietze HU, Doerr HG, Hofbeck M, Singer H, Reis A and Rauch A

    Institute of Human Genetics, Departments of Pediatric Endocrinology and Pediatric Cardiology, University Children's Hospital, Erlangen, Germany.

    Objective: To study genotype-phenotype correlations in a cohort of clinically well-characterized pediatric patients with Noonan syndrome (NS). Study design Fifty-seven unrelated patients with the clinical diagnosis of NS ascertained according to standardized inclusion criteria were prospectively enrolled. Mutational analysis was performed by direct sequencing of the entire coding sequence of the PTPN11 gene.

    Results: Sixteen known and 3 novel PTPN11 mutations could be detected in 60% of index patients, in all familial and in 52% of the sporadic cases. Presence of pulmonic stenosis, short stature, easy bruising, and thorax deformities was significantly associated with a PTPN11 mutation, whereas cardiomyopathy was more common in patients without a mutation. On average, PTPN11 mutation-negative probands fulfilled fewer clinical criteria of NS, but more than half-among them all with cardiomyopathy-had the full clinical picture of NS indistinguishable from typical cases with PTPN11 mutation.

    Conclusions: The phenotype of NS due to PTPN11 mutations is clinically unambiguous in the majority of patients and represents a highly penetrant trait. Individuals with the clinical diagnosis of NS but without a PTPN11 mutation presumably represent a heterogeneous group in which patients with cardiomyopathy appear to constitute an interesting subgroup for future research.

    The Journal of pediatrics 2004;144;3;368-74

  • Mutations in PTPN11 are uncommon in adult myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Johan MF, Bowen DT, Frew ME, Goodeve AC, Wilson GA, Peake IR and Reilly JT

    British journal of haematology 2004;124;6;843-4

  • Noonan syndrome-associated SHP2/PTPN11 mutants cause EGF-dependent prolonged GAB1 binding and sustained ERK2/MAPK1 activation.

    Fragale A, Tartaglia M, Wu J and Gelb BD

    Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

    Noonan syndrome is a developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, short stature, cardiac defects, and skeletal anomalies, which can be caused by missense PTPN11 mutations. PTPN11 encodes Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2 or SHP-2), a protein tyrosine phosphatase that acts in signal transduction downstream to growth factor, hormone, and cytokine receptors. We compared the functional effects of three Noonan syndrome-causative PTPN11 mutations on SHP2's phosphatase activity, interaction with a binding partner, and signal transduction. All SHP2 mutants had significantly increased basal phosphatase activity compared to wild type, but that activity varied significantly between mutants and was further increased after epidermal growth factor stimulation. Cells expressing SHP2 mutants had prolonged extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 activation, which was ligand-dependent. Binding of SHP2 mutants to Grb2-associated binder-1 was increased and sustained, and tyrosine phosphorylation of both proteins was prolonged. Coexpression of Grb2-associated binder-1-FF, which lacks SHP2 binding motifs, blocked the epidermal growth factor-mediated increase in SHP2's phosphatase activity and resulted in a dramatic reduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 activation. Taken together, these results document that Noonan syndrome-associated PTPN11 mutations increase SHP2's basal phosphatase activity, with greater activation when residues directly involved in binding at the interface between the N-terminal Src homology 2 and protein tyrosine phosphatase domains are altered. The SHP2 mutants prolonged signal flux through the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK2/MAPK1) pathway in a ligand-dependent manner that required docking through Grb2-associated binder-1 (GAB1), leading to increased cell proliferation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA77467, R01 CA077467; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL71207; NICHD NIH HHS: HD01294

    Human mutation 2004;23;3;267-77

  • Familial aggregation of genetically heterogeneous hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a boy with LEOPARD syndrome due to PTPN11 mutation and his nonsyndromic father lacking PTPN11 mutations.

    Digilio MC, Pacileo G, Sarkozy A, Limongelli G, Conti E, Cerrato F, Marino B, Pizzuti A, Calabrò R and Dallapiccola B

    Medical Genetics, Bambino Gesù Hospital, Rome, Italy. digilio@opbg.net

    Background: Nonsyndromic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary cardiac disease transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Multiple chromosomal loci have been found to be involved in the etiology of this defect. LEOPARD syndrome is a genetic condition characteristically associated with HCM. Additional features of the syndrome include multiple lentigines, facial anomalies, sensorineural deafness, and growth retardation. Mutations in PTPN11, a gene encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 located at chromosome 12q24, have been identified in patients with LEOPARD syndrome.

    Cases: We report here on a patient with HCM presenting with classic clinical features of LEOPARD syndrome, whose father also has HCM, but lacks phenotypic anomalies of the syndrome. Molecular analysis searching for PTPN11 mutations was performed in this family. A missense mutation (836A-->G; Tyr279Cys) in exon 7 of PTPN11 gene was identified in the patient with LEOPARD syndrome, whereas no mutation in PTPN11 gene was detected in the father or in additional family members.

    Conclusions: Aggregation of syndromic and nonsyndromic HCM in the same family is an unusual pattern of recurrence. Although genetic heterogeneity of LEOPARD and nonsyndromic HCM is not disputed, the existence of peculiar interactions linking genes causing nonsyndromic HCM and HCM in LEOPARD syndrome can be hypothesized. Different genes can work together, and a more severe cardiac phenotype can be due to additive effects. The involvement of familial susceptibility to specific cardiac malformations based on the presence of common predisposing factors can also be considered. Further molecular studies may shed light on these observations.

    Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology 2004;70;2;95-8

  • Genetics and variation in phenotype in Noonan syndrome.

    Jongmans M, Otten B, Noordam K and van der Burgt I

    Department of Human Genetics, University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    Noonan syndrome is a well-known clinical entity comprising multiple congenital anomalies characterized by typical facial features, short stature and congenital heart defect. Approximately 50% of cases are sporadic. Familial cases are generally autosomal dominant. In 2001 a gene responsible for Noonan syndrome, PTPN11, encoding for the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, was identified. Mutation analysis of the PTPN11 gene was carried out in Nijmegen in 150 patients with Noonan syndrome. Mutations were found in 68 patients (45%), the most common being A922G in exon 8. In exon 4 a mutation was found that encoded the C-SH2 domain of the PTPN11 gene in two unique patients who shared some uncommon features. A 218C-->T mutation was found in exon 3 in one patient with Noonan syndrome and mild juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia.

    Hormone research 2004;62 Suppl 3;56-9

  • [Molecular genetic mutation analysis of the PTPN11 gene in the multiple lentigines (LEOPARD) syndrome].

    Froster UG, Glander HJ and Heinritz W

    Institut für Humangenetik, Universität Leipzig, Leipzig. reichsi@medizin.uni-leipzig.de

    LEOPARD syndrome (MIM #151100) is a rare autosomal dominant condition with characteristic skin anomalies, facial dysmorphism, hypertelorism, cardiac anomalies, and occasional conductive hearing loss. Mutations in the PTPN11 gene are described as the causal gene defect for the clinical features of Noonan syndrome (MIM #163950), but also for LEOPARD syndrome. For confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of multiple lentigines syndrome, the molecular genetic mutation analysis in the PTPN11 gene could be helpful.

    We report on a family with LEOPARD syndrome in which the mutation analysis in the father and his daughter in the PTPN11 gene was carried out us:ng PCR, DHPLC, and automated sequencing.

    Results: We could identify both father and daughter as carriers of the mutation Y279C in the PTPN11 gene, which is known as a disease-related mutation.

    Conclusions: The allelic affinity to Noonan syndrome could thus be further supported.

    Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete 2003;54;12;1190-2

  • A novel PTPN11 mutation in LEOPARD syndrome.

    Conti E, Dottorini T, Sarkozy A, Tiller GE, Esposito G, Pizzuti A and Dallapiccola B

    Ospedale CSS, IRCCS, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.

    PTPN11 gene mutations are common to both patients with Noonan (NS) and LEOPARD syndrome (LS). So far only two recurrent mutations have been identified in LS patients by different research groups, i.e., Tyr279Cys and Thr468Met. In this work we describe the third PTPN11 mutation that has been found in a single LS patient. The mutation (c.1517A>C) substitutes a proline for a glutamine at amino acid 506 (Gln506Pro) in the phosphatase domain (PTP) of the PTPN11 peptide SHP2. This region is a mutation hotspot. Changes at amino acids 501 to 504 cause NS. Gln506Pro is predicted, by modeling analysis, to seriously disrupt the normal contacts between the regulating N-SH2 and the active PTP domains, leading to hyperactivity of the phosphatase. This report demonstrates that rarer mutations other than Tyr279Cys and Thr468Met can be found in LS patients and the need of screening the whole gene in those negative for the commonest mutations.

    Human mutation 2003;21;6;654

  • Somatic mutations in PTPN11 in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia.

    Tartaglia M, Niemeyer CM, Fragale A, Song X, Buechner J, Jung A, Hählen K, Hasle H, Licht JD and Gelb BD

    Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

    We report here that individuals with Noonan syndrome and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) have germline mutations in PTPN11 and that somatic mutations in PTPN11 account for 34% of non-syndromic JMML. Furthermore, we found mutations in PTPN11 in a small percentage of individuals with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Functional analyses documented that the two most common mutations in PTPN11 associated with JMML caused a gain of function.

    Nature genetics 2003;34;2;148-50

  • PTPN11 mutation in a large family with Noonan syndrome and dizygous twinning.

    Schollen E, Matthijs G, Gewillig M, Fryns JP and Legius E

    Department of Human Genetics, University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium.

    Noonan syndrome (NS, MIM 163950) is an autosomal dominant condition characterised by facial dysmorphy, congenital cardiac defects and short stature. Recently missense mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding the nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 on 12q24, were identified in 50% of analysed Noonan cases. A large four-generation Belgian family with NS and some features suggestive of cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC) was previously used to fine map the Noonan syndrome candidate region to a 5 cM region in 12q24. We now report the identification of a mutation (Gln79Arg) in the PTPN11 gene in this large family. In D. melanogaster and C. elegans the PTPN11 gene has been implicated in oogenesis. In this family two affected females had dizygous twins. This suggests that PTPN11 might also be involved in oogenesis and twinning in humans.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2003;11;1;85-8

  • PTPN11 mutations in Noonan syndrome type I: detection of recurrent mutations in exons 3 and 13.

    Maheshwari M, Belmont J, Fernbach S, Ho T, Molinari L, Yakub I, Yu F, Combes A, Towbin J, Craigen WJ and Gibbs R

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

    We surveyed 16 subjects with the clinical diagnosis of Noonan Syndrome (NS1) from 12 families and their relevant family members for mutations in PTPN11/SHP2 using direct DNA sequencing. We found three different mutations among five families. Two unrelated subjects shared the same de novo missense substitution in exon 13 (S502T); an additional two unrelated families had a mutation in exon 3 (Y63C); and one subject had the amino acid substitution Y62D, also in exon 3. None of the three mutations were present in ethnically matched controls. In the mature protein model, the exon 3 mutants and the exon 13 mutant amino acids cluster at the interface between the N' SH2 domain and the phosphatase catalytic domain. Six of eight subjects with PTPN11/SHP2 mutations had pulmonary valve stenosis while no mutations were identified in those subjects (N = 4) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. An additional four subjects with possible Noonan syndrome were evaluated, but no mutations in PTPN11/SHP2 were identified. These results confirm that mutations in PTPN11/SHP2 underlie a common form of Noonan syndrome, and that the disease exhibits both allelic and locus heterogeneity. The observation of recurrent mutations supports the hypothesis that a special class of gain-of-function mutations in SHP2 give rise to Noonan syndrome.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: 5U5HG002051; NHLBI NIH HHS: P01 HL67155; NICHD NIH HHS: HD39056

    Human mutation 2002;20;4;298-304

  • Grouping of multiple-lentigines/LEOPARD and Noonan syndromes on the PTPN11 gene.

    Digilio MC, Conti E, Sarkozy A, Mingarelli R, Dottorini T, Marino B, Pizzuti A and Dallapiccola B

    Division of Medical Genetics, Bambino Gesù Hospital, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Rome, Italy.

    Multiple-lentigines (ML)/LEOPARD (multiple lentigines, electrocardiographic-conduction abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormal genitalia, retardation of growth, and sensorineural deafness) syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition--characterized by lentigines and café au lait spots, facial anomalies, cardiac defects--that shares several clinical features with Noonan syndrome (NS). We screened nine patients with ML/LEOPARD syndrome (including a mother-daughter pair) and two children with NS who had multiple café au lait spots, for mutations in the NS gene, PTPN11, and found, in 10 of 11 patients, one of two new missense mutations, in exon 7 or exon 12. Both mutations affect the PTPN11 phosphotyrosine phosphatase domain, which is involved in <30% of the NS PTPN11 mutations. The study demonstrates that ML/LEOPARD syndrome and NS are allelic disorders. The detected mutations suggest that distinct molecular and pathogenetic mechanisms cause the peculiar cutaneous manifestations of the ML/LEOPARD-syndrome subtype of NS.

    American journal of human genetics 2002;71;2;389-94

  • PTPN11 mutations in LEOPARD syndrome.

    Legius E, Schrander-Stumpel C, Schollen E, Pulles-Heintzberger C, Gewillig M and Fryns JP

    Centre for Human Genetics, University Hospitals, Leuven, Belgium. Eric.Legius@med.kuleuven.ac.be

    LEOPARD syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with multiple lentigines, congenital cardiac abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, and retardation of growth. Deafness and genital abnormalities are less frequently found. We report a father and daughter and a third, unrelated patient with LEOPARD syndrome. Recently, missense mutations in the PTPN11 gene located in 12q24 were found to cause Noonan syndrome. All three cases of LEOPARD syndrome reported here have a Y279C mutation in the PTPN11 gene. We hypothesise that some PTPN11 mutations are associated with the typical Noonan syndrome phenotype and that other mutations, such as the Y279C mutation reported here, are associated with both the Noonan syndrome phenotype and with skin pigmentation anomalies, such as multiple lentigines or café au lait spots.

    Journal of medical genetics 2002;39;8;571-4

  • PTPN11 (protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type 11) mutations in seven Japanese patients with Noonan syndrome.

    Kosaki K, Suzuki T, Muroya K, Hasegawa T, Sato S, Matsuo N, Kosaki R, Nagai T, Hasegawa Y and Ogata T

    Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

    Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder defined by short stature, delayed puberty, and characteristic dysmorphic features. Tartaglia et al. (Nature Genetics, 29:465-468) have recently shown that gain-of-function mutations in the gene PTPN11 (protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type 11) cause Noonan syndrome in roughly half of patients that they examined. To further explore the relevance of PTPN11 mutations to the pathogenesis of Noonan syndrome, we analyzed the PTPN11 gene in 21 Japanese patients. Mutation analysis of the 15 coding exons and their flanking introns by denaturing HPLC and direct sequencing revealed six different heterozygous missense mutations (Asp61Gly, Tyr63Cys, Ala72Ser, Thr73Ile, Phe285Ser, and Asn308Asp) in seven cases (six sporadic and one familial). The mutations clustered either in the N-Src homology 2 domain or in the protein-tyrosine phosphatase domain. The clinical features of the mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients were comparable. The results provide further support to the notion that PTPN11 mutations are responsible for the development of Noonan syndrome in a substantial fraction of patients and that relatively infrequent features of Noonan syndrome, such as sensory deafness and bleeding diathesis, can also result from mutations of PTPN11.

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2002;87;8;3529-33

  • PTPN11 mutations in Noonan syndrome: molecular spectrum, genotype-phenotype correlation, and phenotypic heterogeneity.

    Tartaglia M, Kalidas K, Shaw A, Song X, Musat DL, van der Burgt I, Brunner HG, Bertola DR, Crosby A, Ion A, Kucherlapati RS, Jeffery S, Patton MA and Gelb BD

    Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA.

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a developmental disorder characterized by facial dysmorphia, short stature, cardiac defects, and skeletal malformations. We recently demonstrated that mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding the non-receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 (src homology region 2-domain phosphatase-2), cause NS, accounting for approximately 50% of cases of this genetically heterogeneous disorder in a small cohort. All mutations were missense changes and clustered at the interacting portions of the amino-terminal src-homology 2 (N-SH2) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) domains. A gain of function was postulated as a mechanism for the disease. Here, we report the spectrum and distribution of PTPN11 mutations in a large, well-characterized cohort with NS. Mutations were found in 54 of 119 (45%) unrelated individuals with sporadic or familial NS. There was a significantly higher prevalence of mutations among familial cases than among sporadic ones. All defects were missense, and several were recurrent. The vast majority of mutations altered amino acid residues located in or around the interacting surfaces of the N-SH2 and PTP domains, but defects also affected residues in the C-SH2 domain, as well as in the peptide linking the N-SH2 and C-SH2 domains. Genotype-phenotype analysis revealed that pulmonic stenosis was more prevalent among the group of subjects with NS who had PTPN11 mutations than it was in the group without them (70.6% vs. 46.2%; P<.01), whereas hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was less prevalent among those with PTPN11 mutations (5.9% vs. 26.2%; P<.005). The prevalence of other congenital heart malformations, short stature, pectus deformity, cryptorchidism, and developmental delay did not differ between the two groups. A PTPN11 mutation was identified in a family inheriting Noonan-like/multiple giant-cell lesion syndrome, extending the phenotypic range of disease associated with this gene.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: 5K24 HD 001294, 5P30 HD 28822, K24 HD001294

    American journal of human genetics 2002;70;6;1555-63

  • Mutations in PTPN11, encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, cause Noonan syndrome.

    Tartaglia M, Mehler EL, Goldberg R, Zampino G, Brunner HG, Kremer H, van der Burgt I, Crosby AH, Ion A, Jeffery S, Kalidas K, Patton MA, Kucherlapati RS and Gelb BD

    Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA. tartam02@doc.mssm.edu

    Noonan syndrome (MIM 163950) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by dysmorphic facial features, proportionate short stature and heart disease (most commonly pulmonic stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). Webbed neck, chest deformity, cryptorchidism, mental retardation and bleeding diatheses also are frequently associated with this disease. This syndrome is relatively common, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 1,000-2,500 live births. It has been mapped to a 5-cM region (NS1) [corrected] on chromosome 12q24.1, and genetic heterogeneity has also been documented. Here we show that missense mutations in PTPN11 (MIM 176876)-a gene encoding the nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, which contains two Src homology 2 (SH2) domains-cause Noonan syndrome and account for more than 50% of the cases that we examined. All PTPN11 missense mutations cluster in interacting portions of the amino N-SH2 domain and the phosphotyrosine phosphatase domains, which are involved in switching the protein between its inactive and active conformations. An energetics-based structural analysis of two N-SH2 mutants indicates that in these mutants there may be a significant shift of the equilibrium favoring the active conformation. This implies that they are gain-of-function changes and that the pathogenesis of Noonan syndrome arises from excessive SHP-2 activity.

    Nature genetics 2001;29;4;465-8

Literature (398)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • Patients with functional constipation do not have increased prevalence of colorectal cancer precursors.

    Chan AO, Hui WM, Leung G, Tong T, Hung IF, Chan P, Hsu A, But D, Wong BC, Lam SK and Lam KF

    Gut 2007;56;3;451-2

  • Mutational analysis of PTPN11 gene in Taiwanese children with Noonan syndrome.

    Hung CS, Lin JL, Lee YJ, Lin SP, Chao MC and Lo FS

    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder presenting with characteristic facies, short stature, skeletal anomalies, and congenital heart defects. Mutations in protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type 11 (PTPN11), encoding SHP-2, account for 33-50% of NS. This study screened for mutations in the PTPN11 gene in 34 Taiwanese patients with NS. Mutation analysis of the 15 coding exons and exon/intron boundaries was performed by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the PTPN11 gene. We identified 10 different missense mutations in 13 (38%) patients, including a novel missense mutation (855T>G, F285L). These mutations were clustered in exon 3 (n = 6) encoding the N-SH2 domain, exon 4 (n = 2) encoding the C-SH2 domain, and in exons 8 (n = 2) and 13 (n = 3) encoding the PTP domain. In conclusion, this study provides further support that PTPN11 mutations are responsible for Noonan syndrome in Taiwanese patients.

    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi 2007;106;2;169-72

  • Severe aortic valvar stenosis in familial Noonan syndrome with mutation of the PTPN11 gene.

    Abadir S, Edouard T and Julia S

    Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Hôpital des Enfants, Toulouse, France. abadir@club-internet.fr

    Noonan's syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disease, in which mutation of the PTPN11 gene is found in from one-third to half of all cases. Pulmonary valvar stenosis and myocardiopathy are frequently associated cardiac malformations, whereas aortic valvar stenosis is rarely described. We report, as far as we know, the first case of familial Noonan syndrome with severe aortic valvar stenosis, demonstrating mutation of the PTPN11 gene in the father of the patient.

    Cardiology in the young 2007;17;1;95-7

  • Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia in a child with Noonan syndrome and clonal duplication of the germline PTPN11 mutation.

    Chantrain CF, Jijon P, De Raedt T, Vermylen C, Poirel HA, Legius E and Brichard B

    Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, St-Luc University Hospital, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium. christophe.chantrain@pedi.ucl.ac.be

    A 4-year-old girl with Noonan syndrome (NS) and constitutive PTPN11 mutation presented with stage 4 neuroblastoma and was treated by intensive chemotherapy. During the treatment, cytogenetic analysis revealed the development of a hyperdiploid clone with duplication of the germline PTPN11 mutation in a morphologically normal bone marrow. A few months later, the patient developed acute myelomonoblastic leukemia with an additional clonal deletion of 7q. Although, we cannot conclude whether there is an association between NS and neuroblastoma, this case suggests that duplication of germline PTPN11 mutations, potentially induced by chemotherapy, contributes to leukemogenesis in patients with NS.

    Pediatric blood & cancer 2007;48;1;101-4

  • PTPN11 gene mutations: linking the Gln510Glu mutation to the "LEOPARD syndrome phenotype".

    Digilio MC, Sarkozy A, Pacileo G, Limongelli G, Marino B and Dallapiccola B

    Medical Genetics, Bambino Gesù Hospital, Rome, Italy, digilio@opbg.net.

    We describe the "LEOPARD syndrome (LS) phenotype" associated with the Gln510Glu mutation of the PTPN11 gene in two patients presenting with rapidly progressive severe biventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and structural abnormalities of the mitral valve, facial anomalies, café-au-lait spots and multiple lentigines.

    European journal of pediatrics 2006;165;11;803-5

  • PTPN11, RAS and FLT3 mutations in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Yamamoto T, Isomura M, Xu Y, Liang J, Yagasaki H, Kamachi Y, Kudo K, Kiyoi H, Naoe T and Kojma S

    Departments of Pediatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan. tomotomo@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    PTPN11, the gene which encodes protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, plays an important role in regulating intracellular signaling. Germline mutations in PTPN11 were first observed in Noonan syndrome, while somatic mutations were identified in hematological myeloid malignancies. Recently, PTPN11 mutations have been reported in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of mutations in PTPN11, RAS and FLT3 in samples from 95 Japanese children with ALL. We observed exon 3 and 8 missense mutations of PTPN11 in 6 children with B precursor ALL. One patient with Down syndrome and ALL had PTPN11 mutation. We also identified RAS mutations in ten patients and FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3/ITD) in one patient. None of the patients had simultaneous mutations in PTPN11 and RAS, while one patient had both PTPN11 and FLT3 mutations. These data suggest that PTPN11 mutation may play an important role for leukemogenesis in a proportion of children with ALL, particularly B precursor ALL.

    Leukemia research 2006;30;9;1085-9

  • Association between serum pepsinogens and polymorphismof PTPN11 encoding SHP-2 among Helicobacter pylori seropositive Japanese.

    Goto Y, Ando T, Yamamoto K, Tamakoshi A, El-Omar E, Goto H and Hamajima N

    Department of Gastroenterology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays a crucial role in the development of gastric atrophy and cancer, and cagA-positive strains, which are universal in Japan, increase the risk of these outcomes substantially. The CagA protein is injected from attached H. pylori into gastric epithelial cells and undergoes Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the eukaryotic phosphatase SHP-2. The CagA/SHP-2 interactions elicit cellular changes that increase the risk of carcinogenesis. We investigated the association of a frequent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; JST057927; G-to-A) in the PTPN11 gene that encodes SHP-2 with gastric atrophy and gastric cancer in Japan. Gastric atrophy was assessed by measuring serum pepsinogen I and II levels. The subjects comprised 454 healthy controls (126 males; mean age, 58.4) and 202 gastric cancer cases (134 males and 68 females; mean age, 66.7). All gastric cancer cases and 250 (55%) controls were H. pylori seropositive; 179 (89%) of the gastric cancer cases had gastric atrophy compared to 137 (55%) of the H. pylori seropositive controls (p < 0.001). Among HP seropositive controls compared to the common PTPN11 G/G genotype, the odds ratio of atrophy was nonsignificantly reduced with the G/A genotype (0.70; 95% CI = 0.39-1.25) and significantly reduced with the A/A genotype (0.09; 95% CI = 0.01-0.72). Lower risk for gastric atrophy had a gene-dose association with the A allele (p = 0.01, trend test). There was a clear deficiency of the A/A genotype in those with atrophy compared to those without (1 subject in the gastric atrophy group vs. 8 in the group without). Cancer cases differed from controls in frequencies of PTPN11 G/A genotype only because of a higher prevalence of atrophy among the cancer cases. The G/A SNP in the PTPN11 gene appears to be a risk factor for gastric atrophy in subjects infected with cagA-positive H. pylori. This may explain why only a proportion of CagA-positive individuals develop gastric atrophy and gastric cancer, even though infection with cagA strains is universal in Asian countries such as Japan. The functional consequences of the G/A polymorphism remain to be elucidated.

    International journal of cancer 2006;118;1;203-8

  • Does the rare A172G mutation of PTPN11 gene convey a mild Noonan syndrome phenotype?

    Kitsiou-Tzeli S, Papadopoulou A, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Fretzayas A, Daskalopoulos D, Kanavakis E and Nicolaidou P

    Department of Medical Genetics, University of Athens, Aghia Sophia Children's Hospital, Thivon & Levadias, Goudi, Athens, Greece. skitsiou@uoa.med.gr

    Background: Noonan syndrome NS (OMIM 163950) is an autosomal dominant developmental disorder characterized mainly by typical facial dysmorphism, growth retardation and variable congenital heart defects. In unrelated individuals with sporadic or familial NS, heterozygous missense point mutations in the gene PTPN11 (OMIM 176876) have been confirmed, with a clustering of mutations in exons 3 and 8, the mutation A922G Asn308Asp accounting for nearly 25% of cases.

    We report a 7-year-old boy with short stature and some other clinical features of NS, who has been investigated by molecular analysis for the presence of mutations in the PTPN11 gene.

    Result: The de novo mutation A172G in the exon 3 of the PTPN11 gene, predicting an Asn58Asp substitution, has been found. To the best of our knowledge, this specific mutation has only been described once before, but this is the first report of detailed clinical data suggesting a mild phenotype.

    Conclusion: Detailed clinical phenotype in every patient with major or minor features of NS and molecular identification of PTPN11 gene mutation may contribute to a better phenotype-genotype correlation.

    Hormone research 2006;66;3;124-31

  • Significant association between PTPN11 polymorphism and gastric atrophy among Japanese Brazilians.

    Kawai S, Goto Y, Ito LS, Oba-Shinjo SM, Uno M, Shinjo SK, Marie SK, Ishida Y, Nishio K, Naito M and Hamajima N

    Department of Preventive Medicine/Biostatistics and Medical Decision Making, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

    Background: Helicobacter pylori, especially the cytotoxin-associated antigen A (cagA)-positive strains, plays a crucial role in the development of gastric atrophy and gastric cancer. CagA delivered into gastric epithelial cells combines with src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2), possibly leading to atrophy/cancer. Our previous study found that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; IMS-JST057927) of the PTPN11 gene encoding SHP-2, was associated with gastric atrophy among H. pylori-seropositive subjects. This study aimed to examine the reproducibility of the association among Japanese residing in a different circumstance.

    Methods: The subjects were 918 healthy adult Japanese Brazilians from four different areas in Brazil. Blood was sampled from March to May 2001. The target SNP in intron 3 of PTPN11 was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction with confronting two-pair primers (PCR-CTPP). Gastric atrophy was evaluated with serum pepsinogens (PGs); PG I, less than 70 ng/dl and PG I/II ratio, less than 3.

    Results: The genotype frequency of PTPN11 was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: 65.5% for G/G, 30.4% for G/A, and 4.1% for A/A. The PTPN11 polymorphism had no significant association with H. pylori seropositivity. Among the H. pylori-seropositive subjects, the odds ratios (ORs) of gastric atrophy were 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-1.47) for the G/A genotype and 0.31 (95% CI, 0.10-0.95) for the A/A genotype, compared with the G/G genotype.

    Conclusions: The present study reproduced the significant association between the A/A genotype and reduced risk of gastric atrophy among Japanese outside Japan. According to the Japan Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (JSNP) database (db)SNP data, the G allele is very frequent among Japanese and rare in Caucasians. This fact may partly explain the distribution of gastric atrophy/cancer in the world.

    Gastric cancer : official journal of the International Gastric Cancer Association and the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association 2006;9;4;277-83

  • Differences in the prevalence of PTPN11 mutations in FAB M5 paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Goemans BF, Zwaan CM, Martinelli S, Harrell P, de Lange D, Carta C, Reinhardt D, Hählen K, Creutzig U, Tartaglia M, Heinrich MC and Kaspers GJ

    British journal of haematology 2005;130;5;801-3

  • A novel mutation in the PTPN11 gene in a patient with Noonan syndrome and rapidly progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Takahashi K, Kogaki S, Kurotobi S, Nasuno S, Ohta M, Okabe H, Wada K, Sakai N, Taniike M and Ozono K

    Department of Developmental Medicine (Paediatrics), Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, 565-0871 Suita, Osaka, Japan.

    Unlabelled: A male infant with clinical features of Noonan syndrome and rapidly progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reported. He manifested severe heart failure and failure to thrive. Administration of propranolol and cibenzoline improved ventricular outflow tract obstruction, leading to catch-up growth. Genetic analysis of the patient revealed a novel missense mutation in the PTPN11 gene.

    Conclusion: This is the first description of a patient with a Gln510Glu mutation in the protein-tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 gene. This specific mutation may be associated with a rapidly progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    European journal of pediatrics 2005;164;8;497-500

  • Noonan-like syndrome mutations in PTPN11 in patients diagnosed with cherubism.

    Jafarov T, Ferimazova N and Reichenberger E

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01RR06192; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR49539

    Clinical genetics 2005;68;2;190-1

  • [PTPN11 gene mutation in LEOPARD syndrome].

    Paradisi M, Pedicelli C, Ciasulli A, Pinto F, Conti E, Sarkozy A and Angelo C

    Sezione di Dermatologia Pediatrica, Istituto Dermopatico dell'Immacolata (IDI), Rome. m.paradisi@idi.it

    The multiple lentigines/LEOPARD syndrome (ML/LS) is a rare and complex genetic syndrome. It is an autosomal dominant disorder with a variable expressivity. The syndrome is mainly characterised by growth retardation, multiple lentigines, and congenital heart diseases with electrocardiographic anomalies, dysmorphia of the face and deafness. The incidence of this pathology is still unknown and a familial inheritance is present in 70% of cases. Some of the ML/LS clinical features are the same as those of the Noonan syndrome (NS), such as congenital cardiac abnormalities, dysmorphia and growth retardation. NS and ML/LS are caused by allele mutations of the PTPN11 gene. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl, who was observed for the presence of widespread lentigines, a 1/6-protosystolic murmur at the mesocardium and growth retardation. The diagnosis of ML/LS was made and thus a molecular analysis of the PTPN11 gene was carried out, directly sequencing the codifying region. The molecular analysis revealed a missense mutation (A836G) in hexone 7 (TYR279CYS) of the PTPNII gene. This mutation is has been observed, at present, in a few cases of ML/LS and Noonan syndrome.

    Minerva pediatrica 2005;57;4;189-93

  • Acute myeloid leukemia in an adult Noonan syndrome patient with PTPN11 mutation.

    Matsubara K, Yabe H, Ogata T, Yoshida R and Fukaya T

    American journal of hematology 2005;79;2;171-2

  • A new PTPN11 mutation in juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia associated with Noonan syndrome.

    Giovannini L, Cavé H, Ferrero-Vacher C, Boutte P and Sirvent N

    Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) 2005;94;5;636-7

  • Somatic PTPN11 mutations in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Tartaglia M, Martinelli S, Iavarone I, Cazzaniga G, Spinelli M, Giarin E, Petrangeli V, Carta C, Masetti R, Aricò M, Locatelli F, Basso G, Sorcini M, Pession A and Biondi A

    Dipartimento di Biologia cellulare e Neuroscienze, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 299-00161 Rome, Italy. mtartaglia@iss.it

    Somatic mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding the transducer SHP-2, have emerged as a novel class of lesions that upregulate RAS signalling and contribute to leukaemogenesis. In a recent study of 69 children and adolescents with de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), we documented a non-random distribution of PTPN11 mutations among French-American-British (FAB) subtypes. Lesions were restricted to FAB-M5 cases, where they were relatively common (four of 12 cases). Here, we report on the results of a molecular screening performed on 181 additional unselected patients, enrolled in participating institutions of the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica-AML Study Group, to provide a more accurate picture of the prevalence, spectrum and distribution of PTPN11 mutations in childhood AML and to investigate their clinical relevance. We concluded that PTPN11 defects do not represent a frequent event in this heterogeneous group of malignancies (4.4%), although they recur in a considerable percentage of patients with FAB-M5 (18%). PTPN11 lesions rarely occur in other subtypes. Within the FAB-M5 group no clear association of PTPN11 mutations with any clinical variable was evident. Nearly two third of the patients with this subtype were found to harbour an activating mutation in PTPN11, NRAS, KRAS2 or FLT3.

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP04172

    British journal of haematology 2005;129;3;333-9

  • [Noonan syndrome and Leopard syndrome linked to mutation of the gene PTPN11].

    Dereure O

    Service de Dermatologie, Hôpital Saint-Eloi, 80, avenue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5.

    Annales de dermatologie et de venereologie 2005;132;4;400

  • Low frequency of exon 3 PTPN11 mutations in adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia. Analysis of a consecutive series of 173 patients.

    Nomdedéu J, Carricondo MT, Lasa A, Perea G, Aventin A and Sierra J

    A total of 173 samples obtained from adult patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were assayed for exon 3 PTPN11 mutations by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing. Only three monocytic leukemias had point mutations (1.73%).

    Haematologica 2005;90;3;412-3

  • The PTPN11 gene is not implicated in nonsyndromic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Roberts AE, Hult B, Rehm HL, Rehm HL, McDonough B, Barr S, Seidman CE, Seidman JG and Kucherlapati RS

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2005;132A;3;333-4

  • Activating mutations of the noonan syndrome-associated SHP2/PTPN11 gene in human solid tumors and adult acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Bentires-Alj M, Paez JG, David FS, Keilhack H, Halmos B, Naoki K, Maris JM, Richardson A, Bardelli A, Sugarbaker DJ, Richards WG, Du J, Girard L, Minna JD, Loh ML, Fisher DE, Velculescu VE, Vogelstein B, Meyerson M, Sellers WR and Neel BG

    Cancer Biology Program, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. mbentire@bidmc.harvard.edu

    The SH2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPN11 (Shp2) is required for normal development and is an essential component of signaling pathways initiated by growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix. In many of these pathways, Shp2 acts upstream of Ras. About 50% of patients with Noonan syndrome have germ-line PTPN11 gain of function mutations. Associations between Noonan syndrome and an increased risk of some malignancies, notably leukemia and neuroblastoma, have been reported, and recent data indicate that somatic PTPN11 mutations occur in children with sporadic juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, myelodysplasic syndrome, B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia patients without PTPN11 mutations have either homozygotic NF-1 deletion or activating RAS mutations. Given the role of Shp2 in Ras activation and the frequent mutation of RAS in human tumors, these data raise the possibility that PTPN11 mutations play a broader role in cancer. We asked whether PTPN11 mutations occur in other malignancies in which activating RAS mutations occur at low but significant frequency. Sequencing of PTPN11 from 13 different human neoplasms including breast, lung, gastric, and neuroblastoma tumors and adult AML and acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed 11 missense mutations. Five are known mutations predicted to result in an activated form of Shp2, whereas six are new mutations. Biochemical analysis confirmed that several of the new mutations result in increased Shp2 activity. Our data demonstrate that mutations in PTPN11 occur at low frequency in several human cancers, especially neuroblastoma and AML, and suggest that Shp2 may be a novel target for antineoplastic therapy.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA43460, R01 CA49152

    Cancer research 2004;64;24;8816-20

  • A novel PTPN11 gene mutation bridges Noonan syndrome, multiple lentigines/LEOPARD syndrome and Noonan-like/multiple giant cell lesion syndrome.

    Sarkozy A, Obregon MG, Conti E, Esposito G, Mingarelli R, Pizzuti A and Dallapiccola B

    CSS Hospital, IRCCS, San Giovanni Rotondo and CSS-Mendel Institute, Rome, Italy.

    Noonan (NS) and multiple lentigines/LEOPARD syndromes (LS) have proved to be associated with distinct PTPN11 mutations. Noonan-like/multiple giant cell lesion syndrome (NLS) is a rare disease, characterised by short stature, facial dysmorphisms, congenital heart defect (CHD) and central giant cell lesions. PTPN11 gene mutations have been reported in a single NLS family and two sporadic patients. Here we report a patient with a complex phenotype progressing throughout the years from NS at birth towards LS and NLS. PTPN11 gene analysis disclosed a novel missense mutation (Ala461Thr) in exon 12, affecting the consensus sequence of the SHP2-active site. This observation joins together NS and LS to NLS into a unique genetic defect, broadening the clinical and molecular spectrum of PTPN11-related disorders.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2004;12;12;1069-72

  • A 3-bp deletion mutation of PTPN11 in an infant with severe Noonan syndrome including hydrops fetalis and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Yoshida R, Miyata M, Nagai T, Yamazaki T and Ogata T

    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 3-35-31 Taishido, Setagaya, Tokyo 154-8567, Japan.

    A de novo 3-bp deletion (179-181delGTG) was identified at exon 3 of the PTPN11 gene in a female infant with severe Noonan phenotype including hydrops fetalis and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Since the 3-bp deletion is predicted to result in loss of the 60th glycine in the N-SH2 domain that is directly involved in the intramolecular interaction between the N-SH2 and the PTP domains of the PTPN11 protein, this mutation would disrupt the N-SH2/PTP binding in the absence of a phosphopeptide, leading to an excessive phosphatase activity. The results expand the spectrum of PTPN11 mutations in Noonan syndrome (NS), and suggest that a PTPN11 mutation leads to a wide range of clinical features of Noonan syndrome.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2004;128A;1;63-6

  • Somatic PTPN11 mutation with a heterogeneous clonal origin in children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Shimada H, Mori T, Shimasaki N, Shimizu K, Takahashi T and Kosaki K

    Leukemia 2004;18;6;1142-4

  • Genotype-phenotype correlations in Noonan syndrome.

    Zenker M, Buheitel G, Rauch R, Koenig R, Bosse K, Kress W, Tietze HU, Doerr HG, Hofbeck M, Singer H, Reis A and Rauch A

    Institute of Human Genetics, Departments of Pediatric Endocrinology and Pediatric Cardiology, University Children's Hospital, Erlangen, Germany.

    Objective: To study genotype-phenotype correlations in a cohort of clinically well-characterized pediatric patients with Noonan syndrome (NS). Study design Fifty-seven unrelated patients with the clinical diagnosis of NS ascertained according to standardized inclusion criteria were prospectively enrolled. Mutational analysis was performed by direct sequencing of the entire coding sequence of the PTPN11 gene.

    Results: Sixteen known and 3 novel PTPN11 mutations could be detected in 60% of index patients, in all familial and in 52% of the sporadic cases. Presence of pulmonic stenosis, short stature, easy bruising, and thorax deformities was significantly associated with a PTPN11 mutation, whereas cardiomyopathy was more common in patients without a mutation. On average, PTPN11 mutation-negative probands fulfilled fewer clinical criteria of NS, but more than half-among them all with cardiomyopathy-had the full clinical picture of NS indistinguishable from typical cases with PTPN11 mutation.

    Conclusions: The phenotype of NS due to PTPN11 mutations is clinically unambiguous in the majority of patients and represents a highly penetrant trait. Individuals with the clinical diagnosis of NS but without a PTPN11 mutation presumably represent a heterogeneous group in which patients with cardiomyopathy appear to constitute an interesting subgroup for future research.

    The Journal of pediatrics 2004;144;3;368-74

  • Mutations in PTPN11 are uncommon in adult myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Johan MF, Bowen DT, Frew ME, Goodeve AC, Wilson GA, Peake IR and Reilly JT

    British journal of haematology 2004;124;6;843-4

  • Noonan syndrome-associated SHP2/PTPN11 mutants cause EGF-dependent prolonged GAB1 binding and sustained ERK2/MAPK1 activation.

    Fragale A, Tartaglia M, Wu J and Gelb BD

    Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

    Noonan syndrome is a developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, short stature, cardiac defects, and skeletal anomalies, which can be caused by missense PTPN11 mutations. PTPN11 encodes Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2 or SHP-2), a protein tyrosine phosphatase that acts in signal transduction downstream to growth factor, hormone, and cytokine receptors. We compared the functional effects of three Noonan syndrome-causative PTPN11 mutations on SHP2's phosphatase activity, interaction with a binding partner, and signal transduction. All SHP2 mutants had significantly increased basal phosphatase activity compared to wild type, but that activity varied significantly between mutants and was further increased after epidermal growth factor stimulation. Cells expressing SHP2 mutants had prolonged extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 activation, which was ligand-dependent. Binding of SHP2 mutants to Grb2-associated binder-1 was increased and sustained, and tyrosine phosphorylation of both proteins was prolonged. Coexpression of Grb2-associated binder-1-FF, which lacks SHP2 binding motifs, blocked the epidermal growth factor-mediated increase in SHP2's phosphatase activity and resulted in a dramatic reduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 activation. Taken together, these results document that Noonan syndrome-associated PTPN11 mutations increase SHP2's basal phosphatase activity, with greater activation when residues directly involved in binding at the interface between the N-terminal Src homology 2 and protein tyrosine phosphatase domains are altered. The SHP2 mutants prolonged signal flux through the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK2/MAPK1) pathway in a ligand-dependent manner that required docking through Grb2-associated binder-1 (GAB1), leading to increased cell proliferation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA77467, R01 CA077467; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL71207; NICHD NIH HHS: HD01294

    Human mutation 2004;23;3;267-77

  • [Molecular genetic mutation analysis of the PTPN11 gene in the multiple lentigines (LEOPARD) syndrome].

    Froster UG, Glander HJ and Heinritz W

    Institut für Humangenetik, Universität Leipzig, Leipzig. reichsi@medizin.uni-leipzig.de

    LEOPARD syndrome (MIM #151100) is a rare autosomal dominant condition with characteristic skin anomalies, facial dysmorphism, hypertelorism, cardiac anomalies, and occasional conductive hearing loss. Mutations in the PTPN11 gene are described as the causal gene defect for the clinical features of Noonan syndrome (MIM #163950), but also for LEOPARD syndrome. For confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of multiple lentigines syndrome, the molecular genetic mutation analysis in the PTPN11 gene could be helpful.

    We report on a family with LEOPARD syndrome in which the mutation analysis in the father and his daughter in the PTPN11 gene was carried out us:ng PCR, DHPLC, and automated sequencing.

    Results: We could identify both father and daughter as carriers of the mutation Y279C in the PTPN11 gene, which is known as a disease-related mutation.

    Conclusions: The allelic affinity to Noonan syndrome could thus be further supported.

    Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete 2003;54;12;1190-2

Pubmed - other

  • Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup 'R' is associated with Noonan syndrome of south India.

    Rani DS, Dhandapany PS, Nallari P, Govindaraj P, Singh L and Thangaraj K

    Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CSIR), Hyderabad, India.

    Mutations in PTPN11 gene was responsible for approximately 50% of the Noonan syndrome (NS), however, we did not find any mutation in PTPN11 in any of seven NS patients analysed. Whereas, the complete mtDNA sequencing revealed 146 mutations, of which five, including one heteroplasmic (A11144R; Thr-->Ala) non-synonymous mutation, were novel and exclusively observed in NS patients. Interestingly all the seven probands and their maternal relatives were clustered under a major haplogroup R and its novel sub-haplogroups (R7b1b, R30a1, R30c, T2b7, U9a1) exclusive in NS, therefore we strongly suggest that these haplogroups may influence NS in South Indian populations.

    Mitochondrion 2010;10;2;166-73

  • The phosphatase Shp2 is required for signaling by the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral GPCR in primary endothelial cells.

    Bakken T, He M and Cannon ML

    The Department of Medicine, The University of Minnesota, 2001 6(th) St SE, MTRF Room 3-216, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), an AIDS-related endothelial cell malignancy that is the most common cancer in central and southern Africa. The KSHV viral G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR) is a viral oncogene that conveys a survival advantage to endothelial cells and causes KS-like tumors in mouse models. In this study we investigate the role of Shp2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase in vGPCR signaling. Shp2 is vital to many cytokine-induced signaling pathways and is dysregulated in various infections and malignancies. It has also recently been implicated in angiogenesis. We find that vGPCR activity results in phosphorylation of regulatory tyrosines in Shp2 and that in turn, Shp2 is required for vGPCR-mediated activation of MEK, NFkappaB, and AP-1. Furthermore, both genetic and chemical inhibition of Shp2 abrogate vGPCR-induced enhancement of endothelial cell migration. This establishes Shp2 as an important point of convergence of KSHV vGPCR signaling and a potential molecular target in the design of an anti-KSHV therapeutic regimen.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: K08 AI053971, K08 AI053971-06, K08-AI53971

    Virology 2010;397;2;379-88

  • Direct binding of Grb2 SH3 domain to FGFR2 regulates SHP2 function.

    Ahmed Z, George R, Lin CC, Suen KM, Levitt JA, Suhling K and Ladbury JE

    Department of Structural & Molecular Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.

    The adaptor protein Grb2 is recruited to intracellular early signalling complexes of many receptor tyrosine kinases and plays an important role transducing signals leading to MAP kinase activation. To date the SH2 domain of Grb2 has been shown to mediate receptor interactions with phosphorylated tyrosine residues sited directly on the receptor or on auxiliary docking proteins. Here we report that FGFR2 recruits Grb2 through its C-terminal SH3 domain. The binding site of this domain was mapped to the proline-rich C-terminus of the receptor. Deletion of the last 10 amino acids of FGFR2 abrogates interaction with Grb2. Synthetic peptides based on the C-terminus of FGFR2 bind to full length Grb2 with low micromolar affinity. The function of this novel mode of Grb2 binding provides resistance to site-specific Shp2-mediated receptor dephosphorylation.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Cellular signalling 2010;22;1;23-33

  • PTPN11 mutations in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia occur as a secondary event associated with high hyperdiploidy.

    Molteni CG, Te Kronnie G, Bicciato S, Villa T, Tartaglia M, Basso G, Biondi A and Cazzaniga G

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP07115

    Leukemia 2010;24;1;232-5

  • SHP-2 expression negatively regulates NK cell function.

    Purdy AK and Campbell KS

    Fox Chase Cancer Center, Institute for Cancer Research, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA.

    Src homology region 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) is required for full activation of Ras/ERK in many cytokine and growth factor receptor signaling pathways. In contrast, SHP-2 inhibits activation of human NK cells upon recruitment to killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIR). To determine how SHP-2 impacts NK cell activation in KIR-dependent or KIR-independent signaling pathways, we employed knockdown and overexpression strategies in NK-like cell lines and analyzed the consequences on functional responses. In response to stimulation with susceptible target cells, SHP-2-silenced NK cells had elevated cytolytic activity and IFN-gamma production, whereas cells overexpressing wild-type or gain-of-function mutants of SHP-2 exhibited dampened activities. Increased levels of SHP-2 expression over this range significantly suppressed microtubule organizing center polarization and granzyme B release in response to target cells. Interestingly, NK-target cell conjugation was only reduced by overexpressing SHP-2, but not potentiated in SHP-2-silenced cells, indicating that conjugation is not influenced by physiological levels of SHP-2 expression. KIR-dependent inhibition of cytotoxicity was unaffected by significant reductions in SHP-2 levels, presumably because KIR were still capable of recruiting the phosphatase under these limiting conditions. In contrast, the general suppressive effect of SHP-2 on cytotoxicity and cytokine release was much more sensitive to changes in cellular SHP-2 levels. In summary, our studies have identified a new, KIR-independent role for SHP-2 in dampening NK cell activation in response to tumor target cells in a concentration-dependent manner. This suppression of activation impacts microtubule organizing center-based cytoskeletal rearrangement and granule release.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA06927, CA083859, P30 CA006927, P30 CA006927-47, R01 CA083859, R01 CA083859-08, T32 CA009035, T32 CA009035-32

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2009;183;11;7234-43

  • A genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 22 loci associated with eight hematological parameters in the HaemGen consortium.

    Soranzo N, Spector TD, Mangino M, Kühnel B, Rendon A, Teumer A, Willenborg C, Wright B, Chen L, Li M, Salo P, Voight BF, Burns P, Laskowski RA, Xue Y, Menzel S, Altshuler D, Bradley JR, Bumpstead S, Burnett MS, Devaney J, Döring A, Elosua R, Epstein SE, Erber W, Falchi M, Garner SF, Ghori MJ, Goodall AH, Gwilliam R, Hakonarson HH, Hall AS, Hammond N, Hengstenberg C, Illig T, König IR, Knouff CW, McPherson R, Melander O, Mooser V, Nauck M, Nieminen MS, O'Donnell CJ, Peltonen L, Potter SC, Prokisch H, Rader DJ, Rice CM, Roberts R, Salomaa V, Sambrook J, Schreiber S, Schunkert H, Schwartz SM, Serbanovic-Canic J, Sinisalo J, Siscovick DS, Stark K, Surakka I, Stephens J, Thompson JR, Völker U, Völzke H, Watkins NA, Wells GA, Wichmann HE, Van Heel DA, Tyler-Smith C, Thein SL, Kathiresan S, Perola M, Reilly MP, Stewart AF, Erdmann J, Samani NJ, Meisinger C, Greinacher A, Deloukas P, Ouwehand WH and Gieger C

    Human Genetics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK. ns6@sanger.ac.uk

    The number and volume of cells in the blood affect a wide range of disorders including cancer and cardiovascular, metabolic, infectious and immune conditions. We consider here the genetic variation in eight clinically relevant hematological parameters, including hemoglobin levels, red and white blood cell counts and platelet counts and volume. We describe common variants within 22 genetic loci reproducibly associated with these hematological parameters in 13,943 samples from six European population-based studies, including 6 associated with red blood cell parameters, 15 associated with platelet parameters and 1 associated with total white blood cell count. We further identified a long-range haplotype at 12q24 associated with coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in 9,479 cases and 10,527 controls. We show that this haplotype demonstrates extensive disease pleiotropy, as it contains known risk loci for type 1 diabetes, hypertension and celiac disease and has been spread by a selective sweep specific to European and geographically nearby populations.

    Funded by: CIHR: MOP77682, MOP82810, NA6650; Medical Research Council: G0000111; NCRR NIH HHS: U54 RR020278, U54 RR020278-01; NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL056931-02, R01 HL056931-03, R01 HL056931-04; Wellcome Trust

    Nature genetics 2009;41;11;1182-90

  • Genome wide molecular analysis of minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia.

    Silva FP, Almeida I, Morolli B, Brouwer-Mandema G, Wessels H, Vossen R, Vrieling H, Marijt EW, Valk PJ, Kluin-Nelemans HC, Sperr WR, Ludwig WD and Giphart-Gassler M

    Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, PO box 9600, Postzone S4-P, 2300 RC Leiden, the Netherlands.

    Background: Minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia is heterogeneous in karyotype and is defined by immature morphological and molecular characteristics. This originally French-American-British classification is still used in the new World Health Organization classification when other criteria are not met. Apart from RUNX1 mutation, no characteristic molecular aberrations are recognized.

    We performed whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism analysis and extensive molecular analysis in a cohort of 52 patients with minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia.

    Results: Many recurring and potentially relevant regions of loss of heterozygosity were revealed. These point towards a variety of candidate genes that could contribute to the pathogenesis of minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia, including the tumor suppressor genes TP53 and NF1, and reinforced the importance of RUNX1 in this leukemia. Furthermore, for the first time in this minimally differentiated form of leukemia we detected mutations in the transactivation domain of RUNX1. Mutations in other acute myeloid leukemia associated transcriptions factors were infrequent. In contrast, FLT3, RAS, PTPN11 and JAK2 were often mutated. Irrespective of the RUNX1 mutation status, our results show that RAS signaling is the most important pathway for proliferation in minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia. Importantly, we found that high terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase expression is closely associated with RUNX1 mutation, which could allow an easier diagnosis of RUNX1 mutation in this hematologic malignancy.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that in patients without RUNX1 mutation, several other molecular aberrations, separately or in combination, contribute to a common minimally differentiated phenotype.

    Haematologica 2009;94;11;1546-54

  • High resolution melting analysis for mutation detection for PTPN11 gene: applications of this method for diagnosis of Noonan syndrome.

    Lo FS, Luo JD, Lee YJ, Shu SG, Kuo MT and Chiou CC

    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

    Background: Noonan syndrome (NS, OMIM 163950) is a relatively common autosomal dominant disorder and has significant phenotypic overlap with Costello Syndrome and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. Molecular diagnosis is useful for differential diagnosis. PTPN11 gene mutation is the most common mutation associated with NS and hence is a suitable target for molecular diagnostics.

    Methods: High resolution melting (HRM) analysis was used for screening of PTPN11 mutations. Eleven DNA samples with 10 known PTPN11 mutations were used for HRM calibration. Said calibrations were then applied to mutation screening of a panel of 50 additional NS patients.

    Results: HRM analysis differentiated all of the 10 known mutations and identified 9 additional mutations from 10 patients in the blind study, which is in line with results obtained by sequencing.

    Conclusions: HRM analysis is a rapid, reliable, and low-cost tool for detection of PTPN11 genetic variants.

    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 2009;409;1-2;75-7

  • RAS signaling dysregulation in human embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Martinelli S, McDowell HP, Vigne SD, Kokai G, Uccini S, Tartaglia M and Dominici C

    Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy. simone.martinelli@iss.it

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a common childhood solid tumor, resulting from dysregulation of the skeletal myogenesis program. Two major histological subtypes occur in childhood RMS, embryonal and alveolar. While chromosomal rearrangements account for the majority of alveolar tumors, the genetic defects underlying the pathogenesis of embryonal RMS remain largely undetermined. A few studies performed on small series of embryonal tumors suggest that dysregulation of RAS function may be relevant to disease pathogenesis. To explore further the biological and clinical relevance of mutations with perturbing consequences on RAS signaling in embryonal RMS, we investigated the prevalence of PTPN11, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, MEK1, and MEK2 mutations in a relatively large cohort of primary tumors. While HRAS and KRAS were found to be rarely mutated, we identified somatic NRAS lesions in 20% of cases. All mutations were missense and affected codon 61, with the introduction of a positive charged amino acid residue representing the most common event. PTPN11 was found mutated in one tumor specimen, confirming that somatic defects in this gene are relatively uncommon in RMS, while no mutation was observed in BRAF and MEK genes. Although no clear association of mutations with any clinical variable was observed, comparison of the outcome between mutation-positive and mutation-negative cases indicated a trend for a higher percentage of patients exhibiting a better outcome in the former. Our findings provide evidence that dysregulation of RAS signaling is a major event contributing to embryonal RMS pathogenesis.

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP07115

    Genes, chromosomes & cancer 2009;48;11;975-82

  • Genetic factors associated with intestinal metaplasia in a high risk Singapore-Chinese population: a cohort study.

    Zhu F, Loh M, Hill J, Lee S, Koh KX, Lai KW, Salto-Tellez M, Iacopetta B, Yeoh KG, Soong R and Singapore Gastric Cancer Consortium

    Department of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. mdczhuf@nus.edu.sg

    Background: Intestinal metaplasia (IM) is an important precursor lesion in the development of gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to investigate genetic factors previously linked to GC risk for their possible association with IM. A total of 18 polymorphisms in 14 candidate genes were evaluated in a Singapore-Chinese population at high risk of developing GC.

    Methods: Genotype frequencies were compared between individuals presenting with (n = 128) or without (n = 246) IM by both univariate and multivariate analysis.

    Results: Carriers of the NQO1 609 T allele showed an association with IM in individuals who were seropositive for Helicobacter pylori (HP+; OR = 2.61, 95%CI: 1.18-5.80, P = .018). The IL-10 819 C allele was also associated with IM in HP+ individuals (OR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.21-4.43, P = 0.011), while the PTPN11 A allele was associated with IM in HP- individuals (OR = 2.51, 95%CI: 1.16-5.40, P = 0.019), but showed an inverse association in HP+ subjects (OR = 0.46, 95%CI: 0.21-0.99, P = 0.048).

    Conclusion: Polymorphisms in NQO1, IL-10 and PTPN11, in combination with HP status, could be used to identify individuals who are more likely to develop IM and therefore GC.

    BMC gastroenterology 2009;9;76

  • The protein-tyrosine phosphatase, SRC homology-2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2, is a crucial mediator of exogenous insulin-like growth factor signaling to human trophoblast.

    Forbes K, West G, Garside R, Aplin JD and Westwood M

    Maternal and Fetal Health Research Group, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 0JH, United Kingdom.

    Adequate fetal growth depends on placental transfer of nutrients and gases from the mother; thus, as pregnancy progresses, the placenta must grow to meet the increasing demands of the developing fetus. IGFs control proliferation, differentiation, and survival of trophoblast in first-trimester placenta via intracellular tyrosine kinase signaling cascades, the activation of which is also regulated by tyrosine phosphatases. The protein-tyrosine phosphatase, Src homology-2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-2, is crucial for mouse placental development and is known to mediate IGF actions in other systems. In this study we examined the role of SHP-2 in regulating IGF-mediated proliferation in human trophoblast. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that SHP-2 is expressed strongly in cytotrophoblast and only weakly in syncytium. After small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of SHP-2 in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells and human first-trimester placental explants, IGF-induced trophoblast proliferation, examined using immunohistochemical analysis of Ki67 and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Kinase activation assays suggested that SHP-2 interacts with the MAPK pathway to mediate these effects. Markers of trophoblast differentiation were elevated after SHP-2 knockdown. This study demonstrates a role for tyrosine phosphatases in human trophoblast and establishes SHP-2 as a component of the IGF signaling pathway that is required for normal placental growth.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: BB/E007678/1, BBE0076781; British Heart Foundation

    Endocrinology 2009;150;10;4744-54

  • Phenotype-genotype correlation in a patient with co-occurrence of Marfan and LEOPARD syndromes.

    Tang S, Hoshida H, Kamisago M, Yagi H, Momma K and Matsuoka R

    International Research and Educational Institute for Integrated Medical Sciences, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

    Here we report on a patient with multiple lentigines, hypertelorism, short stature, arachnodactyly, scoliosis, dissecting aneurysm, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and developmental delay, and a family history of Marfan syndrome. The patient is affected with both Marfan and LEOPARD syndromes. Mutational screening of the FBN1 gene showed a c.1464T>A (p.C488X) mutation and screening of the PTPN11 gene showed a c.836A>G (p.Y279C) mutation. We conclude that each mutation contributed independently to individual features in the ocular and cardiovascular systems, although short stature was more significantly influenced by the p.Y279C change in PTPN11 rather than the mutation in FBN1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mutations in both FBN1 and PTPN11 with combined phenotypes of Marfan and LEOPARD syndromes.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2009;149A;10;2216-9

  • PTPN11 gene mutation and severe neonatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: what is the link?

    Faienza MF, Giordani L, Ferraris M, Bona G and Cavallo L

    Dipartimento di Biomedicina dell'Età Evolutiva, Università di Bari, 70100 Bari, Italy. mf.faienza@endobiomol.uniba.it

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple dysmorphic features and a broad spectrum of congenital heart defects. Specific mutations of the PTPN11 gene are associated with 50% of the NS cases and 90% of the multiple lentigines/LEOPARD syndrome (ML/LS) cases. These two allelic conditions have several overlapping clinical features. This study describes the association between the Gln510Glu mutation of the PTPN11 gene and lethal progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in a newborn with the NS phenotype. The findings confirm the intriguing relationship between site-specific mutations of the PTPN11 gene and rapidly progressive HCM.

    Pediatric cardiology 2009;30;7;1012-5

  • PTPN11 mutations in LEOPARD syndrome: report of four cases in Taiwan.

    Lin IS, Wang JN, Chao SC, Wu JM and Lin SJ

    Department of Pediatrics, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan.

    LEOPARD syndrome (LS) is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder. The typical clinical presentation includes multiple lentigines and cardiac defects. Mutation analysis of the PTPN11 gene is feasible. We report four cases of LS, which were confirmed by molecular genetic study.

    Methods: The clinical features and mutations of the four patients were summarized.

    Results: The diagnosis of all four patients was made when lentigines appeared during childhood. Three cases had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. No electrocardiographic conduction abnormality was noted in any of the cases. Three patients had hypertelorism and three had short stature. Two patients, identical twins, presented with the atypical phenotype of tongue protrusion and hepatosplenomegaly at birth. Twin B had mild mental retardation. Case 4 had moderate hearing impairment. Point mutation of the PTPN11 gene was found in all patients.

    Conclusion: LS has typical skin manifestations. All patients should undergo a comprehensive examination, especially echocardiography and electrocardiography. The diagnosis can be confirmed by genetic study.

    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi 2009;108;10;803-7

  • SOS1 and PTPN11 mutations in five cases of Noonan syndrome with multiple giant cell lesions.

    Beneteau C, Cavé H, Moncla A, Dorison N, Munnich A, Verloes A and Leheup B

    Service de Médecine Infantile III et Génétique Clinique, Hôpital d'Enfants CHU de Nancy, Faculté de Médecine Nancy Université Henri Poincaré, Vandoeuvre, France. c.beneteau@chu-nancy.fr

    We report five cases of multiple giant cell lesions in patients with typical Noonan syndrome. Such association has frequently been referred to as Noonan-like/multiple giant cell (NL/MGCL) syndrome before the molecular definition of Noonan syndrome. Two patients show mutations in PTPN11 (p.Tyr62Asp and p.Asn308Asp) and three in SOS1 (p.Arg552Ser and p.Arg552Thr). The latter are the first SOS1 mutations reported outside PTPN11 in NL/MGCL syndrome. MGCL lesions were observed in jaws ('cherubism') and joints ('pigmented villonodular synovitis'). We show through those patients that both types of MGCL are not PTPN11-specific, but rather represent a low penetrant (or perhaps overlooked) complication of the dysregulated RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. We recommend discarding NL/MGCL syndrome from the nosology, as this presentation is neither gene-nor allele-specific of Noonan syndrome; these patients should be described as Noonan syndrome with MGCL (of the mandible, the long bone...). The term cherubism should be used only when multiple giant cell lesions occur without any other clinical and molecular evidence of Noonan syndrome, with or without mutations of the SH3BP2 gene.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2009;17;10;1216-21

  • Dopamine regulates phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 by engaging Src-homology-2-domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2.

    Sinha S, Vohra PK, Bhattacharya R, Dutta S, Sinha S and Mukhopadhyay D

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced receptor phosphorylation is the crucial step for initiating downstream signaling pathways that lead to angiogenesis or related pathophysiological outcomes. Our previous studies have shown that the neurotransmitter dopamine could inhibit VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), endothelial cell proliferation, migration, microvascular permeability, and thus, angiogenesis. In this study, we address the mechanism by which VEGFR-2 phosphorylation is regulated by dopamine. Here, we demonstrate that D2 dopamine receptor (D2DR) colocalizes with VEGFR-2 at the cell surface. Dopamine pretreatment increases the translocation and colocalization of Src-homology-2-domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-2) with D2DR at the cell surface. Dopamine administration leads to increased VEGF-induced phosphorylation of SHP-2 and this increased phosphorylation parallels the increased phosphatase activity of SHP-2. Active SHP-2 then dephosphorylates VEGFR-2 at Y951, Y996 and Y1059, but not Y1175. We also observe that SHP-2 knockdown impairs the dopamine-regulated inhibition of VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 and, subsequently, Src phosphorylation and migration. Our data establish a novel role for SHP-2 phosphatase in the dopamine-mediated regulation of VEGFR-2 phosphorylation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA78383; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL70567, HL72178

    Journal of cell science 2009;122;Pt 18;3385-92

  • The protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 is required for EGFRvIII oncogenic transformation in human glioblastoma cells.

    Zhan Y, Counelis GJ and O'Rourke DM

    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

    Oncogenic EGFRvIII is a naturally occurring oncoprotein and is expressed in about 40-50% of human glioblastomas, particularly those that arise de novo. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which this oncoprotein alters transforming phenotypes, and since our previous work indicated that SHP-2 protein tyrosine phosphatase activity modulated EGFRvIII activation and downstream signaling, we examined whether SHP-2 plays a role in EGFRvIII-induced oncogenesis by using both PTEN-deficient U87MG.EGFRvIII and PTEN-intact LN229.EGFRvIII cells. Inhibition of SHP-2 expression by Shp-2 siRNA inhibited cell growth, transformation and altered morphology of these EGFRvIII transformed GBM cells. Ectopic expression of a PTPase-inactive form of SHP-2, SHP-2 C459S, but not its wild-type SHP-2 or either of two SH2 domain mutants, abrogated transformation of EGFRvIII-expressing glioblastomas in soft agar and in nude mice. SHP-2 C459S cells grew slower and exhibited a more flattened morphology with more organized actin stress fibers under both full growth and low serum conditions. Furthermore, shp-2+/- and -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) could not be transformed by EGFRvIII while shp-2+/+ MEFs displayed a fully transformed phenotype upon introduction of EGFRvIII, again indicating a requirement for functional SHP-2 in EGFRvIII transformation. Moreover, the SHP-2 PTPase activity inhibitor NSC-87877 inhibited endogenous SHP-2 activity, Erk phosphorylation and transformation in both GBM cell lines. EGFRvIII expression recruited SHP-2 to the receptor complex to transduce signals and also increased SHP-2 phosphorylation at Tyr542. Inhibition of EGFRvIII-induced cell growth and transformation by SHP-2 C459S or shp-2 siRNA was mediated by its ability to block cell cycle progression at different phases in these GBM cells. These data indicate that differential activation of SHP-2 phosphorylation at Tyr542 in these two GBM cell lines likely results in increased different PTPase activity and distinct mechanisms of cell cycle progression and SHP-2, in particular its PTPase activity, plays a critical role in EGFRvIII-mediated transformation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA-90586, R01 CA090586, R01 CA090586-05, R56 CA090586, R56 CA090586-06A1, R56-CA-90586-06A1

    Experimental cell research 2009;315;14;2343-57

  • Negative regulation of Stat3 by activating PTPN11 mutants contributes to the pathogenesis of Noonan syndrome and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Zhang W, Chan RJ, Chen H, Yang Z, He Y, Zhang X, Luo Y, Yin F, Moh A, Miller LC, Payne RM, Zhang ZY, Fu XY and Shou W

    Herman B. Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202; Riley Heart Research Center, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202; the Departments of Microbiology and Immunology, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202.

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant congenital disorder characterized by multiple birth defects including heart defects and myeloproliferative disease (MPD). Approximately 50% of NS patients have germline gain-of-function mutations in PTPN11, which encodes the protein-tyrosine phosphatase, Shp2. We provide evidence that conditional ablation of Stat3 in hematopoietic cells and cardiac valvular tissues leads to myeloid progenitor hyperplasia and pulmonary stenosis due to the leaflet thickening, respectively. Consistently, STAT3 activation is significantly compromised in peripheral blood cells from NS patients bearing Shp2-activating mutations. Biochemical and functional analyses demonstrate that activated Shp2 is able to down-regulate Tyr(P)-Stat3 and that constitutively active Stat3 rescues activating mutant Shp2-induced granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor hypersensitivity in bone marrow cells. Collectively, our work demonstrates that Stat3 is an essential signaling component potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of NS and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia caused by PTPN11 gain-of-function mutations.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA69202, R01 CA069202; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL70259, HL81092, HL82981, HL85098, P01 HL085098, R01 HL070259, R01 HL081092, R01 HL082981

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;33;22353-22363

  • Coeliac disease-associated risk variants in TNFAIP3 and REL implicate altered NF-kappaB signalling.

    Trynka G, Zhernakova A, Romanos J, Franke L, Hunt KA, Turner G, Bruinenberg M, Heap GA, Platteel M, Ryan AW, de Kovel C, Holmes GK, Howdle PD, Walters JR, Sanders DS, Mulder CJ, Mearin ML, Verbeek WH, Trimble V, Stevens FM, Kelleher D, Barisani D, Bardella MT, McManus R, van Heel DA and Wijmenga C

    Genetics Department, University Medical Centre, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

    Objective: Our previous coeliac disease genome-wide association study (GWAS) implicated risk variants in the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region and eight novel risk regions. To identify more coeliac disease loci, we selected 458 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed more modest association in the GWAS for genotyping and analysis in four independent cohorts.

    Design: 458 SNPs were assayed in 1682 cases and 3258 controls from three populations (UK, Irish and Dutch). We combined the results with the original GWAS cohort (767 UK cases and 1422 controls); six SNPs showed association with p<1 x 10(-04) and were then genotyped in an independent Italian coeliac cohort (538 cases and 593 controls).

    Results: We identified two novel coeliac disease risk regions: 6q23.3 (OLIG3-TNFAIP3) and 2p16.1 (REL), both of which reached genome-wide significance in the combined analysis of all 2987 cases and 5273 controls (rs2327832 p = 1.3 x 10(-08), and rs842647 p = 5.2 x 10(-07)). We investigated the expression of these genes in the RNA isolated from biopsies and from whole blood RNA. We did not observe any changes in gene expression, nor in the correlation of genotype with gene expression.

    Conclusions: Both TNFAIP3 (A20, at the protein level) and REL are key mediators in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) inflammatory signalling pathway. For the first time, a role for primary heritable variation in this important biological pathway predisposing to coeliac disease has been identified. Currently, the HLA risk factors and the 10 established non-HLA risk factors explain approximately 40% of the heritability of coeliac disease.

    Funded by: British Heart Foundation: G0000934; Medical Research Council: G0000934; Wellcome Trust: 068545/Z/02, GR068094MA

    Gut 2009;58;8;1078-83

  • Increased c-Jun expression and reduced GATA2 expression promote aberrant monocytic differentiation induced by activating PTPN11 mutants.

    Yang Z, Kondo T, Voorhorst CS, Nabinger SC, Ndong L, Yin F, Chan EM, Yu M, Würstlin O, Kratz CP, Niemeyer CM, Flotho C, Hashino E and Chan RJ

    Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is characterized by myelomonocytic cell overproduction and commonly bears activating mutations in PTPN11. Murine hematopoietic progenitors expressing activating Shp2 undergo myelomonocytic differentiation, despite being subjected to conditions that normally support only mast cells. Evaluation of hematopoietic-specific transcription factor expression indicates reduced GATA2 and elevated c-Jun in mutant Shp2-expressing progenitors. We hypothesized that mutant Shp2-induced Ras hyperactivation promotes c-Jun phosphorylation and constitutive c-Jun expression, permitting, as a coactivator of PU.1, excessive monocytic differentiation and reduced GATA2. Hematopoietic progenitors expressing activating Shp2 demonstrate enhanced macrophage CFU (CFU-M) compared to that of wild-type Shp2-expressing cells. Treatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 or cotransduction with GATA2 normalizes activating Shp2-generated CFU-M. However, cotransduction of DeltaGATA2 (lacking the C-terminal zinc finger, needed to bind PU.1) fails to normalize CFU-M. NIH 3T3 cells expressing Shp2E76K produce higher levels of luciferase expression directed by the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (MCSFR) promoter, which utilizes c-Jun as a coactivator of PU.1. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrates increased c-Jun-PU.1 complexes in mutant Shp2-expressing hematopoietic progenitors, while chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates increased c-Jun binding to the c-Jun promoter and an increased c-Jun-PU.1 complex at the Mcsfr promoter. Furthermore, JMML progenitors express higher levels of c-JUN than healthy controls, substantiating the disease relevance of these mechanistic findings.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL082981, R01HL082981; NIDCD NIH HHS: R01 DC007390, R01DC007390

    Molecular and cellular biology 2009;29;16;4376-93

  • Associations of a PTPN11 G/A polymorphism at intron 3 with Helicobactor pylori seropositivity, gastric atrophy and gastric cancer in Japanese.

    Hishida A, Matsuo K, Goto Y, Naito M, Wakai K, Tajima K and Hamajima N

    Department of Preventive Medicine/Biostatistics and Medical Decision Making, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan. a-hishi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    Background: Previous studies have revealed the significance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection as a risk factor of gastric cancer. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) positivity has been demonstrated to determine the clinical outcome of H. pylori infection in the presence of SHP-2 (src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2). This study aimed to examine the formerly reported association of G/A PTPN11 (protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type 11) polymorphism (rs2301756) with gastric atrophy, as well as the association with gastric cancer in a Japanese population using a large sample size.

    Methods: Study subjects were 583 histologically diagnosed patients with gastric cancer (429 males and 154 females) and age- and sex-frequency-matched 1,636 non-cancer outpatients (1,203 males and 433 females), who visited Aichi Cancer Center Hospital between 2001-2005. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG antibody and pepsinogens were measured to evaluate H. pylori infection and gastric atrophy, respectively. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by a logistic model.

    Results: Among H. pylori seropositive non-cancer outpatients, the age- and sex-adjusted OR of gastric atrophy was 0.82 (95% CI 0.62-1.10, P = 0.194) for G/A, 0.84 (95% CI 0.39-1.81, P = 0.650) for A/A, and 0.83 (95% CI 0.62-1.09, P = 0.182) for G/A+A/A, relative to G/G genotype, and that of severe gastric atrophy was 0.70 (95% CI 0.47-1.04, P = 0.079), 0.56 (95% CI 0.17-1.91, P = 0.356), and 0.68 (95% CI 0.46-1.01, P = 0.057), respectively. Among H. pylori infected subjects (H. pylori seropositive subjects and seronegative subjects with gastric atrophy), the adjusted OR of severe gastric atrophy was further reduced; 0.62 (95% CI 0.42-0.90, P = 0.012) for G/A+A/A. The distribution of the genotype in patients with gastric cancer was not significantly different from that for H. pylori infected subjects without gastric atrophy.

    Conclusion: Our study results revealed that those with the A/A genotype of PTPN11 rs2301756 polymorphism are at lower risk of severe gastric atrophy, but are not associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer, which partially supported our previous finding that the polymorphism in the PTPN11 gene encoding SHP-2 was associated with the gastric atrophy risk in H. pylori infected Japanese. The biological roles of this PTPN11 polymorphism require further investigation.

    BMC gastroenterology 2009;9;51

  • Expression and purification of 15N-labeled 2-SH2 protein domain of SHP-2 from Homo sapiens in Escherichia coli for NMR studies and applications.

    Wu Y and Guo JF

    Institute of Bioengineering, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Xiasha Road #2, Hangzhou, PR China. wuye83.lj@163.com

    A method for 2-SH2 protein domain study was described as per the order of expression, purification and structural detection. The 2-SH2 protein of Homo sapiens SHP-2 was successfully expressed and purified. It could specifically bind to anti-SHP-2/SHPTP-2 antibody according to the MS and Western blot analysis. The NMR spectrum result reveals that the protein exists in a well-ordered structure. This can provide foundations to find out the reaction mechanism of the D phosphorylated-EPIYA motif accessible to 2-SH2, support the research and development of the novel detection chip as well as target inhibition medicine for the future clinical applications.

    International journal of biological macromolecules 2009;45;1;1-7

  • Independent NF1 and PTPN11 mutations in a family with neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome.

    Thiel C, Wilken M, Zenker M, Sticht H, Fahsold R, Gusek-Schneider GC and Rauch A

    Insitute of Human Genetics, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany. christian.thiel@humgenet.uni-erlangen.de

    Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome (NFNS), an entity which combines both features of Noonan syndrome (NS) and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), was etiologically unresolved until recent reports demonstrated NF1 mutations in the majority of patients with NFNS. The phenotypic overlap was explained by the involvement of the Ras pathway in both disorders, and, accordingly, clustering of the NF1 mutations in the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain of neurofibromin was observed in individuals with NFNS. We report on an 18-month-old girl with typical findings suggestive of NS in combination with multiple café-au-lait spots and bilateral optic gliomas suggestive of NF1. The patient was found to carry a de novo PTPN11 mutation p.T2I as well as the maternally inherited NF1 mutation c.4661+1G>C. Her otherwise healthy mother and brother, who also had the NF1 mutation, showed few café-au-lait spots as the only sign of neurofibromatosis. Since our patient's unique NF1 mutation results in skipping of exon 27a and thus involves the same region, Gap-related domain, that had been shown to be associated with NFNS, her phenotype could have been misleadingly attributed to the NF1 mutation only. Contrarily, absence of both cutaneous neurofibromas and NS features in her relatives with the same NF1 mutation, suggests that the index patient's typical NFNS phenotype is caused by an additive effect of mutations in both NF1 and PTPN11. In contrast to previous findings, we speculate that absence of cutaneous neurofibromas is not solely associated with the recurrent 3-bp in-frame deletion in exon 17.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2009;149A;6;1263-7

  • JAK2 and SHP2 reciprocally regulate tyrosine phosphorylation and stability of proapoptotic protein ASK1.

    Yu L, Min W, He Y, Qin L, Zhang H, Bennett AM and Chen H

    Interdepartmental Program in Vascular Biology and Therapeutics, Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520.

    Previously we have shown that tyrosine 718 of ASK1 when phosphorylated is critical for SOCS1 binding and SOCS1-mediated degradation of ASK1. However, the kinase and phosphatase responsible for phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of ASK1 at Tyr-718 are unknown. In this study, we identified JAK2 and SHP2 as a Tyr-718-specific kinase and phosphatase, respectively. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) induced degradation of ASK1 in normal but not in SOCS1-KO endothelial cells (EC). IFN-gamma-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of ASK1 at Tyr-718 was blocked by a JAK2-specific inhibitor. IFN-gamma enhanced the association between JAK2 and ASK1, and the ASK1-JAK2 complex was labile and was stabilized by the proteasomal inhibitor MG132. Furthermore, JAK2, but not JAK1, directly bound to and phosphorylated ASK1 at Tyr-718, leading to an enhanced association of ASK1 with SOCS1 and subsequent ASK1 degradation. Next, we showed that overexpression of the SH2-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) augmented, whereas a phosphatase-inactive mutant of SHP2 inhibited, TNF-induced ASK1 dephosphorylation. SHP2 associated with ASK1 in response to tumor necrosis factor in EC. An SHP-2 substrate-trapping mutant formed a complex with tyrosine-phosphorylated ASK1, suggesting that ASK1 is a direct SHP2 substrate. Moreover, SHP2 wild type, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, dissociated SOCS1 from ASK1. IFN-gamma-induced ASK1 Tyr(P)-718 was enhanced in mouse EC deficient in SHP2 (SHP2-KO). In contrast, tumor necrosis factor-induced dephosphorylation of ASK1 at Tyr(P)-718 and activation of ASK1-JNK signaling, as well as EC apoptosis, are significantly reduced in SHP2-KO EC. Our data suggest that JAK2-SOCS1 and SHP2 reciprocally regulate ASK1 phosphorylation and stability in response to cytokines.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01HL070295-6, R01 HL-65978-9; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR46504

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;20;13481-13488

  • Molecular mechanism for SHP2 in promoting HER2-induced signaling and transformation.

    Zhou X and Agazie YM

    Department of Biochemistry and The Marry Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, USA.

    The Src homology phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 2 (SHP2) plays a positive role in HER2-induced signaling and transformation, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Given the significance of HER2 in breast cancer, defining a mechanism for SHP2 in the HER2 signaling pathway is of paramount importance. In the current report we show that SHP2 positively modulates the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 and the phospoinositide-3-kinase-Akt pathways downstream of HER2 by increasing the half-life the activated form of Ras. This is accomplished by dephosphorylating an autophosphorylation site on HER2 that serves as a docking platform for the SH2 domains of the Ras GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP). The net effect is an increase in the intensity and duration of GTP-Ras levels with the overall impact of enhanced HER2 signaling and cell transformation. In conformity to these findings, the HER2 mutant that lacks the SHP2 target site exhibits an enhanced signaling and cell transformation potential. Therefore, SHP2 promotes HER2-induced signaling and transformation at least in part by dephosphorylating a negative regulatory autophosphorylation site. These results suggest that SHP2 might serve as a therapeutic target against breast cancer and other cancers characterized by HER2 overexpression.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA124940

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;18;12226-34

  • Polymorphisms of PTPN11 coding SHP-2 as biomarkers for ulcerative colitis susceptibility in the Japanese population.

    Narumi Y, Isomoto H, Shiota M, Sato K, Kondo S, Machida H, Yanagihara K, Mizuta Y, Kohno S and Tsukamoto K

    Department of Pharmacotherapeutics, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan.

    Objective: To identify genetic determinants of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we examined an association between polymorphisms of both the programmed cell death 1 gene (PDCD1) and the src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 gene (PTPN11) and susceptibility to IBD.

    Methods: Study subjects comprised 114 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 83 patients with Crohn's disease, and 200 healthy control subjects. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PDCD1 and PTPN11 were detected by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subsequently, haplotypes composed of the two SNPs in PTPN11 were constructed.

    Results: The frequencies of the Hap 1 haplotype and its homozygous Hap 1/Hap 1 diplotype of PTPN11 were significantly increased in UC patients compared to control subjects (P = 0.011 and P = 0.030, respectively). While no association was found for PDCD1 for UC or CD and none for PTPN11 for CD.

    Conclusion: PTPN11 is a genetic determinant for the pathogenesis of UC, and haplotyping of PTPN11 may be useful as a genetic biomarker to identify high-risk individuals susceptible to UC.

    Journal of clinical immunology 2009;29;3;303-10

  • SHP-2 inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas-L and regulates cell migration.

    Yo K, Iwata S, Hashizume Y, Kondo S, Nomura S, Hosono O, Kawasaki H, Tanaka H, Dang NH and Morimoto C

    Division of Clinical Immunology, Advanced Clinical Research Center, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

    The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-2, plays an important role in cell migration by interacting with various proteins. In this report, we demonstrated that SHP-2 inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation of Crk-associated substrate lymphocyte type (Cas-L), a docking protein which mediates cell migration, and found that SHP-2 negatively regulates migration of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells induced by fibronectin (FN). We showed that overexpressed SHP-2 co-localizes with Cas-L at focal adhesions and that exogenous expression of SHP-2 abrogates cell migration mediated by Cas-L. SHP-2 inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas-L, and associates with Cas-L to form a complex in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent manner. Finally, immunoprecipitation experiments with deletion mutants revealed that both SH2 domains of SHP-2 are necessary for this association. These results suggest that SHP-2 regulates tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas-L, hence opposing the effect of kinases, and SHP-2 is a negative regulator of cell migration mediated by Cas-L.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2009;382;1;210-4

  • Genetic mutations associated with cigarette smoking in pancreatic cancer.

    Blackford A, Parmigiani G, Kensler TW, Wolfgang C, Jones S, Zhang X, Parsons DW, Lin JC, Leary RJ, Eshleman JR, Goggins M, Jaffee EM, Iacobuzio-Donahue CA, Maitra A, Klein A, Cameron JL, Olino K, Schulick R, Winter J, Vogelstein B, Velculescu VE, Kinzler KW and Hruban RH

    Department of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA.

    Cigarette smoking doubles the risk of pancreatic cancer, and smoking accounts for 20% to 25% of pancreatic cancers. The recent sequencing of the pancreatic cancer genome provides an unprecedented opportunity to identify mutational patterns associated with smoking. We previously sequenced >750 million bp DNA from 23,219 transcripts in 24 adenocarcinomas of the pancreas (discovery screen). In this previous study, the 39 genes that were mutated more than once in the discovery screen were sequenced in an additional 90 adenocarcinomas of the pancreas (validation screen). Here, we compared the somatic mutations in the cancers obtained from individuals who ever smoked cigarettes (n = 64) to the somatic mutations in the cancers obtained from individuals who never smoked cigarettes (n = 50). When adjusted for age and gender, analyses of the discovery screen revealed significantly more nonsynonymous mutations in the carcinomas obtained from ever smokers (mean, 53.1 mutations per tumor; SD, 27.9) than in the carcinomas obtained from never smokers (mean, 38.5; SD, 11.1; P = 0.04). The difference between smokers and nonsmokers was not driven by mutations in known driver genes in pancreatic cancer (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A/p16, and SMAD4), but instead was predominantly observed in genes mutated at lower frequency. No differences were observed in mutations in carcinomas from the head versus tail of the gland. Pancreatic carcinomas from cigarette smokers harbor more mutations than do carcinomas from never smokers. The types and patterns of these mutations provide insight into the mechanisms by which cigarette smoking causes pancreatic cancer.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA62924, P50 CA062924, P50 CA062924-08S30011, P50 CA062924-090011, P50 CA062924-160011, R01 CA039416, R37 CA043460

    Cancer research 2009;69;8;3681-8

  • The tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 controls urokinase-dependent signaling and functions in human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Kiyan J, Haller H and Dumler I

    Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Strabetae 1, D-30625 Hannover, Germany. kiian.ioulia@mh-hannover.de

    The urokinase (uPA)/urokinase receptor (uPAR) multifunctional system is an important mediator of functional behaviour of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). uPAR associates with platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFR-beta), which serves as a transmembrane adaptor for uPAR in VSMC, to transduce intracellular signaling and initiate functional changes. The precise and rapid propagation of these signaling cascades demands both strict and flexible regulatory mechanisms that remain unexplored. We provide evidence that the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 mediates these processes. uPA regulated SHP-2 phosphorylation, catalytic activity, and its co-localization and association with the PDGFR-beta. Active PDGFR-beta was required for the uPA-induced SHP-2 phosphorylation. uPAR-directed STAT1 pathway was disturbed in cells expressing SHP-2 inactive mutant. Both, cell proliferation and migration were impaired in VSMC with downregulated SHP-2. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms, we found that uPA induced SHP-2 recruitment to lipid rafts. Disruption of rafts abolished uPA-related control of SHP-2 phosphorylation, its association with PDGFR-beta and finally the VSMC functional responses. Our results demonstrate that SHP-2 plays an important role in uPA-directed signaling and functional control of human VSMC and suggest that this phosphatase might contribute to the pathogenesis of the uPA-related vascular remodeling.

    Experimental cell research 2009;315;6;1029-39

  • A severe form of Noonan syndrome and autosomal dominant café-au-lait spots - evidence for different genetic origins.

    Nyström AM, Ekvall S, Strömberg B, Holmström G, Thuresson AC, Annerén G and Bondeson ML

    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

    Aim: The clinical overlap among Noonan syndrome (NS), cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC), LEOPARD and Costello syndromes as well as Neurofibromatosis type 1 is extensive, which complicates the process of diagnosis. Further genotype-phenotype correlations are required to facilitate future diagnosis of these patients. Therefore, investigations of the genetic cause of a severe phenotype in a patient with NS and the presence of multiple café-au-lait spots (CAL) spots in the patient and four members of the family were performed.

    Methods: Mutation analyses of candidate genes, PTPN11, NF1, SPRED1 and SPRED2, associated with these syndromes, were conducted using DNA sequencing.

    Results: A previously identified de novo mutation, PTPN11 F285L and an inherited NF1 R1809C substitution in the index patient were found. However, neither PTPN11 F285L, NF1 R1809C, SPRED1 nor SPRED2 segregated with CAL spots in the family. The results indicate that the familial CAL spots trait in this family is caused by a mutation in another gene, distinct from previous genes associated with CAL spots in these syndromes.

    Conclusion: We suggest that the atypical severe symptoms in the index patient may be caused by an additive effect on the F285L mutation in PTPN11 by another mutation, for example the NF1 R1809C or alternatively, the not yet identified gene mutation associated with CAL spots in this family.

    Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) 2009;98;4;693-8

  • Determination of genetic predisposition to patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants.

    Dagle JM, Lepp NT, Cooper ME, Schaa KL, Kelsey KJ, Orr KL, Caprau D, Zimmerman CR, Steffen KM, Johnson KJ, Marazita ML and Murray JC

    Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. john-dagle@uiowa.edu

    Objective: Patent ductus arteriosus is a common morbidity associated with preterm birth. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus increases with decreasing gestational age to approximately 70% in infants born at 25 weeks' gestation. Our major goal was to determine if genetic risk factors play a role in patent ductus arteriosus seen in preterm infants.

    Methodology: We investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that regulate smooth muscle contraction, xenobiotic detoxification, inflammation, and other processes are markers for persistent patency of ductus arteriosus. Initially, 377 single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 130 genes of interest were evaluated in DNA samples collected from 204 infants with a gestational age of <32 weeks. A family-based association test was performed on genotyping data to evaluate overtransmission of alleles.

    Results: P values of <.01 were detected for genetic variations found in 7 genes. This prompted additional analysis with an additional set of 162 infants, focusing on the 7 markers with initial P values of <.01, and 1 genetic variant in the angiotensin II type I receptor previously shown to be related to patent ductus arteriosus. Of the initial positive signals, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the transcription factor AP-2 beta and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 genes remained significant. Additional haplotype analysis revealed genetic variations in prostacyclin synthase to be associated with patent ductus arteriosus. An angiotensin II type I receptor polymorphism previously reported to be associated with patent ductus arteriosus after prophylactic indomethacin administration was not associated with the presence of a patent ductus arteriosus in our population.

    Conclusions: Overall, our data support a role for genetic variations in transcription factor AP-2 beta, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1, and prostacyclin synthase in the persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus seen in preterm infants.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01 RR000059, M01 RR000059-466795; NICHD NIH HHS: R01 HD052953, R01 HD052953-01, T32 HD041922, T32 HD041922-02; NIEHS NIH HHS: P30 ES005605, P30 ES005605-170010, P30 ES005605-180010, P30 ES05605

    Pediatrics 2009;123;4;1116-23

  • Genotype differences in cognitive functioning in Noonan syndrome.

    Pierpont EI, Pierpont ME, Mendelsohn NJ, Roberts AE, Tworog-Dube E and Seidenberg MS

    Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. eipierpont@wisc.edu

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal-dominant genetic disorder associated with highly variable features, including heart disease, short stature, minor facial anomalies and learning disabilities. Recent gene discoveries have laid the groundwork for exploring whether variability in the NS phenotype is related to differences at the genetic level. In this study, we examine the influence of both genotype and nongenotypic factors on cognitive functioning. Data are presented from 65 individuals with NS (ages 4-18) who were evaluated using standardized measures of intellectual functioning. The cohort included 33 individuals with PTPN11 mutations, 6 individuals with SOS1 mutations, 1 individual with a BRAF mutation and 25 participants with negative, incomplete or no genetic testing. Results indicate that genotype differences may account for some of the variation in cognitive ability in NS. Whereas cognitive impairments were common among individuals with PTPN11 mutations and those with unknown mutations, all of the individuals with SOS1 mutations exhibited verbal and nonverbal cognitive skills in the average range or higher. Participants with N308D and N308S mutations in PTPN11 also showed no (or mild) cognitive delays. Additional influences such as hearing loss, motor dexterity and parental education levels accounted for significant variability in cognitive outcomes. Severity of cardiac disease was not related to cognitive functioning. Our results suggest that some NS-causing mutations have a more marked impact on cognitive skills than others.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: T32 HD049899, T32 HD049899-01, T32 HD049899-01A1

    Genes, brain, and behavior 2009;8;3;275-82

  • Germline BRAF mutations in Noonan, LEOPARD, and cardiofaciocutaneous syndromes: molecular diversity and associated phenotypic spectrum.

    Sarkozy A, Carta C, Moretti S, Zampino G, Digilio MC, Pantaleoni F, Scioletti AP, Esposito G, Cordeddu V, Lepri F, Petrangeli V, Dentici ML, Mancini GM, Selicorni A, Rossi C, Mazzanti L, Marino B, Ferrero GB, Silengo MC, Memo L, Stanzial F, Faravelli F, Stuppia L, Puxeddu E, Gelb BD, Dallapiccola B and Tartaglia M

    IRCCS, San Giovanni Rotondo, Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Patologia, Università La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

    Noonan, LEOPARD, and cardiofaciocutaneous syndromes (NS, LS, and CFCS) are developmental disorders with overlapping features including distinctive facial dysmorphia, reduced growth, cardiac defects, skeletal and ectodermal anomalies, and variable cognitive deficits. Dysregulated RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal traffic has been established to represent the molecular pathogenic cause underlying these conditions. To investigate the phenotypic spectrum and molecular diversity of germline mutations affecting BRAF, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase functioning as a RAS effector frequently mutated in CFCS, subjects with a diagnosis of NS (N=270), LS (N=6), and CFCS (N=33), and no mutation in PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS, RAF1, MEK1, or MEK2, were screened for the entire coding sequence of the gene. Besides the expected high prevalence of mutations observed among CFCS patients (52%), a de novo heterozygous missense change was identified in one subject with LS (17%) and five individuals with NS (1.9%). Mutations mapped to multiple protein domains and largely did not overlap with cancer-associated defects. NS-causing mutations had not been documented in CFCS, suggesting that the phenotypes arising from germline BRAF defects might be allele specific. Selected mutant BRAF proteins promoted variable gain of function of the kinase, but appeared less activating compared to the recurrent cancer-associated p.Val600Glu mutant. Our findings provide evidence for a wide phenotypic diversity associated with mutations affecting BRAF, and occurrence of a clinical continuum associated with these molecular lesions.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL074728, HL71207, P50 HL074728, R01 HL071207, R01 HL071207-07; NICHD NIH HHS: HD01294, K24 HD001294; Telethon: GGP07115

    Human mutation 2009;30;4;695-702

  • Correlation of clinical features with the mutational status of GM-CSF signaling pathway-related genes in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Yoshida N, Yagasaki H, Xu Y, Matsuda K, Yoshimi A, Takahashi Y, Hama A, Nishio N, Muramatsu H, Watanabe N, Matsumoto K, Kato K, Ueyama J, Inada H, Goto H, Yabe M, Kudo K, Mimaya J, Kikuchi A, Manabe A, Koike K and Kojima S

    Department of Pediatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.

    Mutations in RAS, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), and PTPN11, constituents of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor signaling pathway, have been recognized in patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). We assessed 71 children with JMML for NRAS, KRAS, and PTPN11 mutations and evaluated their clinical significance. Of the 71 patients, three had been clinically diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1, and PTPN11 and NRAS/KRAS mutations were found in 32 (45%) and 13 (18%) patients, respectively. No simultaneous aberrations were found. Compared with patients with RAS mutation or without any aberrations, patients with PTPN11 mutation were significantly older at diagnosis and had higher fetal Hb levels, both of which have been recognized as poor prognostic factors. As was expected, overall survival was lower for patients with the PTPN11 mutation than for those without (25 versus 64%; p = 0.0029). In an analysis of 48 patients who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, PTPN11 mutations were also associated with poor prognosis for survival. Mutation in PTPN11 was the only unfavorable factor for relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (p = 0.001). All patients who died after relapse had PTPN11 mutation. These results suggest that JMML with PTPN11 mutation might be a distinct subgroup with specific clinical characteristics and poor outcome.

    Pediatric research 2009;65;3;334-40

  • Downregulation of platelet responsiveness upon contact with LDL by the protein-tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2.

    Korporaal SJ, Koekman CA, Verhoef S, van der Wal DE, Bezemer M, Van Eck M and Akkerman JW

    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Haematology, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    Objective: The sensitivity of platelets to aggregating agents increases when low-density lipoprotein (LDL) binds to apolipoprotein E receptor 2' (apoER2'), triggering activation of p38MAPK and formation of thromboxane A2. LDL signaling is terminated by PECAM-1 through recruitment and activation of the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase PP2A, but platelets remain unresponsive to LDL when PECAM-1 activation disappears. We report a second mechanism that halts LDL signaling and in addition lowers platelet responsiveness to aggregating agents.

    After a first stimulation with LDL, platelets remain unresponsive to LDL for 60 minutes, despite normal apoER2' activation by a second dose of LDL. A possible cause is persistent activation of the tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2, which may not only block a second activation of p38MAPK, PECAM-1, and PP2A by LDL but also seem to reduce aggregation by TRAP, collagen, and ADP.

    Conclusion: These findings reveal that p38MAPK phosphorylation and platelet activation by LDL are suppressed by two mechanisms: (1) short activation of PECAM-1/PP2A, and (2) prolonged activation of SHP-1 and SHP-2. Activation of SHP-1 and SHP-2 is accompanied by reduced responsiveness to aggregating agents, which--if present in vivo--would make LDL an aggregation inhibitor during prolonged contact with platelets.

    Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 2009;29;3;372-9

  • Redox regulation of SH2-domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatases by two backdoor cysteines.

    Chen CY, Willard D and Rudolph J

    Department of Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are known to be regulated by phosphorylation, localization, and protein-protein interactions. More recently, redox-dependent inactivation has emerged as a critical factor in attenuating PTP activity in response to cellular stimuli. The tandem Src homology 2 domain-containing PTPs (SHPs) belong to the family of nonreceptor PTPs whose activity can be modulated by reversible oxidation in vivo. Herein we have investigated in vitro the kinetic and mechanistic details of reversible oxidation of SHP-1 and SHP-2. We have confirmed the susceptibility of the active site cysteines of SHPs to oxidative inactivation, with rate constants for oxidation similar to other PTPs (2-10 M(-1) s(-1)). Both SHP-1 and SHP-2 can be reduced and reactivated with the reductants DTT and gluthathione, whereas only the catalytic domain of SHP-2 is subject to reactivation by thioredoxin. Stabilization of the reversible oxidation state of the SHPs proceeds via a novel mechanism unlike for other PTPs wherein oxidation yields either a disulfide between the catalytic cysteine and a nearby "backdoor" cysteine or a sulfenylamide bond with the amide backbone nitrogen of the adjacent amino acid. Instead, in the reversibly oxidized and inactivated SHPs, the catalytic cysteine is rereduced while two conserved backdoor cysteines form an intramolecular disulfide. Formation of this backdoor-backdoor disulfide is dependent on the presence of the active site cysteine and can proceed via either active site cysteine-backdoor cysteine intermediate. Removal of both backdoor cysteines leads to irreversible oxidative inactivation, demonstrating that these two cysteines are necessary and sufficient for ensuring reversible oxidation of the SHPs. Our results extend the mechanisms by which redox regulation of PTPs is used to modulate intracellular signaling pathways.

    Biochemistry 2009;48;6;1399-409

  • Cognitive profile of disorders associated with dysregulation of the RAS/MAPK signaling cascade.

    Cesarini L, Alfieri P, Pantaleoni F, Vasta I, Cerutti M, Petrangeli V, Mariotti P, Leoni C, Ricci D, Vicari S, Selicorni A, Tartaglia M, Mercuri E and Zampino G

    Pediatric Neurology Unit, Catholic University, Rome, Italy.

    Mutations in genes coding for transducers participating in the RAS/MAPK pathway have been identified as the molecular cause underlying a group of clinically related developmental disorders with cognitive deficits of variable severity. To determine the spectrum of cognitive defects associated with dysregulation of this signal cascade, we studied the profile of cognitive abilities in patients with mutations affecting the PTPN11, SOS1, HRAS, KRAS, BRAF, RAF1, and MEK1 genes and phenotype-genotype correlations. Our findings support the observation that heterogeneity in cognitive abilities can be at least partially ascribed to the individual affected genes and type of mutation involved. While mutations affecting transducers upstream of RAS were less frequently associated with mental retardation, mutations in downstream components of the pathway were generally associated with a more severe cognitive impairment. Among patients with a heterozygous PTPN11 mutation, the T468M substitution was associated with a mean IQ significantly higher compared to that of individuals carrying the N308D change. Our study provides insights on the range of cognitive abilities in patients with gene mutations causing dysregulation of RAS signaling suggesting that the presence and severity of cognitive involvement can be predicted in part by the gene involved.

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP07115

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2009;149A;2;140-6

  • A conserved mechanism for control of human and mouse embryonic stem cell pluripotency and differentiation by shp2 tyrosine phosphatase.

    Wu D, Pang Y, Ke Y, Yu J, He Z, Tautz L, Mustelin T, Ding S, Huang Z and Feng GS

    Programs in Signal Transduction, and Stem Cells and Regeneration, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

    Recent studies have suggested distinctive biological properties and signaling mechanisms between human and mouse embryonic stem cells (hESCs and mESCs). Herein we report that Shp2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase with two SH2 domains, has a conserved role in orchestration of intracellular signaling cascades resulting in initiation of differentiation in both hESCs and mESCs. Homozygous deletion of Shp2 in mESCs inhibited differentiation into all three germ layers, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of Shp2 expression in hESCs led to a similar phenotype of impaired differentiation. A small molecule inhibitor of Shp2 enzyme suppressed both hESC and mESC differentiation capacity. Shp2 modulates Erk, Stat3 and Smad pathways in ES cells and, in particular, Shp2 regulates BMP4-Smad pathway bi-directionally in mESCs and hESCs. These results reveal a common signaling mechanism shared by human and mouse ESCs via Shp2 modulation of overlapping and divergent pathways.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA078606, R01CA78606; NIGMS NIH HHS: P20 GM075059, P20GM075059

    PloS one 2009;4;3;e4914

  • Tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 is a regulator of p27(Kip1) tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Tossidou I, Dangers M, Koch A, Brandt DT, Schiffer M and Kardinal C

    Nephrologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH), Hannover, Germany.

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of the cell cycle regulator p27(Kip1) plays a crucial role in its binding to cyclin dependent kinases and its subcellular localization. While Src and Bcr-Abl were shown to be responsible for tyrosine phosphorylation, no data are available on the dephosphorylation of p27(Kip1) and the phosphatase involved. Considering the associated dephosphorylation as a pivotal event in the regulation of cell cycle proteins, we focused on the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, which is regulated in promyelocytic leukemia cells on G-CSF stimulation. SHP-2 was thus found in association with p27(Kip1) and the G-CSF receptor, and we observed a nuclear translocation of SHP-2 on G-CSF stimulation. Using a catalytically inactive form of SHP-2 and siRNA directed against SHP-2, we could demonstrate the involvement of SHP-2 in tyrosine dephosphorylation of p27(Kip1). Moreover, SHP-2 was strongly activated on G-CSF stimulation and specifically dephosphorylated p27(Kip1) in vitro. Most importantly, we could illustrate that SHP-2 modulates p27(Kip1) stability and contributes to p27(Kip1)-mediated cell cycle progression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SHP-2 is a key regulator of p27(Kip1) tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 2008;7;24;3858-68

  • Multiple genetic variants along candidate pathways influence plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.

    Lu Y, Dollé ME, Imholz S, van 't Slot R, Verschuren WM, Wijmenga C, Feskens EJ and Boer JM

    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. kevin.lu@wur.nl

    The known genetic variants determining plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels explain only part of its variation. Three hundred eighty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 251 genes based on pathways potentially relevant to HDL-C metabolism were selected and genotyped in 3,575 subjects from the Doetinchem cohort, which was examined thrice over 11 years. Three hundred fifty-three SNPs in 239 genes passed the quality-control criteria. Seven SNPs [rs1800777 and rs5882 in cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP); rs3208305, rs328, and rs268 in LPL; rs1800588 in LIPC; rs2229741 in NRIP1] were associated with plasma HDL-C levels with false discovery rate (FDR) adjusted q values (FDR_q) < 0.05. Five other SNPs (rs17585739 in SC4MOL, rs11066322 in PTPN11, rs4961 in ADD1, rs6060717 near SCAND1, and rs3213451 in MBTPS2 in women) were associated with plasma HDL-C levels with FDR_q between 0.05 and 0.2. Two less well replicated associations (rs3135506 in APOA5 and rs1800961 in HNF4A) known from the literature were also observed, but their significance disappeared after adjustment for multiple testing (P = 0.008, FDR_q = 0.221 for rs3135506; P = 0.018, FDR_q = 0.338 for rs1800961, respectively). In addition to replication of previous results for candidate genes (CETP, LPL, LIPC, HNF4A, and APOA5), we found interesting new candidate SNPs (rs2229741 in NRIP1, rs3213451 in MBTPS2, rs17585739 in SC4MOL, rs11066322 in PTPN11, rs4961 in ADD1, and rs6060717 near SCAND1) for plasma HDL-C levels that should be evaluated further.

    Journal of lipid research 2008;49;12;2582-9

  • Significance of SHP-1 and SHP-2 expression in human papillomavirus infected Condyloma acuminatum and cervical cancer.

    Tao XH, Shen JG, Pan WL, Dong YE, Meng Q, Honn KV and Jin R

    Department of Dermatology, Zhejiang Province People's Hospital, Hangzhou, China.

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a group of DNA viruses that infect the skin and mucous membranes. Type HPV6/11 is closely related to Condyloma acuminatum, while HPV16/18 is the principal cause of cervical cancer. In this study, we examined the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 in Condyloma acuminatum, cervical cancer and the relationship between SHP-1/SHP2 expression and HPV infection. Forty Condyloma acuminatum cases, 20 cervical cancer cases and 20 normal human foreskins were examined for HPV infection by in situ hybridization and the expression of SHP-1 and SHP-2 were examined by immunohistochemistry. Results demonstrated that positive expression rates of HPV6/11, HPV16/18, and HPV31/33 were 98%, 10%, and 7.5% in Condyloma acuminatum, 10%, 85%, and 25% in cervical cancer. Only one normal foreskin demonstrated positive staining for HPV16/18. Positive expression rates of SHP-1 and SHP-2 were 80% and 85% in Condyloma acuminatum, 85% and 90% in cervical cancer. The SHP-1 and SHP-2 expressions were mainly distributed in the prickle layer of Condyloma acuminatum and were diffusely distributed in cervical cancer cells. Only 35% and 30% of foreskins demonstrated weak staining in the basal layer cells. There were statistically significant correlations among the infection of HPV and the expression of SHP-1 and SHP-2 in both Condyloma acuminatum and cervical cancer (P < 0.05). SHP-1 expression has a positive correlation with SHP-2 expression. Our results demonstrate putative roles of SHP-1 and SHP-2 in the progression of both Condyloma acuminatum and cervical cancer after HPV infection.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-29997, R01 CA029997

    Pathology oncology research : POR 2008;14;4;365-71

  • Nuclear protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp-2 is one important negative regulator of nuclear export of telomerase reverse transcriptase.

    Jakob S, Schroeder P, Lukosz M, Büchner N, Spyridopoulos I, Altschmied J and Haendeler J

    Department of Molecular Cell & Aging Research, IUF at the University of Duesseldorf gGmbH, Auf'm Hennekamp 50, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany.

    Aging is one major risk factor for numerous diseases. The enzyme telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) plays an important role for aging and apoptosis. Previously, we demonstrated that inhibition of oxidative stress-induced Src kinase family-dependent nuclear export of TERT results in delayed replicative senescence and reduced apoptosis sensitivity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms inhibiting nuclear export of TERT. First, we demonstrated that H2O2-induced nuclear export of TERT was abolished in Src, Fyn, and Yes-deficient embryonic fibroblasts. Next, we wanted to identify one potential negative regulator of this export process. One candidate is the protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp-2 (Shp-2), which can counteract activities of the Src kinase family. Indeed, Shp-2 was evenly distributed between the nucleus and cytosol. Nuclear Shp-2 associates with TERT in endothelial cells and dissociates from TERT prior to its nuclear export. Overexpression of Shp-2 wt inhibited H2O2-induced export of TERT. Overexpression of the catalytically inactive, dominant negative Shp-2 mutant (Shp-2(C459S)) reduced endogenous as well as overexpressed nuclear TERT protein and telomerase activity, whereas it had no influence on TERT(Y707F). Binding of TERT(Y707F) to Shp-2 is reduced compared with TERTwt. Ablation of Shp-2 expression led only to an increased tyrosine phosphorylation of TERTwt, but not of TERT(Y707F). Moreover, reduced Shp-2 expression decreased nuclear telomerase activity, whereas nuclear telomerase activity was increased in Shp-2-overexpressing endothelial cells. In conclusion, Shp-2 retains TERT in the nucleus by regulating tyrosine 707 phosphorylation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;48;33155-61

  • Impaired Sertoli cell function in males diagnosed with Noonan syndrome.

    Marcus KA, Sweep CG, van der Burgt I and Noordam C

    Department of Paediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. k.marcus@cukz.umcn.nl

    In order to study male gonadal function in Noonan syndrome, clinical and laboratory data, including inhibin B, were gathered in nine pubertal males diagnosed with Noonan syndrome. Bilateral testicular maldescent was observed in four, and unilateral cryptorchidism occurred in two. Puberty was delayed in three patients. Luteinising hormone (LH) levels were normal in all patients in our series, while follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were raised in seven. Inhibin B was low in six males and just above the lower limit of normal in two. Importantly, all three men with normal testicular descent displayed signs of Sertoli cell dysfunction, indicating, in contrast to earlier reports, that bilateral cryptorchidism does not seem to be the main contributing factor to impairment of testicular function in Noonan syndrome. These findings suggest different mechanisms of disturbance in male gonadal function, which is frequently associated with Sertoli dysfunction.

    Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM 2008;21;11;1079-84

  • Inhibition of IFN-gamma-induced STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation by human CMV is mediated by SHP2.

    Baron M and Davignon JL

    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 563, Centre de Physiopathologie de Toulouse Purpan, Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse, France.

    Human CMV (HCMV) is a ubiquitous beta-herpesvirus which has developed several mechanisms of escape from the immune system. IFN-gamma-induced signaling relies on the integrity of the JAK/STAT pathway which is regulated by phosphorylation steps and leads to nuclear translocation of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 (STAT1-P-Tyr), and its binding to IFN-gamma activation site sequences of IFN-gamma-inducible promoters. Activation of those promoters leads to the expression of genes involved in the immune response and in the antiviral effects of IFN-gamma. Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP2) is a ubiquitous phosphatase involved in the regulation of IFN-gamma-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation. Several mechanisms account for the inhibition IFN-gamma signaling pathway by HCMV. In this study, we have identified a new mechanism that involved the inhibition of STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation within 12-24 h postinfection. This defect was dependent on HCMV transcription. Consequences were impaired nuclear translocation of STAT1-P-Tyr, inhibition of IFN-gamma activation site-STAT1 interaction, and inhibition of HLA-DR expression. Expression of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase which is involved in the antiviral effects of IFN-gamma was also inhibited. Treatment of cells with sodium orthovanadate rescued STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that a tyrosine phosphatase was involved in this inhibition. Coimmunoprecipitation of STAT1 and SHP2 was induced by HCMV infection, and SHP2 small interfering RNA restored the expression of STAT1-P-Tyr. Our data suggest that SHP2 activation induced by HCMV infection is responsible for the down-regulation of IFN-gamma-induced STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2008;181;8;5530-6

  • SHP-2 is a novel target of Abl kinases during cell proliferation.

    Mitra S, Beach C, Feng GS and Plattner R

    Department of Molecular and Biomedical Pharmacology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA.

    Previously, we showed that Abl family tyrosine kinases are activated by growth factors, and Abl is required for transition from G1 to S phase during PDGF-mediated proliferation. Here, we show that the SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase, which acts to promote proliferation in response to cytokines and growth factors, is a novel substrate of endogenous Abl kinases during growth factor-mediated cellular proliferation. Using a pharmacological inhibitor and RNAi, we show that endogenous Abl kinases phosphorylate SHP-2 on Y580, and induce sustained activation of ERK kinases in response to growth factor stimulation in fibroblasts. Consistent with these data, SHP-2 is required for Abl-dependent PDGF-mediated proliferation since expression of an activated form of SHP-2 rescues the ability of Abl-Arg null fibroblasts to transit from G1 to S phase, whereas inhibition of SHP-2 signaling reduces the ability of Abl kinases to rescue the proliferation defect. Abl kinases also indirectly mediate phosphorylation of SHP-2 on Y63 and Y279, which are frequent sites of germline mutation in two cancer susceptibility syndromes. Significantly, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of SHP-2 on Y279 downregulates growth factor-induced sustained ERK activation and proliferation, supporting a role for Abl kinases not only in potentiating growth factor-mediated SHP-2 signaling, but also in negative-feedback regulation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R01CA116784, R01 CA078606, R01 CA116784, R01 CA116784-02, R01CA078606; NCRR NIH HHS: P20 RR020171, P20 RR020171-047711

    Journal of cell science 2008;121;Pt 20;3335-46

  • Activating PTPN11 mutants promote hematopoietic progenitor cell-cycle progression and survival.

    Yang Z, Li Y, Yin F and Chan RJ

    Department of Pediatrics, Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

    Objective: Mutations in PTPN11, which encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2, are commonly found in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). We hypothesized that PTPN11 mutations promote cell-cycle progression and confer enhanced survival to hematopoietic progenitors.

    Murine bone marrow low-density mononuclear cells were transduced with pMIEG3, pMIEG3-WT Shp2, pMIEG3-Shp2D61Y, or pMIEG3-Shp2E76K followed by cell-cycle and survival functional analysis as well as biochemical analysis for key cell-cycle and programmed cell-death regulatory proteins.

    Results: A higher proportion of hematopoietic progenitors bearing the gain-of-function Shp2 mutants were residing in the S or G2 phase of the cell cycle in response to low doses of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor compared to cells transduced with empty vector (MIEG3) or with WT Shp2. Likewise, Shp2D61Y- or Shp2E76K-expressing hematopoietic cells demonstrated reduced apoptosis based on Annexin-V staining and produced increased progenitor colonies after 48 hours in minimal media compared to cells transduced with empty vector or WT Shp2. To differentiate enhanced survival vs hyperproliferation, cells were stained with PKH26 to distinguish undivided cells from divided progeny. Shp2D61Y- or Shp2E76K-expressing PKH26+ cells similarly demonstrated reduced apoptosis. Upon biochemical analysis, expression of Akt- and Erk-responsive cell-cycle and programmed cell-death regulatory proteins were altered, including increased levels of cyclin D1, Bcl2, and BclXL and reduced levels of p27, p21, and Bim.

    Conclusion: Collectively, these data demonstrate that gain-of-function Shp2 mutants promote hematopoietic progenitor cell-cycle progression and survival and imply that agents targeting the cell cycle or promoting apoptosis may have therapeutic potential in JMML.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL082981, R01 HL082981-02

    Experimental hematology 2008;36;10;1285-96

  • Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient with Noonan syndrome with germ-line PTPN11 mutations.

    Lo FS, Kuo TT, Wang CJ, Kuo MT and Kuo MC

    Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chung Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

    We describe the previously unreported condition of Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient with Noonan syndrome caused by germ-line mutations (1507G > C, Gly503Arg) in exon 13 of the PTPN11 gene. PTPN11, encoding SHP-2, is the first identified gene for Noonan syndrome and also the first identified proto-oncogene that encodes a tyrosine phosphatase. This somatic mutation has ever been reported in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Furthermore, the functional analysis of this mutant SHP-2 has shown it to have enhanced phosphatase activity. Mutational analysis of PTPN11 gene in cancer cells and understanding how SHP-2 contributes to oncogenesis will provide new insight into the pathogenesis of Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    International journal of hematology 2008;88;3;287-290

  • SHP2 is up-regulated in breast cancer cells and in infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast, implying its involvement in breast oncogenesis.

    Zhou X, Coad J, Ducatman B and Agazie YM

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA.

    Aims: To determine whether Src homology phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 2 (SHP2) is up-regulated in breast cancer and, if so, to determine whether its up-regulation has any relationship with clinical variables of breast cancer.

    Immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence microscopy were used to assess the state of SHP2 expression in breast cancer cells and in infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) of breast. The possible role of SHP2 in breast cancer cell transformation was determined by dominant-negative expression and anchorage-independent growth assays. All of the breast cancer cell lines tested and 72% of IDC breast tumours analysed had increased amounts of the SHP2 protein. In support of its positive role, dominant-negative SHP2 blocked anchorage-independent growth of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of SHP2 seemed to have a positive relationship to HER2 overexpression, nuclear accumulation of hormone receptors, higher tumour grade and lymph node metastasis, but not to age of breast cancer patients.

    Conclusion: SHP2 is a widely overexpressed signalling protein in IDC breast tumours. Given SHP2's positive role in cell growth, transformation and stem cell survival, the positive relationship of its overexpression to lymph node metastasis, nuclear accumulation of hormone receptors and higher tumour grade suggests that SHP2 promotes breast oncogenesis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA124940, R01 CA124940; NCRR NIH HHS: 2P20RR016440

    Histopathology 2008;53;4;389-402

  • Activation of Cdk2 stimulates proteasome-dependent truncation of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in human proliferating intestinal epithelial cells.

    Simoneau M, Boulanger J, Coulombe G, Renaud MA, Duchesne C and Rivard N

    Département d'Anatomie et Biologie Cellulaire, Faculté de Médecine et des Sciences de la Santé, Universitéde Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4, Canada.

    SHP-1 is expressed in the nuclei of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Increased SHP-1 expression and phosphatase activity coincide with cell cycle arrest and differentiation in these cells. Suspecting the tumor-suppressive properties of SHP-1, a yeast two-hybrid screen of an IEC cDNA library was conducted using the full-length SHP-1 as bait. Characterization of many positive clones revealed sequences identical to a segment of the Cdk2 cDNA sequence. Interaction between SHP-1 and Cdk2 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitations whereby co-precipitated Cdk2 phosphorylated SHP-1 protein. Inhibition of Cdk2 (roscovitine) or proteasome (MG132) was associated with an enhanced nuclear punctuate distribution of SHP-1. Double labeling localization studies with signature proteins of subnuclear domains revealed a co-localization between the splicing factor SC35 and SHP-1 in bright nucleoplasmic foci. Using Western blot analyses with the anti-SHP-1 antibody recognizing the C terminus, a lower molecular mass species of 45 kDa was observed in addition to the full-length 64-65-kDa SHP-1 protein. Treatment with MG132 led to an increase in expression of the full-length SHP-1 protein while concomitantly leading to a decrease in the levels of the lower mass 45-kDa molecular species. Further Western blots revealed that the 45-kDa protein corresponds to the C-terminal portion of SHP-1 generated from proteasome activity. Mutational analysis of Tyr(208) and Ser(591) (a Cdk2 phosphorylation site) residues on SHP-1 abolished the expression of the amino-truncated 45-kDa SHP-1 protein. In conclusion, our results indicate that Cdk2-associated complexes, by targeting SHP-1 for proteolysis, counteract the ability of SHP-1 to block cell cycle progression of IECs.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;37;25544-25556

  • Phosphorylation-dependent binding of 14-3-3 terminates signalling by the Gab2 docking protein.

    Brummer T, Larance M, Herrera Abreu MT, Lyons RJ, Timpson P, Emmerich CH, Fleuren ED, Lehrbach GM, Schramek D, Guilhaus M, James DE and Daly RJ

    Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

    Grb2-associated binder (Gab)2 functions downstream of a variety of receptor and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases as a docking platform for specific signal transducers and performs important functions in both normal physiology and oncogenesis. Gab2 signalling is promoted by its association with specific receptors through the adaptor Grb2. However, the molecular mechanisms that attenuate Gab2 signals have remained unclear. We now demonstrate that growth factor-induced phosphorylation of Gab2 on two residues, S210 and T391, leads to recruitment of 14-3-3 proteins. Together, these events mediate negative-feedback regulation, as Gab2(S210A/T391A) exhibits sustained receptor association and signalling and promotes cell proliferation and transformation. Importantly, introduction of constitutive 14-3-3-binding sites into Gab2 renders it refractory to receptor activation, demonstrating that site-selective binding of 14-3-3 proteins is sufficient to terminate Gab2 signalling. Furthermore, this is associated with reduced binding of Grb2. This leads to a model where signal attenuation occurs because 14-3-3 promotes dissociation of Gab2 from Grb2, and thereby uncouples Gab2 from the receptor complex. This represents a novel regulatory mechanism with implications for diverse tyrosine kinase signalling systems.

    The EMBO journal 2008;27;17;2305-16

  • Analysis of the PTPN11 gene in idiopathic short stature children and Noonan syndrome patients.

    Ferreira LV, Souza SC, Montenegro LR, Malaquias AC, Arnhold IJ, Mendonca BB and Jorge AA

    Unidade de Endocrinologia do Desenvolvimento, Laboratorio de Hormonios e Genetica Molecular LIM/42, Disciplina de Endocrinologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Background: Mutations in the PTPN11 gene are the main cause of Noonan syndrome (NS). The presence of some NS features is a frequent finding in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). These children can represent the milder end of the NS clinical spectrum and PTPN11 is a good candidate for involvement in the pathogenesis of ISS.

    Objective: To evaluate the presence of mutations in PTPN11 in ISS children who presented NS-related signs and in well-characterized NS patients.

    We studied 50 ISS children who presented at least two NS-associated signs but did not fulfil the criteria for NS diagnosis. Forty-nine NS patients diagnosed by the criteria of van der Burgt et al. were used to assess the adequacy of these criteria to select patients for PTPN11 mutation screening. The coding region of PTPN11 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by direct sequencing.

    Results: No mutations or polymorphisms were found in the coding region of the PTPN11 gene in ISS children. Nineteen of the 49 NS patients (39%) presented mutations in PTPN11. No single characteristic enabled us to distinguish between NS patients with or without PTPN11 mutations.

    Conclusion: Considering that no mutations were found in the present cohort with NS-related signs, it is unlikely that mutations would be found in unselected ISS children. The van der Burgt et al. criteria are adequate in attaining NS diagnosis and selecting patients for molecular studies. Mutations in the PTPN11 gene are commonly involved in the pathogenesis of NS but are not a common cause of ISS.

    Clinical endocrinology 2008;69;3;426-31

  • Immunohistochemical analyses of phosphatases in childhood B-cell lymphoma: lower expression of PTEN and HePTP and higher number of positive cells for nuclear SHP2 in B-cell lymphoma cases compared to controls.

    Fridberg M, Kjellström S, Anagnostaki L, Skogvall I, Mustelin T, Wiebe T, Persson JL, Dictor M and Wingren AG

    Department of Tumor Biology, Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.

    Although many pediatric B-cell lymphoma patients are being cured today, much is still unknown about the pathogenesis of this disease. Protein tyrosine phosphatases are involved in the control of survival, growth, and differentiation of cells. The authors have analyzed 26 pediatric B-cell lymphoma cases for the expression of a panel of phosphatases and report a statistically significant lower expression intensity of PTEN and HePTP and higher nuclear SHP2 expression in B-cell lymphoma cases compared to lymphoid tissue. Knowledge about the expression of key regulatory proteins in pediatric B-cell lymphomas is necessary for revealing the complex molecular background of this disease.

    Pediatric hematology and oncology 2008;25;6;528-40

  • Long-term GH treatment improves adult height in children with Noonan syndrome with and without mutations in protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor-type 11.

    Noordam C, Peer PG, Francois I, De Schepper J, van den Burgt I and Otten BJ

    Department of Metabolic and Endocrine Diseases 833, Radboud University Medical Centre, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. c.noordam@cukz.umcn.nl

    Context: Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by short stature, typical facial dysmorphology and congenital heart defects. Short-term effect of GH therapy in NS is beneficial, reports on the effect on adult height are scarce.

    Objective: To determine the effect of long-term GH therapy in children with NS.

    Design: Twenty-nine children with NS were treated with GH until final height was reached.

    Setting: Hospital endocrinology departments.

    Patients: Children with the clinical diagnosis of NS, with mean age at the start of therapy of 11.0 years, 22 out of 27 tested children had a mutation in the protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor-type 11 gene (PTPN11 gene). Interventions GH was administered subcutaneously at 0.05 mg/kg per day until growth velocity was 1 cm/6 months.

    Linear growth (height) was measured at 3-month intervals in the first year and at 6-month intervals thereafter until final height.

    Results: At the start of treatment, median height SDS (H-SDS) was -2.8 (-4.1 to -1.8) and 0.0 (-1.4 to +1.2), based on national and Noonan standards respectively. GH therapy lasted for 3.0-10.3 years (median, 6.4), producing mean gains in H-SDS of +1.3 (+0.2 to +2.7) and +1.3 (-0.6 to +2.4), based on national and Noonan standards respectively. In 22 children with a mutation in PTPN11 mean gain in H-SDS for National standards was +1.3, not different from the mean gain in the five children without a mutation in PTPN11+1.3 (P=0.98).

    Conclusion: Long-term GH treatment in NS leads to attainment of adult height within the normal range in most patients.

    European journal of endocrinology 2008;159;3;203-8

  • Polymorphisms in CLEC16A and CIITA at 16p13 are associated with primary adrenal insufficiency.

    Skinningsrud B, Husebye ES, Pearce SH, McDonald DO, Brandal K, Wolff AB, Løvås K, Egeland T and Undlien DE

    Department of Medical Genetics, Ullevål University Hospital, University of Oslo, Kirkeveien 166, N-0407 Oslo, Norway. beate.skinningsrud@medisin.uio.no

    It is known that different autoimmune diseases often share the same susceptibility genes. In this study we aimed to investigate if loci found associated with common autoimmune diseases in recent genome-wide association studies also could be susceptibility loci for autoimmune Addison's disease (primary adrenal insufficiency).

    A total of 139 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 candidate genes (IL2, IL21, IL2RA, CLEC2D, CD69, ERBB3, PTPN11, SH2B3, CLEC16A, CIITA, and PTPN2) were genotyped in a case/control study design consisting of Norwegian Addison's disease patients (n = 332) and Norwegian healthy control individuals (n = 1029). Five SNPs were subsequently selected for analysis in a United Kingdom sample set consisting of Addison's disease patients (n = 210) and controls (n = 191).

    Results: Polymorphisms in CLEC16A and CIITA remained significantly associated with Addison's disease in the Norwegian sample set at the 0.05 level, even after correction for multiple testing. CLEC16A and CIITA are both located at 16p13, but linkage disequilibrium patterns and logistical regression analyses suggest that SNPs in these two genes are independently associated with Addison's disease. We were not able to confirm these associations in the United Kingdom material, however, this may well be due to the limited sample size and lack of statistical power.

    Conclusion: Two alleles at 16p13 are independently associated with the risk of Addison's disease in the Norwegian population, suggesting this chromosomal region to harbor common autoimmunity gene(s), CLEC16A and CIITA being possible independent candidates.

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2008;93;9;3310-7

  • Interaction of scaffolding adaptor protein Gab1 with tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 negatively regulates IGF-I-dependent myogenic differentiation via the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    Koyama T, Nakaoka Y, Fujio Y, Hirota H, Nishida K, Sugiyama S, Okamoto K, Yamauchi-Takihara K, Yoshimura M, Mochizuki S, Hori M, Hirano T and Mochizuki N

    Department of Structural Analysis, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujishirodai, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

    Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1) coordinates various receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. Although skeletal muscle differentiation is regulated by some growth factors, it remains elusive whether Gab1 coordinates myogenic signals. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-mediated myogenic differentiation, focusing on Gab1 and its downstream signaling. Gab1 underwent tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent complex formation with protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 upon IGF-I stimulation in C2C12 myoblasts. On the other hand, Gab1 constitutively associated with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85. To delineate the role of Gab1 in IGF-I-dependent signaling, we examined the effect of adenovirus-mediated forced expression of wild-type Gab1 (Gab1(WT)), mutated Gab1 that is unable to bind SHP2 (Gab1(DeltaSHP2)), or mutated Gab1 that is unable to bind p85 (Gab1(Deltap85)), on the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. IGF-I-induced myogenic differentiation was enhanced in myoblasts overexpressing Gab1(DeltaSHP2), but inhibited in those overexpressing either Gab1(WT) or Gab1(Deltap85). Conversely, IGF-I-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation was significantly repressed in myoblasts overexpressing Gab1(DeltaSHP2) but enhanced in those overexpressing either Gab1(WT) or Gab1(Deltap85). Furthermore, small interference RNA-mediated Gab1 knockdown enhanced myogenic differentiation. Overexpression of catalytic-inactive SHP2 modulated IGF-I-induced myogenic differentiation and ERK1/2 activation similarly to that of Gab1(DeltaSHP2), suggesting that Gab1-SHP2 complex inhibits IGF-I-dependent myogenesis through ERK1/2. Consistently, the blockade of ERK1/2 pathway reversed the inhibitory effect of Gab1(WT) overexpression on myogenic differentiation, and constitutive activation of the ERK1/2 pathway suppressed the enhanced myogenic differentiation by overexpression of Gab1(DeltaSHP2). Collectively, these data suggest that the Gab1-SHP2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway comprises an inhibitory axis for IGF-I-dependent myogenic differentiation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;35;24234-44

  • c-Cbl-dependent monoubiquitination and lysosomal degradation of gp130.

    Tanaka Y, Tanaka N, Saeki Y, Tanaka K, Murakami M, Hirano T, Ishii N and Sugamura K

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575, Japan. tanaka-no735@pref.miyagi.jp

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6), a pleiotropic cytokine, functions in cells through its interaction with its receptor complex, which consists of two ligand-binding alpha subunits and two signal-transducing subunits known as gp130. There is a wealth of studies on signals mediated by gp130, but its downregulation is less well understood. Here we found that IL-6 stimulation induced lysosome-dependent degradation of gp130, which correlated with an increase in the K63-linked polyubiquitination of gp130. The stimulation-dependent ubiquitination of gp130 was mediated by c-Cbl, an E3 ligase, which was recruited to gp130 in a tyrosine-phosphorylated SHP2-dependent manner. We also found that IL-6 induced a rapid translocation of gp130 from the cell surface to endosomal compartments. Furthermore, the vesicular sorting molecule Hrs contributed to the lysosomal degradation of gp130 by directly recognizing its ubiquitinated form. Deficiency of either Hrs or c-Cbl suppressed gp130 degradation, which leads to a prolonged and amplified IL-6 signal. Thus, our present report provides the first evidence for involvement of a c-Cbl/SHP2 complex in ubiquitination and lysosomal degradation of gp130 upon IL-6 stimulation. The lysosomal degradation of gp130 is critical for cessation of IL-6-mediated signaling.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2008;28;15;4805-18

  • The function of Shp2 tyrosine phosphatase in the dispersal of acetylcholine receptor clusters.

    Qian YK, Chan AW, Madhavan R and Peng HB

    Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, PR China. boqyp@ust.hk

    Background: A crucial event in the development of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the postsynaptic enrichment of muscle acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (AChRs). This process involves two distinct steps: the local clustering of AChRs at synapses, which depends on the activation of the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK by neural agrin, and the global dispersal of aneural or "pre-patterned" AChR aggregates, which is triggered by ACh or by synaptogenic stimuli. We and others have previously shown that tyrosine phosphatases, such as the SH2 domain-containing phosphatase Shp2, regulate AChR cluster formation in muscle cells, and that tyrosine phosphatases also mediate the dispersal of pre-patterned AChR clusters by synaptogenic stimuli, although the specific phosphatases involved in this latter step remain unknown.

    Results: Using an assay system that allows AChR cluster assembly and disassembly to be studied separately and quantitatively, we describe a previously unrecognized role of the tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in AChR cluster disassembly. Shp2 was robustly expressed in embryonic Xenopus muscle in vivo and in cultured myotomal muscle cells, and treatment of the muscle cultures with an inhibitor of Shp2 (NSC-87877) blocked the dispersal of pre-patterned AChR clusters by synaptogenic stimuli. In contrast, over-expression in muscle cells of either wild-type or constitutively active Shp2 accelerated cluster dispersal. Significantly, forced expression in muscle of the Shp2-activator SIRPalpha1 (signal regulatory protein alpha1) also enhanced the disassembly of AChR clusters, whereas the expression of a truncated SIRPalpha1 mutant that suppresses Shp2 signaling inhibited cluster disassembly.

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that Shp2 activation by synaptogenic stimuli, through signaling intermediates such as SIRPalpha1, promotes the dispersal of pre-patterned AChR clusters to facilitate the selective accumulation of AChRs at developing NMJs.

    BMC neuroscience 2008;9;70

  • Diverse driving forces underlie the invariant occurrence of the T42A, E139D, I282V and T468M SHP2 amino acid substitutions causing Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes.

    Martinelli S, Torreri P, Tinti M, Stella L, Bocchinfuso G, Flex E, Grottesi A, Ceccarini M, Palleschi A, Cesareni G, Castagnoli L, Petrucci TC, Gelb BD and Tartaglia M

    Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare e Neuroscienze, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy.

    Missense PTPN11 mutations cause Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes (NS and LS), two developmental disorders with pleiomorphic phenotypes. PTPN11 encodes SHP2, an SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase functioning as a signal transducer. Generally, different substitutions of a particular amino acid residue are observed in these diseases, indicating that the crucial factor is the residue being replaced. For a few codons, only one substitution is observed, suggesting the possibility of specific roles for the residue introduced. We analyzed the biochemical behavior and ligand-binding properties of all possible substitutions arising from single-base changes affecting codons 42, 139, 279, 282 and 468 to investigate the mechanisms underlying the invariant occurrence of the T42A, E139D and I282V substitutions in NS and the Y279C and T468M changes in LS. Our data demonstrate that the isoleucine-to-valine change at codon 282 is the only substitution at that position perturbing the stability of SHP2's closed conformation without impairing catalysis, while the threonine-to-alanine change at codon 42, but not other substitutions of that residue, promotes increased phosphopeptide-binding affinity. The recognition specificity of the C-SH2 domain bearing the E139D substitution differed substantially from its wild-type counterpart acquiring binding properties similar to those observed for the N-SH2 domain, revealing a novel mechanism of SHP2's functional dysregulation. Finally, while functional selection does not seem to occur for the substitutions at codons 279 and 468, we point to deamination of the methylated cytosine at nucleotide 1403 as the driving factor leading to the high prevalence of the T468M change in LS.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL074728, HL71207; Telethon: GGP07115

    Human molecular genetics 2008;17;13;2018-29

  • Regulation of RhoA-dependent ROCKII activation by Shp2.

    Lee HH and Chang ZF

    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan.

    Contractile forces mediated by RhoA and Rho kinase (ROCK) are required for a variety of cellular processes, including cell adhesion. In this study, we show that RhoA-dependent ROCKII activation is negatively regulated by phosphorylation at a conserved tyrosine residue (Y722) in the coiled-coil domain of ROCKII. Tyrosine phosphorylation of ROCKII is increased with cell adhesion, and loss of Y722 phosphorylation delays adhesion and spreading on fibronectin, suggesting that this modification is critical for restricting ROCKII-mediated contractility during these processes. Further, we provide evidence that Shp2 mediates dephosphorylation of ROCKII and, therefore, regulates RhoA-induced cell rounding, indicating that Shp2 couples with RhoA signaling to control ROCKII activation during deadhesion. Thus, reversible tyrosine phosphorylation confers an additional layer of control to fine-tune RhoA-dependent activation of ROCKII.

    The Journal of cell biology 2008;181;6;999-1012

  • Structural and functional consequences of tyrosine phosphorylation in the LRP1 cytoplasmic domain.

    Betts GN, van der Geer P and Komives EA

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0378, USA.

    The cytoplasmic domain of LRP1 contains two NPXY motifs that have been shown to interact with signaling proteins. In previous work, we showed that Tyr(4507) in the distal NPXY motif is phosphorylated by v-Src, whereas denaturation of the protein was required for phosphorylation of Tyr(4473) in the membraneproximal NPXY motif. Amide H/D exchange studies reveal that the distal NPXY motif is fully solvent-exposed, whereas the proximal one is not. Phosphopeptide mapping combined with in vitro and in vivo kinase experiments show that Tyr(4473) can be phosphorylated, but only if Tyr(4507) is phosphorylated or substituted with glutamic acid. Amide H/D exchange experiments indicate that solvent accessibility increases across the entire LRP1 cytoplasmic region upon phosphorylation at Tyr(4507); in particular the NPXY(4473) motif becomes much more exposed. This differential phosphorylation is functionally relevant: binding of Snx17, which is known to bind at the proximal NPXY motif, is inhibited by phosphorylation at Tyr(4473). Conversely, Shp2 binds most strongly when both of the NPXY motifs in LRP1 are phosphorylated.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA78629; NIA NIH HHS: AG025343, R01 AG025343; NIDDK NIH HHS: T32-DK07233

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;23;15656-64

  • Isolation of a distinct class of gain-of-function SHP-2 mutants with oncogenic RAS-like transforming activity from solid tumors.

    Miyamoto D, Miyamoto M, Takahashi A, Yomogita Y, Higashi H, Kondo S and Hatakeyama M

    Division of Molecular Oncology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

    SHP-2 protein tyrosine phosphatase plays an important role in activation of the RAS-dependent signaling. Gain-of-function mutations in the PTPN11 gene, which encodes SHP-2, have been found in the leukemia-prone developmental disorder Noonan syndrome as well as sporadic childhood leukemias, indicating that SHP-2 is a bona fide human oncoprotein. However, the role of SHP-2 mutations in non-hematological malignancies remains obscure. Here, we screened for PTPN11 mutations in primary solid tumors and identified a 1520C>A mutation that causes threonine-507 to lysine (T507K) substitution in the phosphatase domain of SHP-2 in a case of hepatocellular carcinoma. T507K SHP-2 exhibited altered substrate specificity with slightly elevated basal phosphatase activity. Upon expression in NIH3T3 cells, T507K SHP-2 induced transformed foci, which was not observed with wild type, Noonan-specific or leukemia-specific SHP-2. Furthermore, NIH3T3 cells transformed by T507K SHP-2 showed anchorage-independent growth and developed tumors in nude mice. These results indicate that quantitative and/or qualitative alteration in phosphatase activity determines the transforming potential as well as target cell/tissue spectrum of individual SHP-2 mutants as oncoproteins. Although rare in solid tumors, the identified T507K SHP-2 represents a distinct class of SHP-2 mutants with oncogenic RAS-like transforming activity, which could contribute to the development of solid tumors.

    Oncogene 2008;27;25;3508-15

  • Characterization of acute myeloid leukemia with PTPN11 mutation: the mutation is closely associated with NPM1 mutation but inversely related to FLT3/ITD.

    Hou HA, Chou WC, Lin LI, Chen CY, Tang JL, Tseng MH, Huang CF, Chiou RJ, Lee FY, Liu MC and Tien HF

    Leukemia 2008;22;5;1075-8

  • Associations between a PTPN11 polymorphism and gastric atrophy--opposite in Uzbekistan to that in Japan.

    Hamajima N, Rahimov B, Malikov Y, Abdiev S, Ahn KS, Bahramov S, Kawai S, Nishio K, Naito M and Goto Y

    Department of Preventive Medicine/Medical Decision Making, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550 Japan. nhamajim@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) of gastric epithelial cells interacts with cagA from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Our previous studies found the AA genotype of a G/A single nucleotide polymorphism at intron 3 (rs2301756) of PTPN11 gene, which encodes SHP-2, to be associated with a lower risk of gastric atrophy. The present study aimed to examine the association with gastric atrophy among the subjects of a case-control study of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) conducted in the Uzbek Republic. Cases were 95 patients (61 males and 34 females) with PUD aged 16 to 85 years. Controls were 102 hospital volunteers (42 males and 60 females) including 42 patients with miscellaneous diseases, aged 15 to 75 years. Gastric atrophy was evaluated with serum pepsinogens (PG1<70 ng/ml and PG1/PG2<3). Polymorphisms of PTPN11 at intron 3 (rs2301756) and intron10 (rs12229892) were genotyped with PCR with confronting two-pair primers (PCR-CTPP). Anti-cagA IgG antibody was detected in 93.7% of cases and 77.5% in controls. Gastric atrophy was observed in 24.2% of the PUD patients and 33.3% in the controls. The A allele at intron 3 was completely linked to the G allele at intron 10. The age, sex, and group (cases and controls) adjusted odds ratio of gastric atrophy was 0.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.86) for intron 3 GG genotype relative to AA genotype. Since the finding was opposite to that among Japanese, the H. pylori strains and/or lifestyle in Uzbekistan might modify the association.

    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP 2008;9;2;217-20

  • Genotype-phenotype analysis and natural history of left ventricular hypertrophy in LEOPARD syndrome.

    Limongelli G, Sarkozy A, Pacileo G, Calabrò P, Digilio MC, Maddaloni V, Gagliardi G, Di Salvo G, Iacomino M, Marino B, Dallapiccola B and Calabrò R

    Monaldi Hospital, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy. limongelligiuseppe@libero.it

    Because it is unclear whether the genotype may influence the clinical course in patients with LEOPARD syndrome (LS), we analyzed clinical and molecular predictors of adverse cardiac events in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). A comprehensive cardiovascular evaluation, including baseline electrocardiogram, echocardiography, exercise test and 24 hr Holter monitoring at the time of clinical diagnosis and during follow-up was conducted on 24 patients referred to our departments. Phenotypical examination and diagnosis were performed by expert clinical geneticists. The entire PTPN11 and RAF1 coding regions were screened for mutations by DHPLC analysis, followed by sequencing. Patients without PTPN11 mutations (34%) showed a higher frequency of family history of sudden death (P = 0.007), increased left atrial dimensions (P = 0.05), bradyarrhythmias (P = 0.04), episodes of supraventricular tachycardias (P = 0.06), atrial fibrillation (P = 0.009), and nonsustained ventricular tachycardias (P = 0.05) during Holter monitoring. Six patients (25%) had adverse cardiac events during follow-up (including sudden deaths, resuscitated cardiac arrest, septal myectomy, and heart failure). LVH, New York Heart Association Class, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and nonsustained ventricular tachycardias were associated to adverse cardiac events. Of note, three patients with mutations in exon 13 showed a severe obstructive cardiomyopathy, with serious cardiac complications during follow-up (heart failure, septal myectomy, and sudden death). In conclusion, patients with LVH associated with LS seem to carry a relatively high risk of adverse (arrhythmic and nonarrhythmic) events. Further genotype-phenotype studies are warranted to fully elucidate the impact of the genotype on the natural history of patients with LS and LVH.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2008;146A;5;620-8

  • Constitutive activation of SHP2 in mice cooperates with ICSBP deficiency to accelerate progression to acute myeloid leukemia.

    Konieczna I, Horvath E, Wang H, Lindsey S, Saberwal G, Bei L, Huang W, Platanias L and Eklund EA

    Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA.

    Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are characterized by cytokine hypersensitivity and apoptosis resistance. Development of a block in myeloid differentiation is associated with progression of MPD to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and portends poor prognosis. Identifying molecular markers of this transition may suggest targets for therapeutic intervention. Interferon consensus sequence binding protein (ICSBP, also known as IRF8) is an interferon-regulatory transcription factor that functions as a leukemia tumor suppressor. In mice, ICSBP deficiency induces an MPD that progresses to AML over time, suggesting that ICSBP deficiency is sufficient for myeloproliferation, but additional genetic lesions are necessary for AML. Since activity of ICSBP is influenced by tyrosine phosphorylation state, we hypothesized that mutations in molecular pathways that regulate this process might synergize with ICSBP deficiency for progression to AML. Consistent with this, we found that constitutive activation of SHP2 protein tyrosine phosphatase synergized with ICSBP haploinsufficiency to facilitate cytokine-induced myeloproliferation, apoptosis resistance, and rapid progression to AML in a murine bone marrow transplantation model. Constitutive SHP2 activation cooperated with ICSBP deficiency to increase the number of progenitors in the bone marrow and myeloid blasts in circulation, indicating a block in differentiation. Since SHP2 activation and ICSBP deficiency may coexist in human myeloid malignancies, our studies have identified a molecular mechanism potentially involved in disease progression in such diseases.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA095266, R01-CA095266; NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL088747

    The Journal of clinical investigation 2008;118;3;853-67

  • Electrocardiography in Noonan syndrome PTPN11 gene mutation--phenotype characterization.

    Croonen EA, van der Burgt I, Kapusta L and Draaisma JM

    Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    Noonan syndrome is a developmental disorder with distinctive facial features, short stature and cardiac abnormalities. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated characteristic electrocardiographic (ECG) findings and cardiac abnormalities in 84 patients with Noonan syndrome, 56 (67%) of who were positive for a PTPN11 mutation. As reported previously, pulmonary stenosis was the most common cardiac abnormality, followed by atrial septal defect and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The ECG showed at least one characteristic finding in 50% of cases including left axis deviation in 38 (45%), small R waves in the left precordial leads in 20 (24%) and an abnormal Q wave in 5 (6%) patients with Noonan syndrome. A wide QRS complex was not detected in any of these patients. The characteristic ECG findings of Noonan syndrome patients were not associated with a PTPN11 gene mutation, or with a (specific) cardiac anomaly. We conclude that there are characteristic ECG findings in Noonan syndrome, but the ECG pattern is neither a useful tool for the phenotype characterization of a PTPN11 mutation, nor for the presence or type of cardiac abnormality.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2008;146A;3;350-3

  • Mutations of FLT3, NRAS, KRAS, and PTPN11 are frequent and possibly mutually exclusive in high hyperdiploid childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Paulsson K, Horvat A, Strömbeck B, Nilsson F, Heldrup J, Behrendtz M, Forestier E, Andersson A, Fioretos T and Johansson B

    Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

    Although it has been suggested that mutations of the FLT3, NRAS, KRAS, and PTPN11 genes are particularly frequent in high hyperdiploid (>50 chromosomes) pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs), this has as yet not been confirmed in a large patient cohort. Furthermore, it is unknown whether mutations of these genes coexist in hyperdiploid cases. We performed mutation analyses of FLT3, NRAS, KRAS, and PTPN11 in a consecutive series of 78 high hyperdiploid ALLs. Twenty-six (33%) of the cases harbored a mutation, comprising six activating point mutations and one internal tandem duplication of FLT3 (7/78 cases; 9.0%), eight codon 12, 13, or 61 NRAS mutations (8/78 cases; 10%), five codon 12 or 13 KRAS mutations (5/78 cases, 6.4%), and seven exon 3 or 13 PTPN11 mutations (7/78 cases; 9.0%). No association was seen between the presence of a mutation in FLT3, NRAS, KRAS, or PTPN11 and gender, age, white blood cell count, or relapse, suggesting that they do not confer a negative prognostic impact. Only one case harbored mutations in two different genes, suggesting that mutations of these four genes are generally mutually exclusive. In total, one third of the cases harbored a FLT3, NRAS, KRAS, or PTPN11 mutation, identifying the RTK-RAS signaling pathway as a potential target for novel therapies of high hyperdiploid pediatric ALLs.

    Genes, chromosomes & cancer 2008;47;1;26-33

  • Candidate gene analysis in primary lymphedema.

    Ferrell RE, Kimak MA, Lawrence EC and Finegold DN

    Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. rferrell@hgen.pitt.edu

    Background: Primary lymphedema, the accumulation of protein-rich fluid in the interstitial space, is the clinical manifestation of mutations involved in lymphatic development and function. Mutations in three genes, VEGFR3, FOXC2, and SOX18, cause primary lymphedema. However, mutations in these three genes only account for a fraction of primary lymphedema. To identify other genes mutated in primary lymphedema, we resequenced twenty-five biologically plausible candidate genes for lymphedema in a large collection of primary lymphedema families.

    Candidate genes were selected on the basis of gene expression in lymphatic endothelial cells, differential antigenic expression in lymphatics, and mouse studies of lymphatic development. The gene sequence was downloaded from GenBank and sequence primers designed to amplify 1 Kb of the 5' sequence, exons and flanking intron-exon boundaries, and 500 bp of the UTR of each gene. No common causative mutations were observed among the 25 genes screened. Single mutations were observed in elastin microfibril interfacer (EMILIN1), lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2 (LCP2), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), protein tyrosine kinase SYK (SYK), neuropilin-2 (NRP2), SpSRY-box 17 (SOX17), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), ROR orphan receptor C (RORC), and vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGFB). Among these, the mutations in EMILIN1, RORC, LCP2, SYK, and VEGFB failed to segregate with lymphedema. The mutations in FABP4 (2), NRP2, SOX17, and VACM1 are consistent with being causative mutations, but occur in families too small to convincingly confirm cosegregation of mutation and phenotype.

    Conclusion: We excluded mutation in 21 biological candidate genes as a common cause of primary lymphedema. Mutations in FABP4, NRP2, SOX17 and VCAM1 are consistent with causality and follow up of these four genes are warranted. The evidence for FABP4 harboring lymphedema mutations is discussed.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 35174; NICHD NIH HHS: R01 HD 37243

    Lymphatic research and biology 2008;6;2;69-76

  • Inhibition of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 suppresses angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    Mannell H, Hellwig N, Gloe T, Plank C, Sohn HY, Groesser L, Walzog B, Pohl U and Krotz F

    Institute of Physiology, Medical Policlinic, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany.

    Endothelial cell survival is indispensable to maintain endothelial integrity and initiate new vessel formation. We investigated the role of SHP-2 in endothelial cell survival and angiogenesis in vitro as well as in vivo. SHP-2 function in cultured human umbilical vein and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells was inhibited by either silencing the protein expression with antisense-oligodesoxynucleotides or treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor (PtpI IV). SHP-2 inhibition impaired capillary-like structure formation (p < 0.01; n = 8) in vitro as well as new vessel growth ex vivo(p < 0.05; n = 10) and in vivo in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (p < 0.01, n = 4). Additionally, SHP-2 knock-down abrogated fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2)-dependent endothelial proliferation measured by MTT reduction (p < 0.01; n = 12). The inhibitory effect of SHP-2 knock-down on vessel growth was mediated by increased endothelial apoptosis (annexin V staining, p < 0.05, n = 9), which was associated with reduced FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), Akt and extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and involved diminished ERK1/2 phosphorylation after PI3-K inhibition (n = 3). These results suggest that SHP-2 regulates endothelial cell survival through PI3-K-Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways thereby strongly affecting new vessel formation. Thus, SHP-2 exhibits a pivotal role in angiogenesis and may represent an interesting target for therapeutic approaches controlling vessel growth.

    Journal of vascular research 2008;45;2;153-63

  • PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS, and RAF1 gene analysis, and genotype-phenotype correlation in Korean patients with Noonan syndrome.

    Ko JM, Kim JM, Kim GH and Yoo HW

    Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

    After 2006, germline mutations in the KRAS, SOS1, and RAF1 genes were reported to cause Noonan syndrome (NS), in addition to the PTPN11 gene, and now we can find the etiology of disease in approximately 60-70% of NS cases. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between phenotype and genotype by molecular analysis of the PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS, and RAF1 genes in 59 Korean patients with NS. We found disease-causing mutations in 30 (50.8%) patients, which were located in the PTPN11 (27.1%), SOS1 (16.9%), KRAS (1.7%), and RAF1 (5.1%) genes. Three novel mutations (T59A in PTPN11, K170E in SOS1, S259T in RAF1) were identified. The patients with PTPN11 mutations showed higher prevalences of patent ductus arteriosus and thrombocytopenia. The patients with SOS1 mutations had a lower prevalence of delayed psychomotor development. All patients with RAF1 mutations had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Typical facial features and auxological parameters were, on statistical analysis, not significantly different between the groups. The molecular defects of NS are genetically heterogeneous and involve several genes other than PTPN11 related to the RAS-MAPK pathway.

    Journal of human genetics 2008;53;11-12;999-1006

  • Shp2E76K mutant confers cytokine-independent survival of TF-1 myeloid cells by up-regulating Bcl-XL.

    Ren Y, Chen Z, Chen L, Woods NT, Reuther GW, Cheng JQ, Wang HG and Wu J

    Molecular Oncology Program, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Department of Interdisciplinary Oncology, University of South Florida, Tampa 33612, USA.

    Shp2 has been known to mediate growth factor-stimulated cell proliferation, but its role in cell survival is less clear. Gain-of-function Shp2 mutants such as Shp2E76K are associated with myeloid leukemias. We found that Shp2E76K could transform cytokine-dependent human TF-1 myeloid cells into cytokine independence and further characterized the Shp2E76K-induced cell survival mechanism in this study. Expression of Shp2E76K suppressed the cytokine withdrawal-induced intrinsic/mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, which is controlled by the Bcl-2 family proteins. Analysis of Bcl-2 family proteins showed that Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 were up-regulated in Shp2E76K-transformed TF-1 (TF-1/Shp2E76K) cells. Knockdown of Bcl-XL but not Mcl-1 with short hairpin RNAs prevented Shp2E76K-induced cytokine-independent survival. Roscovitine, which down-regulated Mcl-1, also did not prevent cytokine-independent survival of TF-1/Shp2E76K cells, whereas the Bcl-XL inhibitor HA14-1 did. Ras and mitogen-activated protein kinases Erk1 and Erk2 (Erk1/2) were constitutively activated in TF-1/Shp2E76K cells, whereas little active Akt was detected under cytokine-free conditions. Shp2E76K-induced Bcl-XL expression was suppressed by Mek inhibitors and by a dominant-negative Mek1 mutant but not by the phosphoinositide 3-phosphate inhibitor LY294002 and the Akt inhibitor API-2. Inhibition of Erk1/2 blocked cytokine-independent survival of TF-1/Shp2E76K cells, whereas inhibition of Akt had a minimal effect on cytokine-independent survival of TF-1/Shp2E76K cells. These results show that Shp2E76K can evoke constitutive Erk1/2 activation in TF-1 cells. Furthermore, Shp2E76K induces cytokine-independent survival of TF-1 cells by a novel mechanism involving up-regulation of Bcl-XL through the Erk1/2 pathway.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P01 CA118210, P01CA118210, R01 CA077467, R01 CA077467-09, R01CA077467

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;50;36463-73

  • Shp2 knockdown and Noonan/LEOPARD mutant Shp2-induced gastrulation defects.

    Jopling C, van Geemen D and den Hertog J

    Hubrecht Institute, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    Shp2 is a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine phosphatase that is essential for normal development. Activating and inactivating mutations have been identified in humans to cause the related Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes, respectively. The cell biological cause of these syndromes remains to be determined. We have used the zebrafish to assess the role of Shp2 in early development. Here, we report that morpholino-mediated knockdown of Shp2 in zebrafish resulted in defects during gastrulation. Cell tracing experiments demonstrated that Shp2 knockdown induced defects in convergence and extension cell movements. In situ hybridization using a panel of markers indicated that cell fate was not affected by Shp2 knock down. The Shp2 knockdown-induced defects were rescued by active Fyn and Yes and by active RhoA. We generated mutants of Shp2 with mutations that were identified in human patients with Noonan or LEOPARD Syndrome and established that Noonan Shp2 was activated and LEOPARD Shp2 lacked catalytic protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity. Expression of Noonan or LEOPARD mutant Shp2 in zebrafish embryos induced convergence and extension cell movement defects without affecting cell fate. Moreover, these embryos displayed craniofacial and cardiac defects, reminiscent of human symptoms. Noonan and LEOPARD mutant Shp2s were not additive nor synergistic, consistent with the mutant Shp2s having activating and inactivating roles in the same signaling pathway. Our results demonstrate that Shp2 is required for normal convergence and extension cell movements during gastrulation and that Src family kinases and RhoA were downstream of Shp2. Expression of Noonan or LEOPARD Shp2 phenocopied the craniofacial and cardiac defects of human patients. The finding that defective Shp2 signaling induced cell movement defects as early as gastrulation may have implications for the monitoring and diagnosis of Noonan and LEOPARD syndrome.

    PLoS genetics 2007;3;12;e225

  • SHP-2 and PI3-kinase genes PTPN11 and PIK3R1 may influence serum apoB and LDL cholesterol levels in normal women.

    Jamshidi Y, Gooljar SB, Snieder H, Wang X, Ge D, Swaminathan R, Spector TD and O'Dell SD

    Nutrition Food and Health Research Centre, King's College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, UK.

    Insulin regulates apoB metabolism via activation of PI3K or regulation of MTP via MAPK/ERK signalling. SHP-2 enhances both pathways through increased IRS-1 phosphorylation. We hypothesized that variants in the SHP-2 gene PTPN11 and PI3K p85alpha subunit gene PIK3R1 may influence fasting levels of plasma apoB and/or LDL cholesterol. We tested association of tagging SNPs (tSNPs) in each gene with serum lipids in a large sample of unselected population-based Caucasian female twins (n=2771, mean age 47.4+/-12.5 years) and then tested interaction between tSNPs in determining apoB and LDL levels. PTPN11 tSNP rs11066322 was associated with apoB (P=0.007) and rs11066320 was associated with LDL cholesterol (P=0.016). PIK3R1 tSNP rs251406 was associated with apoB (P=0.0003) and rs706713 was associated with LDL cholesterol (P=0.009). PTPN11 tSNP rs11066322 interacted with PIK3R1 tSNP rs251406 in determining serum apoB levels (P=0.012) and with PIK3R1 tSNP rs40318 in determining LDL cholesterol levels (P=0.009). Association of single tSNPs with both apoB and LDL cholesterol as well as interactions between the two genes suggest that variants influencing SHP-2 activity may modulate the acute pathway by which insulin regulates these lipids.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073142

    Atherosclerosis 2007;194;2;e26-33

  • Poliovirus entry into human brain microvascular cells requires receptor-induced activation of SHP-2.

    Coyne CB, Kim KS and Bergelson JM

    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA. coynec2@pitt.edu

    Viruses use specific receptor molecules to bind selectively to target cells. Receptors have often been considered as mere docking sites, but they may also possess intrinsic signaling capacities that serve to prime the cell for entry and infection. Poliovirus (PV) initiates infection by binding to the PV receptor (PVR) and causes paralytic poliomyelitis by replicating within motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord. We have examined the process by which PV enters cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. We found that PV enters HBMEC by dynamin-dependent caveolar endocytosis, and that entry depends on intracellular signals triggered by virus attachment to PVR. Tyrosine kinase and RhoA GTPase activation initiated by PVR ligation were both essential. Virus attachment also induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PVR; this permitted the association of PVR with SHP-2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase whose activation was required for entry and infection. The results indicate that receptor-induced signals promote virus entry and suggest a role for tyrosine phosphatases in viral pathogenesis.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI5228

    The EMBO journal 2007;26;17;4016-28

  • A novel PTPN11 gene mutation in a patient with LEOPARD Syndrome.

    Du-Thanh A, Cave H, Bessis D, Puso C, Guilhou JJ and Dereure O

    Archives of dermatology 2007;143;9;1210-1

  • The neurite outgrowth multiadaptor RhoGAP, NOMA-GAP, regulates neurite extension through SHP2 and Cdc42.

    Rosário M, Franke R, Bednarski C and Birchmeier W

    Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany. m.rosario@mdc-berlin.de

    Neuronal differentiation involves the formation and extension of neuronal processes. We have identified a novel regulator of neurite formation and extension, the neurite outgrowth multiadaptor, NOMA-GAP, which belongs to a new family of multiadaptor proteins with RhoGAP activity. We show that NOMA-GAP is essential for NGF-stimulated neuronal differentiation and for the regulation of the ERK5 MAP kinase and the Cdc42 signaling pathways downstream of NGF. NOMA-GAP binds directly to the NGF receptor, TrkA, and becomes tyrosine phosphorylated upon receptor activation, thus enabling recruitment and activation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Recruitment of SHP2 is required for the stimulation of neuronal process extension and for sustained activation of ERK5 downstream of NOMA-GAP. In addition, we show that NOMA-GAP promotes neurite outgrowth by tempering activation of the Cdc42/PAK signaling pathway in response to NGF. NOMA-GAP, through its dual function as a multiadaptor and RhoGAP protein, thus plays an essential role downstream of NGF in promoting neurite outgrowth and extension.

    The Journal of cell biology 2007;178;3;503-16

  • Oxidation sensitivity of the catalytic cysteine of the protein-tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2.

    Weibrecht I, Böhmer SA, Dagnell M, Kappert K, Ostman A and Böhmer FD

    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, University of Uppsala, SE-75185 Uppsala, Sweden.

    Reversible oxidation of the catalytic cysteine of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) has emerged as a putative mechanism of activity regulation by physiological cell stimulation with growth factors, and by cell treatments with adverse agents such as UV irradiation. We compared SHP-1 and SHP-2, two structurally related cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine phosphatases with different cellular functions and cell-specific expression patterns, for their intrinsic susceptibility to oxidation by H(2)O(2). The extent of oxidation was monitored by detecting the modification of the PTP catalytic cysteine by three different methods, including a modified in-gel PTP assay, alkylation with a biotinylated iodoacetic acid derivative, and an antibody against oxidized PTPs. Dose-response curves for oxidation of the catalytic domains of SHP-1 and SHP-2 were similar. SHP-1 and -2 require relatively high H(2)O(2) concentrations for oxidation (half-maximal oxidation at 0.1-0.5 mM). For SHP-1, the SH2 domains had a significant protective function with respect to oxidation. In EOL-1 cells, SHP oxidation by exogenous H(2)O(2) in general and SHP-2 oxidation in particular was strongly diminished compared to HEK293 cells, at least partially related to a generally lower oxidant sensitivity of the EOL-1 cells. The data suggest that the differential cell functions of SHP-1 and SHP-2 are not related to differences in oxidation sensitivity. The modulating effects of SH2 domains for oxidation of these PTPs are in support of an enhanced oxidation susceptibility of activated SHPs.

    Free radical biology & medicine 2007;43;1;100-10

  • How do Shp2 mutations that oppositely influence its biochemical activity result in syndromes with overlapping symptoms?

    Edouard T, Montagner A, Dance M, Conte F, Yart A, Parfait B, Tauber M, Salles JP and Raynal P

    Dept. Lipoprotéines et Médiateurs Lipidiques, INSERM U563, Site Purpan, 31024, Toulouse, France.

    Activating and inactivating mutations of SHP-2 are responsible, respectively, for the Noonan (NS) and the LEOPARD (LS) syndromes. Clinically, these developmental disorders overlap greatly, resulting in the apparent paradox of similar diseases caused by mutations that oppositely influence SHP-2 phosphatase activity. While the mechanisms remain unclear, recent functional analysis of SHP-2, along with the identification of other genes involved in NS and in other related syndromes (neurofibromatosis-1, Costello and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndromes), strongly suggest that Ras/MAPK represents the major signaling pathway deregulated by SHP-2 mutants. We discuss the idea that, with the exception of LS mutations that have been shown to exert a dominant negative effect, all disease-causing mutations involved in Ras/MAPK-mediated signaling, including SHP-2, might lead to enhanced MAPK activation. This suggests that a narrow range of MAPK signaling is required for appropriate development. We also discuss the possibility that LS mutations may not simply exhibit dominant negative activity.

    Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS 2007;64;13;1585-90

  • Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls.

    Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium

    There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful approach to the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. We describe a joint GWA study (using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set) undertaken in the British population, which has examined approximately 2,000 individuals for each of 7 major diseases and a shared set of approximately 3,000 controls. Case-control comparisons identified 24 independent association signals at P < 5 x 10(-7): 1 in bipolar disorder, 1 in coronary artery disease, 9 in Crohn's disease, 3 in rheumatoid arthritis, 7 in type 1 diabetes and 3 in type 2 diabetes. On the basis of prior findings and replication studies thus-far completed, almost all of these signals reflect genuine susceptibility effects. We observed association at many previously identified loci, and found compelling evidence that some loci confer risk for more than one of the diseases studied. Across all diseases, we identified a large number of further signals (including 58 loci with single-point P values between 10(-5) and 5 x 10(-7)) likely to yield additional susceptibility loci. The importance of appropriately large samples was confirmed by the modest effect sizes observed at most loci identified. This study thus represents a thorough validation of the GWA approach. It has also demonstrated that careful use of a shared control group represents a safe and effective approach to GWA analyses of multiple disease phenotypes; has generated a genome-wide genotype database for future studies of common diseases in the British population; and shown that, provided individuals with non-European ancestry are excluded, the extent of population stratification in the British population is generally modest. Our findings offer new avenues for exploring the pathophysiology of these important disorders. We anticipate that our data, results and software, which will be widely available to other investigators, will provide a powerful resource for human genetics research.

    Funded by: Chief Scientist Office: CZB/4/540; Medical Research Council: G0000934, G0100594, G0501942, G0600329, G0600705, G0800759, G0901461, G19/9, G90/106, G9806740, G9810900; Wellcome Trust: 076113, 077011, 090532

    Nature 2007;447;7145;661-78

  • Early fetal death associated with compound heterozygosity for Noonan syndrome-causative PTPN11 mutations.

    Becker K, Hughes H, Howard K, Armstrong M, Roberts D, Lazda EJ, Short JP, Shaw A, Patton MA and Tartaglia M

    North Wales Clinical Genetics Service, Glan Clwyd Hospital, Rhyl, and Institute of Medical Genetics, Universiyt Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK. Kristin.Becker@cd-tr.wales.nhs.uk

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP04172, GGP07115

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2007;143A;11;1249-52

  • The spectrum of cardiac anomalies in Noonan syndrome as a result of mutations in the PTPN11 gene.

    Sznajer Y, Keren B, Baumann C, Pereira S, Alberti C, Elion J, Cavé H and Verloes A

    Department of Medical Genetics, AP-HP Robert Debré University Hospital, Paris, France.

    Objective: Noonan syndrome is a clinically homogeneous but genetically heterogeneous condition. Type 1 Noonan syndrome is defined by the presence of a mutation in the PTPN11 gene, which is found in approximately 40% of the cases. Phenotype descriptions and cardiac defects from cohorts with Noonan syndrome were delineated in the "pregenomic era." We report the heart defects and links to gene dysfunction in cardiac development in a large cohort of patients with type 1 Noonan syndrome.

    Methods: This was a retrospective, multicenter study based on clinical history, pictures, and medical and cardiologic workup over time. Data were collected by referral geneticists. Mutation screening was performed by direct sequencing of exons 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 12, and 13 and their intron-exon boundaries, which harbor 98% of identified mutations the PTPN11 gene.

    Results: A PTPN11 gene mutation was identified in 104 (38.25%) of 274 patients with Noonan syndrome. Heart defect was present in 85%. The most prevalent congenital heart defects were pulmonary valve stenosis (60%), atrial septal defect, ostium secundum type (25%), and stenosis of the peripheral pulmonary arteries (in at least 15%). Pulmonary valve stenosis and atrial septal defect, ostium secundum type, were significantly associated with the identification of a mutation in the PTPN11 gene. Ventricular septal defect and most left-sided heart defects showed a trend toward overrepresentation in the group without a mutation.

    Conclusion: We compared our data with previous series and integrated the comprehension of molecular PTPN11 gene dysfunction in heart development.

    Pediatrics 2007;119;6;e1325-31

  • Mutations of the PTPN11 gene in therapy-related MDS and AML with rare balanced chromosome translocations.

    Christiansen DH, Desta F, Andersen MK and Pedersen-Bjergaard J

    Cytogenetic Laboratory, Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Clinical Genetics, The Juliane Marie Center, Copenhagen DK 2100 Ø, Denmark.

    Activating mutations of the PTPN11 gene encoding the SHP2 tyrosine phosphatase is the most common genetic abnormality in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and is sporadically observed in myelodysplasia (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). An unselected series of 140 patients with therapy-related MDS or AML were investigated for mutations of PTPN11 in Exons 3, 4, 8, and 13. Four cases had mutations of the gene; three of these had deletions or loss of chromosome arm 7q. Two cases had rare balanced translocations to chromosome band 21q22 with rearrangement of the RUNX1 gene and the other two patients had rare balanced translocations to chromosome band 3q26 with rearrangement of the EVI1 gene. The findings support cooperation between so called Class I and Class II mutations in leukemogenesis.

    Genes, chromosomes & cancer 2007;46;6;517-21

  • The Lipoxin A4 receptor is coupled to SHP-2 activation: implications for regulation of receptor tyrosine kinases.

    Mitchell D, O'Meara SJ, Gaffney A, Crean JK, Kinsella BT and Godson C

    School of Medicine and Medical Science, Diabetes Research Centre, UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

    Mesangial cell proliferation is pivotal to the pathology of glomerular injury in inflammation. We have previously reported that lipoxins, endogenously produced eicosanoids with anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution bioactions, can inhibit mesangial cell proliferation in response to several agents. This process is associated with elaborate receptor cross-talk involving modification receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation (McMahon, B., Mitchell, D., Shattock, R., Martin, F., Brady, H. R., and Godson, C. (2002) FASEB J. 16, 1817-1819). Here we demonstrate that the lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)) receptor is coupled to activation and recruitment of the SHP-2 (SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase-2) within a lipid raft microdomain. Using site-directed mutagenesis of the cytosolic domain of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRbeta), we report that mutation of the sites for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (Tyr(740) and Tyr(751)) and SHP-2 (Tyr(763) and Tyr(1009)) recruitment specifically inhibit the effect of LXA(4) on the PDGFRbeta signaling; furthermore inhibition of SHP-2 expression with short interfering RNA constructs blocked the effect of LXA(4) on PDGFRbeta phosphorylation. We demonstrate that association of the PDGFRbeta with lipid raft microdomains renders it susceptible to LXA(4)-mediated dephosphorylation by possible reactivation of oxidatively inactivated SHP-2. These data further elaborate on the potential mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory, proresolution, and anti-fibrotic bioactions of lipoxins.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;21;15606-18

  • FcRL6, a new ITIM-bearing receptor on cytolytic cells, is broadly expressed by lymphocytes following HIV-1 infection.

    Wilson TJ, Presti RM, Tassi I, Overton ET, Cella M and Colonna M

    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

    Fc receptor-like proteins (FcRLs) are a growing family of molecules homologous to FcgammaRI. Whereas all 7 previously reported Fc receptor homologs are expressed by B cells, here we report a new receptor, FcRL6, that is expressed by cytolytic cells including natural killer (NK) cells and effector and effector-memory CD8(+) T cells. FcRL6 contains a novel cytoplasmic cysteine-rich motif and recruits SHP-2 through a phosphorylated ITIM, indicating a potential signaling function in effector lymphocytes. In vitro, FcRL6 does not greatly influence NK-cell or CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and has minimal impact on cytokine secretion. However, FcRL6 expression among T lymphocytes is greatly expanded in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals, and includes not only effector and effector-memory CD8(+) T cells but also populations of CD4(+) T cells. Expansion of FcRL6-positive lymphocytes is not related to viral load, but is indicative of the dysregulated expansion of terminally differentiated effector lymphocyte populations in response to chronic HIV-1 infection and may serve as an important marker for chronic immune activation and for tracking the generation of effector cells following immune stimulation.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI 25903-18

    Blood 2007;109;9;3786-93

  • Regulation of growth hormone signaling by selective estrogen receptor modulators occurs through suppression of protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    Leung KC, Brce J, Doyle N, Lee HJ, Leong GM, Sjögren K and Ho KK

    Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia. k.leung@garvan.org.au

    Activation of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) pathway by GH is terminated by the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCSs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases, Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 and SHP-2. Based on our recent report that estrogen inhibits GH signaling by stimulating SOCS-2 expression, we investigated the effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) on GH signaling in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells expressing human GH receptor and estrogen receptor-alpha. 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) suppressed GH activation of a STAT5-responsive luciferase reporter and JAK2 phosphorylation in both cell models. 4-hydroxytamoxifen and raloxifene augmented these actions of GH in HEK293 cells but not breast cancer cells. SOCS-2 expression in both cell types was stimulated by E(2) but unaffected by SERMs. In HEK293 cells, SHP-1 was inhibited by raloxifene and 4-hydroxytamoxifen, whereas the latter additionally inhibited SHP-2. The phosphatases were unaffected by E(2). In breast cancer cells, phosphatase activity was not altered by SERMs or E(2). In summary, estrogen inhibited the JAK2/STAT5 signaling of GH and stimulated SOCS-2 expression in both HEK293 and breast cancer cells. By contrast, SERMs augmented GH signaling by reducing SHP activities in HEK293 cells and had no effect on both in breast cancer cells. We provide the first evidence for a novel mechanism regulating GH signaling, in which SERMs enhance GH activation of the JAK2/STAT5 pathway in a cell-type-dependent manner by attenuating protein tyrosine phosphatase activities.

    Endocrinology 2007;148;5;2417-23

  • Increased insulin-stimulated Akt pSer473 and cytosolic SHP2 protein abundance in human skeletal muscle following acute exercise and short-term training.

    Wadley GD, Konstantopoulos N, Macaulay L, Howlett KF, Garnham A, Hargreaves M and Cameron-Smith D

    1School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia. gdwadley@unimelb.edu.au

    The purpose of the present study was to determine in human skeletal muscle whether a single exercise bout and 7 days of consecutive endurance (cycling) training 1) increased insulin-stimulated Akt pSer(473) and 2) altered the abundance of the protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), PTP1B and SHP2. In healthy, untrained men (n = 8; 24 +/- 1 yr), glucose infusion rate during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, when compared with untrained values, was not improved 24 h following a single 60-min bout of endurance cycling but was significantly increased ( approximately 30%; P < 0.05) 24 h following completion of 7 days of exercise training. Insulin-stimulated Akt pSer(473) was approximately 50% higher (P < 0.05) 24 h following the acute bout of exercise, with this effect remaining after 7 days of training (P < 0.05). Insulin-stimulated insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation were not altered 24 h after acute exercise and short-term training. Insulin did not acutely regulate the localization of the PTPases, PTP1B or SHP2, although cytosolic protein abundance of SHP2 was increased (P < 0.05; main effect) 24 h following acute exercise and short-term training. In conclusion, insulin-sensitive Akt pSer(473) and cytosolic SHP2 protein abundance are higher after acute exercise and short-term training, and this effect appears largely due to the residual effects of the last bout of prior exercise. The significance of exercise-induced alterations in cytosolic SHP2 and insulin-stimulated Akt pSer(473) on the improvement in insulin sensitivity requires further elucidation.

    Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 2007;102;4;1624-31

  • [Phenotype variability in Noonan syndrome patients with and without PTPN11 mutation].

    Ferreira LV, Souza SA, Montenegro LR, Arnhold IJ, Pasqualini T, Heinrich JJ, Keselman AC, Mendonça BB and Jorge AA

    Laboratório de Hormônios e Genética Molecular, Disciplina de Endocrinologia do Departamento de Clínica Médica, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

    Introduction: Around 50% of Noonan syndrome (NS) patients present heterozygous mutations in the PTPN11 gene.

    Aim: To evaluate the frequency of mutations in the PTPN11 in patients with NS, and perform phenotype-genotype correlation.

    Patients: 33 NS patients (23 males).

    Methods: DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and all 15 PTPN11 exons were directly sequenced.

    Results: Nine different missense mutations, including the novel P491H, were found in 16 of 33 NS patients. The most frequently observed features in NS patients were posteriorly rotated ears with thick helix (85%), short stature (79%), webbed neck (77%) and cryptorchidism (60%) in boys. The mean height SDS was -2.7 +/- 1.2 and BMI SDS was -1 +/- 1.4. Patients with PTPN11 mutations presented a higher incidence of pulmonary stenosis than patients without mutations (38% vs. 6%, p< 0.05). Patients with and without mutations did not present differences regarding height SDS, BMI SDS, frequency of thorax deformity, facial characteristics, cryptorchidism, mental retardation, learning disabilities, GH peak at stimulation test and IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 SDS.

    Conclusion: We identified missense mutations in 48.5% of the NS patients. There was a positive correlation between the presence of PTPN11 mutations and pulmonary stenosis frequency in NS patients.

    Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia 2007;51;3;450-6

  • Structural and functional effects of disease-causing amino acid substitutions affecting residues Ala72 and Glu76 of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2.

    Bocchinfuso G, Stella L, Martinelli S, Flex E, Carta C, Pantaleoni F, Pispisa B, Venanzi M, Tartaglia M and Palleschi A

    Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

    Mutations of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 are implicated in human diseases, causing Noonan syndrome (NS) and related developmental disorders or contributing to leukemogenesis depending on the specific amino acid substitution involved. SHP-2 is composed by a catalytic (PTP) and two regulatory (N-SH2 and C-SH2) domains that bind to signaling partners and control the enzymatic activity by limiting the accessibility of the catalytic site. Wild type SHP-2 and four disease-associated mutants recurring in hematologic malignancies (Glu76Lys and Ala72Val) or causing NS (Glu76Asp and Ala72Ser), with affected residues located in the PTP-interacting region of the N-SH2 domain, were analyzed by molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro biochemical assays. Simulations demonstrate that mutations do not affect significantly the conformation of the N-SH2 domain. Rather they destabilize the interaction of this domain with the catalytic site, with more evident effects in the two leukemia associated mutants. Consistent with this structural evidence, mutants exhibit an increased level of basal phosphatase activity in the order Glu76Lys > Ala72Val > Glu76Asp > Ala72Ser > WT. The experimental data also show that the mutants with higher basal activity are more responsive to an activating phosphopeptide. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that an increase in the overall phosphopeptide affinity of mutants can be explained by a shift in the equilibrium between the inactive and active SHP-2 structure. These data support the view that an increase in the affinity of SHP-2 for its binding partners, caused by destabilization of the closed, inactive conformation, rather than protein basal activation per se, would represent the molecular mechanism, leading to pathogenesis in these mutants.

    Proteins 2007;66;4;963-74

  • PTPN11 is the first identified proto-oncogene that encodes a tyrosine phosphatase.

    Chan RJ and Feng GS

    Department of Pediatrics, the Herman B. Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, USA.

    Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis has benefited tremendously from the identification and characterization of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. One new advance in this field is the identification of PTPN11 as the first proto-oncogene that encodes a cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase with 2 Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains (Shp2). This tyrosine phosphatase was previously shown to play an essential role in normal hematopoiesis. More recently, somatic missense PTPN11 gain-of-function mutations have been detected in leukemias and rarely in solid tumors, and have been found to induce aberrant hyperactivation of the Ras-Erk pathway. This progress represents another milestone in the leukemia/cancer research field and provides a fresh view on the molecular mechanisms underlying cell transformation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA078 606, CA102 583; NHLBI NIH HHS: R01HL082 981

    Blood 2007;109;3;862-7

  • Regulation of urokinase receptor expression by protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    Shetty S, Velusamy T, Idell S, Tang H and Shetty PK

    The Texas Lung Injury Institute, Department of Specialty Care Services, The University of Texas Health Center at Tyler, TX 75708, USA. sreerama.shetty@uthct.edu

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) play a major role in several physiological processes such as cell migration, proliferation, morphogenesis, and regulation of gene expression. Many of the biological activities of uPA depend on its association with uPAR. uPAR expression and its induction by uPA are regulated at the posttranscriptional level. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase-mediated dephosphorylation by sodium orthovanadate induces uPAR expression and, with uPA, additively induces cell surface uPAR expression. Sodium orthovanadate induces uPAR by increasing uPAR mRNA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Both sodium orthovanadate and uPA induce uPAR mRNA stability, indicating that dephosphorylation could contribute to uPA-induced posttranscriptional regulation of uPAR expression. Induction of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 in Beas2B and H157 cells inhibits basal cell surface uPAR expression and uPA-induced uPAR expression. Sodium orthovanadate also increases uPAR expression by decreasing the interaction of a uPAR mRNA coding region sequence with phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) as well as by enhancing the interaction between a uPAR mRNA 3' untranslated sequence with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNPC). On the contrary, overexpression of SHP2 in Beas2B cells increased interaction of PGK with the uPAR mRNA coding region and inhibited hnRNPC binding to the 3' untranslated sequence. These findings confirm a novel mechanism by which uPAR expression of lung airway epithelial cells is regulated at the level of mRNA stability by inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase-mediated dephosphorylation of uPAR mRNA binding proteins and demonstrate that the process involves SHP2.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01 HL076406-01, R01 HL-62453, R01 HL-71147

    American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 2007;292;2;L414-21

  • Germline gain-of-function mutations in SOS1 cause Noonan syndrome.

    Roberts AE, Araki T, Swanson KD, Montgomery KT, Schiripo TA, Joshi VA, Li L, Yassin Y, Tamburino AM, Neel BG and Kucherlapati RS

    Harvard Partners Center for Genetics and Genomics and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Noonan syndrome, the most common single-gene cause of congenital heart disease, is characterized by short stature, characteristic facies, learning problems and leukemia predisposition. Gain-of-function mutations in PTPN11, encoding the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, cause approximately 50% of Noonan syndrome cases. SHP2 is required for RAS-ERK MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade activation, and Noonan syndrome mutants enhance ERK activation ex vivo and in mice. KRAS mutations account for <5% of cases of Noonan syndrome, but the gene(s) responsible for the remainder are unknown. We identified missense mutations in SOS1, which encodes an essential RAS guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (RAS-GEF), in approximately 20% of cases of Noonan syndrome without PTPN11 mutation. The prevalence of specific cardiac defects differs in SOS1 mutation-associated Noonan syndrome. Noonan syndrome-associated SOS1 mutations are hypermorphs encoding products that enhance RAS and ERK activation. Our results identify SOS1 mutants as a major cause of Noonan syndrome, representing the first example of activating GEF mutations associated with human disease and providing new insights into RAS-GEF regulation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R37CA49152; NCRR NIH HHS: M01-RR02172; NIDCR NIH HHS: DE16140

    Nature genetics 2007;39;1;70-4

  • Mild variable Noonan syndrome in a family with a novel PTPN11 mutation.

    Zenker M, Voss E and Reis A

    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Erlangen--Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 10, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. mzenker@humgenet.uni-erlangen.de

    Noonan syndrome (OMIM 163950) is a common genetic condition with variable clinical expression and genetic heterogeneity. About half of the cases can be accounted to activating mutations in the PTPN11 gene encoding SHP-2. We report on a family with mild, variable expression of Noonan syndrome in five individuals. Clinical manifestations included short stature, craniofacial anomalies and thorax deformity, but none of the affected family members had a heart defect. Sequencing of the entire coding region of PTPN11 revealed a novel mutation c.1226G-->C in exon 11 predicting the amino acid exchange G409A. This mutation is not located in the previously known mutation clusters. Our observation and the recent report of a mutation affecting a neighbouring residue (T411M) in a family with a variable phenotype suggest that mutations in this particular region of SHP-2 may have effects on the protein that differ from those of the classical mutations.

    European journal of medical genetics 2007;50;1;43-7

  • Shp2-mediated molecular signaling in control of embryonic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation.

    Feng GS

    Programs in Signal Transduction and Stem Cells and Regeneration, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 N. Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. gfeng@burnham.org

    A key issue to be addressed in stem cell biology is the molecular signaling mechanism controlling embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency. Stem cell properties are dictated by specific transcription factors and epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling. Several cytokines/growth factors have been identified as critical ES cell regulators. However, there is a gap in our knowledge of the intracellular signaling pathways linking extracellular signals to transcriptional regulation in ES cells. This short review discusses the physiological role of Shp2, a cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase, in the molecular switch governing ES cell self-renewal versus differentiation. Shp2 promotes ES cell differentiation, mainly through bi-directional modulation of Erk and Stat3 pathways. Deletion of Shp2 in mouse ES cells results in more efficient self-renewal. This observation provides the impetus to develop Shp2 inhibitors for maintenance and amplification of ES cells in culture.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA78606; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM075059, GM53660

    Cell research 2007;17;1;37-41

  • Violating the splicing rules: TG dinucleotides function as alternative 3' splice sites in U2-dependent introns.

    Szafranski K, Schindler S, Taudien S, Hiller M, Huse K, Jahn N, Schreiber S, Backofen R and Platzer M

    Genome Analysis, Leibniz Institute for Age Research, Fritz Lipmann Institute, Beutenbergstr, 07745 Jena, Germany. szafrans@fli-leibniz.de

    Background: Despite some degeneracy of sequence signals that govern splicing of eukaryotic pre-mRNAs, it is an accepted rule that U2-dependent introns exhibit the 3' terminal dinucleotide AG. Intrigued by anecdotal evidence for functional non-AG 3' splice sites, we carried out a human genome-wide screen.

    Results: We identified TG dinucleotides functioning as alternative 3' splice sites in 36 human genes. The TG-derived splice variants were experimentally validated with a success rate of 92%. Interestingly, ratios of alternative splice variants are tissue-specific for several introns. TG splice sites and their flanking intron sequences are substantially conserved between orthologous vertebrate genes, even between human and frog, indicating functional relevance. Remarkably, TG splice sites are exclusively found as alternative 3' splice sites, never as the sole 3' splice site for an intron, and we observed a distance constraint for TG-AG splice site tandems.

    Conclusion: Since TGs splice sites are exclusively found as alternative 3' splice sites, the U2 spliceosome apparently accomplishes perfect specificity for 3' AGs at an early splicing step, but may choose 3' TGs during later steps. Given the tiny fraction of TG 3' splice sites compared to the vast amount of non-viable TGs, cis-acting sequence signals must significantly contribute to splice site definition. Thus, we consider TG-AG 3' splice site tandems as promising subjects for studies on the mechanisms of 3' splice site selection.

    Genome biology 2007;8;8;R154

  • Deoxycholic acid differentially regulates focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation: role of tyrosine phosphatase ShP2.

    Khare S, Holgren C and Samarel AM

    Department of Gastroenterology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, Illinois, USA.

    Environmental factors, including dietary fats, are implicated in colonic carcinogenesis. Dietary fats modulate secondary bile acids including deoxycholic acid (DCA) concentrations in the colon, which are thought to contribute to the nutritional-related component of colon cancer risk. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that DCA differentially regulated the site-specific phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). DCA decreased adhesion of HCA-7 cells to the substratum and induced dephosphorylation of FAK at tyrosine-576/577 (Tyr-576/577) and Tyr-925. Tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-397 remained unaffected by DCA stimulation. Interestingly, we found that c-Src was constitutively associated with FAK and DCA actually activated Src, despite no change in FAK-397 and an inhibition of FAK-576 phosphorylation. DCA concomitantly and significantly increased association of tyrosine phosphatase ShP2 with FAK. Incubation of immunoprecipitated FAK, in vitro, with glutathione-S-transferase-ShP2 fusion protein resulted in tyrosine dephosphorylation of FAK in a concentration-dependent manner. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides directed against ShP2 decreased ShP2 protein levels and attenuated DCA-induced FAK dephosphorylation. Inhibition of FAK by adenoviral-mediated overexpression of FAK-related nonkinase and gene silencing of Shp2 both abolished DCA's effect on cell adhesion, thus providing a possible mechanism for inside-out signaling by DCA in colon cancer cells. Our results suggest that DCA differentially regulates focal adhesion complexes and that tyrosine phosphatase ShP2 has a role in DCA signaling.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-097540; NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL-34328

    American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 2006;291;6;G1100-12

  • Grb2-associated binder 1 polymorphism was associated with the risk of Helicobactor pylori infection and gastric atrophy.

    Goto Y, Ando T, Nishio K, Kawai S, Ishida Y, Naito M, Goto H and Hamajima N

    Department of Preventive Medicine/Biostatistics and Medical Decision Making, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan. y-goto@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    Background: Various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have explained the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and gastric atrophy and cancer. This study investigated the associations of Grb2 associated binder 1 (Gab1) polymorphism and the combination of PTPN11 gene encoding src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) and Gab1 gene with gastric cancer and gastric atrophy among H. pylori seropositive subjects.

    Methods: A single nucleotide polymorphism at intron 2 of Gab1 (JST164345) was examined for 454 Japanese health checkup examinees (126 males and 328 females) aged 35 to 85 without a history of gastric cancer and 202 gastric cancer patients (134 males and 68 females) aged 33 to 94 with pathologically confirmed diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Results: The decreased OR of the Gab1 A/A for H. pylori seropositivity was 0.25 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08-0.71). Among seropositive healthy controls, the OR of the Gab1 G/A+A/A for gastric atrophy was significant (OR=1.95, 95% CI: 1.12 -3.40). Seropositive individuals with PTPN11 G/G and Gab1 G/A+A/A demonstrated the highest risk of gastric atrophy with significance (OR=3.49, 95% CI: 1.54-7.90) relative to PTPN11 G/A+A/A and Gab1 G/G, the lowest risk combination, as a reference. However, the gene-gene interaction between PTPN11 and Gab1 was not observed (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 0.41-4.66). Compared to gastric cancer case, the Gab1 did not influence the step of atrophy/metaplasia-gastric cancer sequence.

    Conclusions: This study represents that the Gab1 polymorphism was associated with the low risk of H. pylori infection and the high risk of gastric atrophy among seropositive healthy controls, and that seropositive individuals with PTPN11 G/G and Gab1 G/A+G/G were associated with the greatest risk of gastric atrophy. These findings require confirmation in much larger studies.

    International journal of medical sciences 2006;4;1;1-6

  • Phosphorylation of SHP-2 regulates interactions between the endoplasmic reticulum and focal adhesions to restrict interleukin-1-induced Ca2+ signaling.

    Wang Q, Herrera Abreu MT, Siminovitch K, Downey GP and McCulloch CA

    Canadian Institutes of Health Research Group in Matrix Dynamics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2, Canada.

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced Ca2+ signaling in fibroblasts is constrained by focal adhesions. This process involves the proteintyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, which is critical for IL-1-induced phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma1, thereby enhancing IL-1-induced Ca2+ release and ERK activation. Currently, the mechanisms by which SHP-2 modulates Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum are not defined. We used immunoprecipitation and fluorescence protein-tagged SHP-2 or endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-protein expression vectors, and an ER-specific calcium indicator, to examine the functional relationships between SHP-2, focal adhesions, and IL-1-induced Ca2+ release from the ER. By total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to image subplasma membrane compartments, SHP-2 co-localized with the ER-associated proteins calnexin and calreticulin at sites of focal adhesion formation in fibroblasts. IL-1beta promoted time-dependent recruitment of SHP-2 and ER proteins to focal adhesions; this process was blocked in cells treated with small interfering RNA for SHP-2 and in cells expressing a Y542F SHP-2 mutant. IL-1 stimulated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated Ca2+ release from the ER subjacent to the plasma membrane that was tightly localized around fibronectin-coated beads and was reduced 4-fold in cells expressing Tyr-542 SHP-2 mutant. In subcellular fractions enriched for ER proteins, immunoprecipitation demonstrated that IL-1-enhanced association of SHP-2 with the type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor was dependent on Tyr-542 of SHP-2. We conclude that Tyr-542 of SHP-2 modulates IL-1-induced Ca2+ signals and association of the ER with focal adhesions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;41;31093-105

  • An ITIM-like motif within the CCK2 receptor sequence required for interaction with SHP-2 and the activation of the AKT pathway.

    Vatinel S, Ferrand A, Lopez F, Kowalski-Chauvel A, Estève JP, Fourmy D, Dufresne M and Seva C

    INSERM U 531, IFR 31, Institut Louis Bugnard, BP 84225, 31432 Toulouse cedex 4, France.

    SHP-2 is a tyrosine phosphatase which functions as a positive regulator downstream of RTKs, activating growth-stimulatory signalling pathways. To date, very few G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been shown to be connected to SHP-2 and very little is known about the positive role of SHP-2 in GPCR signalling. The CCK2 receptor (CCK2R), a GPCR, is now recognized to mediate mitogenic effects of gastrin on gastrointestinal cells. In the present study, we demonstrate the role of SHP-2 in the activation of the AKT pathway by the CCK2R in COS-7 cells transfected with the CCK2R and in a pancreatic cancer cell line expressing the endogenous receptor. Using surface plasmon resonance analysis, we identified a highly conserved ITIM motif, containing the tyrosine residue 438, located in the C-terminal intracellular tail of the CCK2R which directly interacts with the SHP-2 SH2 domains. The interaction was confirmed by pull down assays and co-immunoprecipitation of the receptor with SHP-2. This interaction was transiently increased following gastrin stimulation of the CCK2R and correlated with the tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP-2. Mutational analysis of the key ITIM residue 438 confirmed that the CCK2R ITIM sequence is required for interaction with SHP-2 and the activation of the AKT pathway.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2006;1763;10;1098-107

  • The role of Src kinase in insulin-like growth factor-dependent mitogenic signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Lieskovska J, Ling Y, Badley-Clarke J and Clemmons DR

    Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7170, USA.

    Activation of the MAPK pathway mediates insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-dependent proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). Our previous studies have shown that IGF-I-induced Shc phosphorylation is necessary for sustained activation of MAPK and increased cell proliferation of SMCs, and both Shc and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 must be recruited to the membrane protein SHPS-1 in order for Shc to be phosphorylated. These studies were undertaken to determine whether Src kinase activity is required to phosphorylate Shc in response to IGF-I in SMC and because SHP-2 binds to Src whether their interaction was also required for IGF-I-stimulated mitogenesis. Our results show that IGF-I induces activation of Src kinase and that is required for Shc phosphorylation and for optimal MAPK activation. We tested whether Shc is a substrate of c-Src in SMC by disrupting Src/Shc association using a peptide containing a YXXL (Tyr328) motif sequence derived from Src. The peptide blocked the binding of Src and Shc in vitro and in vivo. Cells expressing a mutant Src (Src-FF) that had Tyr328/Tyr358 substituted with phenylalanines (Src-FF) showed defective Src/Shc binding, impaired IGF-I-dependent Shc phorylation, and impaired mitogenesis. This supports the conclusion that Src phosphorylates Shc. IGF-I induced both Src/SHP-2 and Src/SHPS-1 association. SMCs expressing an SHP-2 mutant that had the polyproline-rich region of SH2 deleted (SHP-2Delta10) had disrupted SHP-2/Src association, impaired IGF-I-dependent Shc phosphorylation, and an attenuated mitogenic response. IGF-I-induced association of Src and SHPS-1 was also impaired in SHP-2Delata10-expressing cells, although SHP-2/SHPS-1 association was unaffected. Upon IGF-I stimulation, a complex assembles on SHPS-1 that contains SHP-2, c-Src, and Shc wherein Src phosphorylates Shc, a signaling step that is necessary for an optimal mitogenic response.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG-02331

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;35;25041-53

  • Identification of Y589 and Y599 in the juxtamembrane domain of Flt3 as ligand-induced autophosphorylation sites involved in binding of Src family kinases and the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2.

    Heiss E, Masson K, Sundberg C, Pedersen M, Sun J, Bengtsson S and Rönnstrand L

    Experimental Clinical Chemistry, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.

    Early signal relay steps upon ligand binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase Flt3 (ie, sites of Flt3 autophosphorylation and subsequent docking partners) are mainly unresolved. By immunoprecipitation of specific tryptic peptides contained in the juxtamembrane region of human Flt3 and subsequent radiosequencing, we identified the tyrosine residues 572, 589, 591, and 599 as in vivo autophosphorylation sites. Focusing on Y589 and Y599, we examined Flt3 ligand (FL)-mediated responses in wild-type-Flt3-(WT-Flt3-), Y589F-Flt3-, and Y599F-Flt3-expressing 32D cells. Compared with WT-Flt3-32D cells upon ligand stimulation, 32D-Y589F-Flt3 showed enhanced Erk activation and proliferation/survival, whereas 32D-Y599F-Flt3 cells hereby displayed substantially diminished responses. Both pY589 and pY599 were identified as association sites for signal relay molecules including Src family kinases and SHP2. Consistently, 32D-Y589F-Flt3 and 32D-Y599F-Flt3 showed decreased FL-triggered activation of Src family kinases. Interference with the Src-dependent negative regulation of Flt3 signaling may account for the enhanced mitogenic response of Y589F-Flt3. Y599 was additionally found to interact with the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. As Y599F-Flt3-32D was unable to associate with and to phosphorylate SHP2 and since silencing of SHP2 in WT-Flt3-expressing cells mimicked the Y599F-Flt3 phenotype, we hypothesize that recruitment of SHP2 to pY599 contributes to FL-mediated Erk activation and proliferation.

    Blood 2006;108;5;1542-50

  • Leukemia-associated, constitutively active mutants of SHP2 protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibit NF1 transcriptional activation by the interferon consensus sequence binding protein.

    Huang W, Saberwal G, Horvath E, Zhu C, Lindsey S and Eklund EA

    Feinberg School of Medicine, 710 North Fairbanks Court, Olson Pavilion Room 8524, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

    Deficiency in either the interferon consensus sequence binding protein (ICSBP) or neurofibromin 1 (Nf1) increases the proliferative response of myeloid progenitor cell to hematopoietic cytokines. Consistent with this, we previously demonstrated that ICSBP activates transcription of the gene encoding Nf1 (the NF1 gene). In the studies presented here, we determine that ICSBP tyrosine phosphorylation is necessary for the activation of NF1 transcription. Since ICSBP is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to hematopoietic cytokines, these studies identify a novel pathway by which cytokine-induced posttranslational modification of ICSBP results in NF1 transcription. Nf1 subsequently inactivates cytokine-activated Ras, thereby creating a negative feedback mechanism for cytokine-induced proliferation. In these studies, we also determine that ICSBP is a substrate for SHP2 protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2-PTP). We find that wild-type SHP2-PTP dephosphorylates ICSBP only in undifferentiated myeloid cells. In contrast, a leukemia-associated, constitutively activated mutant form of SHP2-PTP dephosphorylates ICSBP in both myeloid progenitors and differentiating myeloid cells. Activated SHP2-PTP mutants thereby inhibit ICSBP-dependent NF1 transcription, impairing this negative feedback mechanism on cytokine-activated Ras. Therefore, these studies suggest that leukemia-associated ICSBP deficiency cooperates with leukemia-associated activating mutants of SHP2-PTP to contribute to the proliferative phenotype in myeloid malignancies.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2006;26;17;6311-32

  • Mutation screening of the PTPN11 gene in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Limongelli G, Hawkes L, Calabro R, McKenna WJ and Syrris P

    Department of Medicine, University College London and University College London Hospitals Trust, Cobbold Laboratories, 7th Floor, Jules Thorn Institute, Middlesex Hospital, 48 Riding House Street, London W1W 7EY, UK.

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited cardiac disease and a major cause of sudden death. It is an autosomal dominant disorder predominantly caused by mutations in genes encoding for sarcomeric proteins. Only 50-60% of HCM probands have mutations in known genes suggesting the presence of additional disease genes. Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes are characterised by multiple dysmorphia and cardiac defects with HCM present in approximately 20% of cases. Both syndromes are caused by mutations in the PTPN11 gene which codes for the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. It is suspected but unproven that the cardiac phenotype may predominate or even be present in isolation. In order to determine possible involvement of this gene in the pathogenesis of HCM, we performed mutation screening of the PTPN11 coding region in 250 selected HCM probands (200 patients without mutations in sarcomeric genes and 50 with identified mutations). No mutations in PTPN11 were identified. Our data suggests that mutations in the PTPN11 gene are not a cause of HCM in the absence of Noonan/LEOPARD syndromes.

    European journal of medical genetics 2006;49;5;426-30

  • Antagonism or synergism. Role of tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 in growth factor signaling.

    Wang N, Li Z, Ding R, Frank GD, Senbonmatsu T, Landon EJ, Inagami T and Zhao ZJ

    Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232.

    SHP-1 and SHP-2 are two Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases with major pathological implications in cell growth regulating signaling. They share significant overall sequence identity, but their biological functions are often opposite. SHP-1 is generally considered as a negative signal transducer and SHP-2 as a positive one. However, the precise role of each enzyme in shared signaling pathways is not well defined. In this study, we investigated the interaction of these two enzymes in a single cell system by knocking down their expressions with small interfering RNAs and analyzing the effects on epidermal growth factor signaling. Interestingly, knockdown of either SHP-1 or SHP-2 caused significant reduction in the activation of ERK1/2 but not Akt. Furthermore, SHP-1, SHP-2, and Gab1 formed a signaling complex, and SHP-1 and SHP-2 interact with each other. The interaction of SHP-1 with Gab1 is mediated by SHP-2 because it was abrogated by knockdown of SHP-2, and SHP-2, but not SHP-1, binds directly to tyrosine-phosphorylated Gab1. Together, the data revealed that both SHP-1 and SHP-2 have a positive role in epidermal growth factor-induced ERK1/2 activation and that they act cooperatively rather than antagonistically. The interaction of SHP-1 and SHP-2 may be responsible for previously unexpected novel regulatory mechanism of cell signaling by tyrosine phosphatases.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL058205, HL076309, R01 HL058205, R01 HL076309, R01 HL076309-04, R37 HL058205

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;31;21878-21883

  • Acquisition of JAK2, PTPN11, and RAS mutations during disease progression in primary myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Chen CY, Lin LI, Tang JL, Tsay W, Chang HH, Yeh YC, Huang CF, Chiou RJ, Yao M, Ko BS, Chen YC, Lin KH, Lin DT and Tien HF

    Leukemia 2006;20;6;1155-8

  • Mutations of the PTPN11 and RAS genes in rhabdomyosarcoma and pediatric hematological malignancies.

    Chen Y, Takita J, Hiwatari M, Igarashi T, Hanada R, Kikuchi A, Hongo T, Taki T, Ogasawara M, Shimada A and Hayashi Y

    Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

    PTPN11 has been identified as a causative gene in Noonan syndrome (NS), responsible for about 50% of cases of NS. Given the association between NS and an increased risk of some malignancies, notably leukemia and probably some solid tumors including neuroblastoma (NB) and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), recent studies have reported that gain-of-function somatic mutations in PTPN11 occur in some hematological malignancies, especially de novo juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and in some solid tumors such as NB, although at a low frequency. In a screen for mutations of PTPN11 in 7 cell lines and 30 fresh tumors of RMS and in 25 cell lines and 40 fresh tumors of NB, we identified a missense mutation (A72T) in an embryonal RMS patient. In the RMS samples, we also detected mutations of NRAS in 1 cell line and 1 patient; both mutations were in embryonal RMSs and had no PTPN11 mutations. No mutations of PTPN11 were detected in NB. In 95 leukemia cell lines and 261 fresh leukemia samples including 22 JMMLs, 9 kinds of missense mutations were detected in 17 leukemia samples, which included 11 (50.0%) mutations in JMML samples and lower frequencies in other hematological malignancies. Furthermore, we identified 4 (18.2%) NRAS mutations and 1 (4.5%) KRAS mutation in 5 JMML samples, 1 of which had a concomitant PTPN11 mutation. Our data suggest that mutations of PTPN11 as well as RAS play a role in the pathogenesis of not only myeloid hematological malignancies but also a subset of RMS malignancies.

    Genes, chromosomes & cancer 2006;45;6;583-91

  • LEOPARD syndrome: clinical diagnosis in the first year of life.

    Digilio MC, Sarkozy A, de Zorzi A, Pacileo G, Limongelli G, Mingarelli R, Calabrò R, Marino B and Dallapiccola B

    Medical Genetics and Pediatric Cardiology, Bambino Gesù Hospital, Rome, Italy. digilio@opbg.net

    LEOPARD syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple lentigines and café-au-lait spots, electrocardiographic-conduction abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism/obstructive cardiomyopathy, pulmonary stenosis, abnormalities of the genitalia in males, retardation of growth, and deafness. LS shares many features with Noonan syndrome (NS), in which lentigines and deafness are usually not present. Molecular studies have shown that LS and NS are allelic disorders, caused by different missense mutations in PTPN11, a gene encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 located at chromosome 12q22-qter. The clinical diagnosis of LS is generally difficult in the first months of life because the distinctive lentigines are generally not present at birth and develop during childhood. From January 2002 to December 2004, we suspected LS clinically in 10 patients admitted to our genetic counseling services in the first 12 months of life. A PTPN11 gene mutation was detected in 8/10 (80%) patients. In one patient without a PTPN11 mutation a subsequent clinical diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was made, following the evaluation of the mother, who had previously undiagnosed classic NF1. The age of LS patients with PTPN11 mutation ranged between 1 and 11 months (mean age +/- SD 7.5 +/- 3.96 months). Review of the clinical characteristics of patients with LS confirmed by molecular study during the first year of life demonstrates that the diagnosis of LS in the first months of age can be clinically suspected in patients presenting with three main features, that is, characteristic facial features (100%), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) (87%), and cafe-au-lait spots (75%). Characteristic facial features can be mild or severe, and consist of hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, ptosis, and dysmorphic ears. The clinical suspicion of LS may be confirmed by molecular screening for PTPN11 mutations. An early diagnosis of the disease is useful for the prospective care of associated medical problems and for precise genetic counseling.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2006;140;7;740-6

  • Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor reduces the affinity of SHP-2 for the ITIM of CLECSF6 in neutrophils: a new mechanism of action for SHP-2.

    Richard M, Thibault N, Veilleux P, Gareau-Pagé G and Beaulieu AD

    Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Arthrite et l'Inflammation, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université Laval, Sainte-Foy, Qué., Canada.

    Proteins that bear immunoreceptor tyrosine based inhibitory motifs (ITIM) are believed to participate in the repression of cell activation via phosphatases such as SHP-1, SHP-2 and/or SHIP-1. CLECSF6, also called DCIR, is a transmembrane protein expressed on leukocytes and predominantly on neutrophils that bears one ITIM pattern. This feature confers to CLECSF6 a role in the repression of cell activation. In order to better understand its role in neutrophil signalling, we analysed the binding of phosphatases to the ITIM of CLECSF6. We showed that a peptide bearing the ITIM of CLECSF6 in its phosphorylated form associates with both SHP-1 and SHP-2. Phosphorylated SHP-1 binds the ITIM whereas phosphorylated SHP-2 does not. In addition, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) reduces the binding of SHP-2 to the ITIM of CLECSF6 while enhancing the phosphorylation level of SHP-2. GM-CSF is known to recruit SHP-2 to its receptor. These data suggest that the phosphorylation of SHP-2 by GM-CSF promotes the binding of SHP-2 to the GM-CSF receptor to the disadvantage of CLECSF6. Therefore, upon a treatment with GM-CSF, SHP-2 could move from a CLECSF6 associated signalosome with a repressor function to a GM-CSF receptor associated signalosome with an activator function.

    Molecular immunology 2006;43;10;1716-21

  • Tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 regulates IL-1 signaling in fibroblasts through focal adhesions.

    Herrera Abreu MT, Wang Q, Vachon E, Suzuki T, Chow CW, Wang Y, Hong O, Villar J, McCulloch CA and Downey GP

    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute of the University Health Network, Ontario, Canada.

    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) mediates destruction of matrix collagens in diverse inflammatory diseases including arthritis, periodontitis, and pulmonary fibrosis by activating fibroblasts, cells that interact with matrix proteins through integrin-based adhesions. In vitro, IL-1beta signaling is modulated by focal adhesions, supramolecular protein complexes that are enriched with tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. We assessed the importance of tyrosine phosphatases in regulating cell-matrix interactions and IL-1beta signaling. In human gingival fibroblasts plated on fibronectin, IL-1beta enhanced the maturation of focal adhesions as defined by morphology and enrichment with paxillin and alpha-actinin. IL-1beta also induced activation of ERK and recruitment of phospho-ERK to focal complexes/adhesions. Treatment with the potent tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor pervanadate, in the absence of IL-1beta, recapitulated many of these responses indicating the importance of tyrosine phosphatases. Immunoblotting of collagen bead-associated complexes revealed that the tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-2, was also enriched in focal complexes/adhesions. Depletion of SHP-2 by siRNA or by homologous recombination markedly altered IL-1beta-induced ERK activation and maturation of focal adhesions. IL-1beta-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP-2 on residue Y542 promoted focal adhesion maturation. Association of Gab1 with SHP-2 in focal adhesions correlated temporally with activation of ERK and was abrogated in cells expressing mutant (Y542F) SHP-2. We conclude that IL-1beta mediated maturation of focal adhesions is dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP-2 at Y542, leading to recruitment of Gab1, a process that may influence the downstream activation of ERK.

    Journal of cellular physiology 2006;207;1;132-43

  • A PTPN11 gene mutation (Y63C) causing Noonan syndrome is not associated with short stature in general population.

    Takahashi I, Utsunomiya M, Inoue K, Takahashi T, Nozaki J, Wada Y, Takada G and Koizumi A

    Department of Pediatrics, Akita University School of Medicine, Japan. tomy@med.akita-u.ac.jp

    Human growth is a highly complicated process, but it is obviously influenced by a genetic factor. Recent genome-wide linkage analyses suggested some genetic regions underlying stature variations. However, any specific genes underlying stature variations have not been identified. Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder clinically characterized by short stature, minor facial anomalies, and congenital heart defects. Recently, PTPN11 (protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type 11) has been identified as a major responsible gene for NS, causing about half of the affected individuals. We herein report a large family demonstrating NS caused by one of the common PTPN11 mutations, c.188 A > G (Y63C). In this family, the patients were apparently healthy, but heterozygosity of the c.188 A > G (Y63C) mutation was related to growth impairment. This finding suggested that PTPN11 genetic variants contribute to adult height in the general population. However, c.188 A > G (Y63C) was not identified in 96 short individuals from the general population of 2,281 healthy adults. Thus, it is unlikely that PTPN11 is one of the genes underlying stature variations in the general population.

    The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine 2006;208;3;255-9

  • Acute myelomonocytic leukemia in a boy with LEOPARD syndrome (PTPN11 gene mutation positive).

    Uçar C, Calýskan U, Martini S and Heinritz W

    Pediatric Hematology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Selçuk University, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Konya, Turkey. canan.ucar@deu.edu.tr

    The LEOPARD syndrome is a complex of multisystemic congenital abnormalities characterized by lentiginosis, electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormalities of genitalia, retardation of growth, and deafness (sensorineural). Mutations in PTPN11, a gene encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 located on chromosome 12q24.1, have been identified in 88% of patients with LEOPARD syndrome. A missense mutation (836-->G; Tyr279Cys) in exon 7 of PTPN11 gene was identified in this patient and his mother with LEOPARD syndrome. This mutation is one of the two recurrent mutations most often associated with the syndrome. Leukemia has not previously been reported in patients with LEOPARD syndrome. The authors describe a 13-year-old boy diagnosed with both LEOPARD syndrome and acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4).

    Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology 2006;28;3;123-5

  • Recruitment of the tyrosine phosphatase Src homology 2 domain tyrosine phosphatase-2 to the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase is required for insulin-like growth factor-I-dependent PI-3 kinase activation in smooth muscle cells.

    Kwon M, Ling Y, Maile LA, Badley-Clark J and Clemmons DR

    Division of Endocrinology, 6111 Thurston-Bowles, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7170, USA.

    IGF-I stimulates smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration and the phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase pathway plays an important role in mediating the IGF-I-induced migratory response. Prior studies have shown that the tyrosine phosphatase Src homology 2 domain tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-2 is necessary to activate PI-3 kinase in response to growth factors and expression of a phosphatase inactive form of SHP-2 (SHP-2/C459S) impairs IGF-I-stimulated cell migration. However, the mechanism by which SHP-2 phosphatase activity or the recruitment of SHP-2 to other signaling molecules contributes to IGF-I stimulated PI-3 kinase activation has not been determined. SMCs that had stable expression of SHP-2/C459S had reduced cell migration and Akt activation in response to IGF-I, compared with SMC-expressing native SHP-2. Similarly in cells expressing native SHP-2, IGF-I induced SHP-2 binding to p85, whereas in cells expressing SHP-2/C459S, there was no increase. Because the C459S substitution results in loss of the ability of SHP-2 to disassociate from its substrates, making it inaccessible not only to p85 but also the other proteins, a p85 mutant in which tyrosines 528 and 556 were changed to phenylalanines was prepared to determine whether this would disrupt the p85/SHP-2 interaction and whether the loss of this specific interaction would alter IGF-I stimulated the cell migration. Substitution for these tyrosines in p85 resulted in loss of SHP-2 recruitment and was associated with a reduction in association of the p85/p110 complex with insulin receptor substrate-1. Cells stably expressing this p85 mutant also showed a decrease in IGF-I-stimulated PI-3 kinase activity and cell migration. Preincubation of cells with a cell-permeable peptide that contains the tyrosine556 motif of p85 also disrupted SHP-2 binding to p85 and inhibited the IGF-I-induced increase in cell migration. The findings indicate that tyrosines 528 and 556 in p85 are required for SHP-2 association. SHP-2 recruitment to p85 is required for IGF-I-stimulated association of the p85/p110 complex with insulin receptor substrate-1 and for the subsequent activation of the PI-3 kinase pathway leading to increased cell migration.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG02331

    Endocrinology 2006;147;3;1458-65

  • Diversity and functional consequences of germline and somatic PTPN11 mutations in human disease.

    Tartaglia M, Martinelli S, Stella L, Bocchinfuso G, Flex E, Cordeddu V, Zampino G, Burgt Iv, Palleschi A, Petrucci TC, Sorcini M, Schoch C, Foa R, Emanuel PD and Gelb BD

    Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare e Neuroscienze, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy. mtartaglia@iss.it

    Germline mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, cause Noonan syndrome (NS) and the clinically related LEOPARD syndrome (LS), whereas somatic mutations in the same gene contribute to leukemogenesis. On the basis of our previously gathered genetic and biochemical data, we proposed a model that splits NS- and leukemia-associated PTPN11 mutations into two major classes of activating lesions with differential perturbing effects on development and hematopoiesis. To test this model, we investigated further the diversity of germline and somatic PTPN11 mutations, delineated the association of those mutations with disease, characterized biochemically a panel of mutant SHP-2 proteins recurring in NS, LS, and leukemia, and performed molecular dynamics simulations to determine the structural effects of selected mutations. Our results document a strict correlation between the identity of the lesion and disease and demonstrate that NS-causative mutations have less potency for promoting SHP-2 gain of function than do leukemia-associated ones. Furthermore, we show that the recurrent LS-causing Y279C and T468M amino acid substitutions engender loss of SHP-2 catalytic activity, identifying a previously unrecognized behavior for this class of missense PTPN11 mutations.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA095621, R01 CA095621; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL074728, HL71207, P50 HL074728, R01 HL071207; NICHD NIH HHS: HD01294, K24 HD001294; Telethon: GGP04172

    American journal of human genetics 2006;78;2;279-90

  • Pinpointing phosphotyrosine-dependent interactions downstream of the collagen receptor DDR1.

    Koo DH, McFadden C, Huang Y, Abdulhussein R, Friese-Hamim M and Vogel WF

    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Medical Sciences Building, Room 7334, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5S 1A8.

    Activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase DDR1 by collagen results in robust and sustained phosphorylation, however little is known about its downstream mediators. Using phosphopeptide mapping and site-directed mutagenesis, we here identified multiple tyrosine phosphorylation sites within DDR1. We found that Nck2 and Shp-2, two SH2 domain-containing proteins, bind to DDR1 in a collagen-dependent manner. The binding site of Shp-2 was mapped to tyrosine-740 of DDR1 within an ITIM-consensus sequence. Lastly, ablation of DDR1 in the mouse mammary gland resulted in delocalized expression of Nck2, suggesting that defects observed during alveologenesis are caused by the lack of the DDR1-Nck2 interaction.

    FEBS letters 2006;580;1;15-22

  • Type I collagen limits VEGFR-2 signaling by a SHP2 protein-tyrosine phosphatase-dependent mechanism 1.

    Mitola S, Brenchio B, Piccinini M, Tertoolen L, Zammataro L, Breier G, Rinaudo MT, den Hertog J, Arese M and Bussolino F

    Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Department of Oncological Sciences, University of Torino, Turin, Italy.

    During angiogenesis, a combined action between newly secreted extracellular matrix proteins and the repertoire of integrins expressed by endothelial cells contributes in the regulation of their biological functions. Extracellular matrix-engaged integrins influence tyrosine kinase receptors, thus promoting a regulatory cross-talk between adhesive and soluble stimuli. For instance, vitronectin has been reported to positively regulate VEGFR-2. Here, we show that collagen I downregulates VEGF-A-mediated VEGFR-2 activation. This activity requires the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, which is recruited to the activated VEGFR-2 when cells are plated on collagen I, but not on vitronectin. Constitutive expression of SHP2(C459S) mutant inhibits the negative role of collagen I on VEGFR-2 phosphorylation. VEGFR-2 undergoes internalisation, which is associated with dynamin II phosphorylation. Expression of SHP2(C459S) impairs receptor internalisation suggesting that SHP2-dependent dephosphorylation regulates this process. These findings demonstrate that collagen I in provisional extracellular matrix surrounding nascent capillaries triggers a signaling pathway that negatively regulates angiogenesis.

    Circulation research 2006;98;1;45-54

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Focal adhesion kinase is a substrate and downstream effector of SHP-2 complexed with Helicobacter pylori CagA.

    Tsutsumi R, Takahashi A, Azuma T, Higashi H and Hatakeyama M

    Division of Molecular Oncology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-15, Nishi-7, Sapporo 060-0815, Japan.

    Infection with cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric adenocarcinoma. The cagA gene product CagA is translocated from H. pylori into gastric epithelial cells and undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation by Src family kinases (SFKs). Tyrosine-phosphorylated CagA binds and activates SHP-2 phosphatase and the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) while inducing an elongated cell shape termed the "hummingbird phenotype." Here we show that CagA reduces the level of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation in gastric epithelial cells. The decrease in phosphorylated FAK is due to SHP-2-mediated dephosphorylation of FAK at the activating phosphorylation sites, not due to Csk-dependent inhibition of SFKs, which phosphorylate FAK. Coexpression of constitutively active FAK with CagA inhibits induction of the hummingbird phenotype, whereas expression of dominant-negative FAK elicits an elongated cell shape characteristic of the hummingbird phenotype. These results indicate that inhibition of FAK by SHP-2 plays a crucial role in the morphogenetic activity of CagA. Impaired cell adhesion and increased motility by CagA may be involved in the development of gastric lesions associated with cagA-positive H. pylori infection.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2006;26;1;261-76

  • PTPN11 gene analysis in 74 Brazilian patients with Noonan syndrome or Noonan-like phenotype.

    Bertola DR, Pereira AC, Albano LM, De Oliveira PS, Kim CA and Krieger JE

    Clinical Genetics Unit, Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. deborarb@icr.hcnet.usp.br

    Mutations in the PTPN11 gene are known to cause a large fraction of the cases of Noonan syndrome. The objective of this study was to determine the PTPN11 gene mutation rate in a cohort of clinically well-characterized Brazilian patients with Noonan or Noonan-like syndromes and to study the genotype-phenotype correlation. Fifty probands with Noonan syndrome ascertained according to well-established diagnostic criteria, 3 with LEOPARD syndrome, 5 with Noonan-like/multiple giant cell lesion syndrome, and 3 with neurofibromatosis/ Noonan were enrolled in this study. Mutational analysis was performed using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) followed by sequencing of amplicons with an aberrant elution profile. We detected missense mutations in the PTPN11 gene in 21 probands with Noonan syndrome (42%), in all 3 patients with LEOPARD syndrome, and in 1 case with Noonan-like/multiple giant cell lesion syndrome. One patient with neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome had a mutation in both the PTPN11 and NF1 genes. The only anomalies that reached statistical significance when comparing probands with and without mutations were the hematological abnormalities. Our data confirms that Noonan syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, with mutations in the PTPN11 gene responsible for roughly 50% of the cases. A definitive genotype-phenotype correlation has not been established, but the T73I mutation seems to predispose to a myeloproliferative disorder. Regarding Noonan-like syndromes, mutation of the PTPN11 gene is the main causal factor in LEOPARD syndrome, and it also plays a role in neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Noonan- like/multiple giant cell lesion syndrome, part of the spectrum of Noonan syndrome, is also heterogeneous.

    Genetic testing 2006;10;3;186-91

  • NF1 gene mutations represent the major molecular event underlying neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome.

    De Luca A, Bottillo I, Sarkozy A, Carta C, Neri C, Bellacchio E, Schirinzi A, Conti E, Zampino G, Battaglia A, Majore S, Rinaldi MM, Carella M, Marino B, Pizzuti A, Digilio MC, Tartaglia M and Dallapiccola B

    CSS Hospital, IRCCS, San Giovanni Rotondo and CSS-Mendel Institute, Rome, Italy.

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) demonstrates phenotypic overlap with Noonan syndrome (NS) in some patients, which results in the so-called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome (NFNS). From a genetic point of view, NFNS is a poorly understood condition, and controversy remains as to whether it represents a variable manifestation of either NF1 or NS or is a distinct clinical entity. To answer this question, we screened a cohort with clinically well-characterized NFNS for mutations in the entire coding sequence of the NF1 and PTPN11 genes. Heterozygous NF1 defects were identified in 16 of the 17 unrelated subjects included in the study, which provides evidence that mutations in NF1 represent the major molecular event underlying this condition. Lesions included nonsense mutations, out-of-frame deletions, missense changes, small inframe deletions, and one large multiexon deletion. Remarkably, a high prevalence of inframe defects affecting exons 24 and 25, which encode a portion of the GAP-related domain of the protein, was observed. On the other hand, no defect in PTPN11 was observed, and no lesion affecting exons 11-27 of the NF1 gene was identified in 100 PTPN11 mutation-negative subjects with NS, which provides further evidence that NFNS and NS are genetically distinct disorders. These results support the view that NFNS represents a variant of NF1 and is caused by mutations of the NF1 gene, some of which have been demonstrated to cause classic NF1 in other individuals.

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP04172

    American journal of human genetics 2005;77;6;1092-101

  • Overexpression of Shp2 tyrosine phosphatase is implicated in leukemogenesis in adult human leukemia.

    Xu R, Yu Y, Zheng S, Zhao X, Dong Q, He Z, Liang Y, Lu Q, Fang Y, Gan X, Xu X, Zhang S, Dong Q, Zhang X and Feng GS

    Department of Hematology, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Cancer Institute, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, China. xurongzhen@hzcnc.com

    Shp2 tyrosine phosphatase plays a critical role in hematopoiesis, and dominant active mutations have been detected in the human gene PTPN11, encoding Shp2, in child leukemia patients. We report here that although no such mutations were detected in 44 adult leukemia patients screened, Shp2 expression levels were significantly elevated in primary leukemia cells and leukemia cell lines, as compared with normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. The Shp2 protein amounts correlated well with the hyperproliferative capacity but were inversely associated with the differentiation degree of leukemia cells. Suppression of Shp2 expression induced apoptosis and inhibition of leukemic cell clonogenic growth. Notably, the majority of Shp2 was preferentially localized to the plasma membrane and was constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine in leukemia cells, and also in normal hematopoietic cells following mitogenic stimulation. Based on these results, we propose that aberrantly increased expression of Shp2 may contribute, collaboratively with other factors, to leukemogenesis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA78 606

    Blood 2005;106;9;3142-9

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • The mutational spectrum of PTPN11 in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and Noonan syndrome/myeloproliferative disease.

    Kratz CP, Niemeyer CM, Castleberry RP, Cetin M, Bergsträsser E, Emanuel PD, Hasle H, Kardos G, Klein C, Kojima S, Stary J, Trebo M, Zecca M, Gelb BD, Tartaglia M and Loh ML

    University of California, Room HSE-302 Box 0519, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    Germ line PTPN11 mutations cause 50% of cases of Noonan syndrome (NS). Somatic mutations in PTPN11 occur in 35% of patients with de novo, nonsyndromic juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), either transient or more fulminant forms, can also occur in infants with NS (NS/MPD). We identified PTPN11 mutations in blood or bone marrow specimens from 77 newly reported patients with JMML (n = 69) or NS/MPD (n = 8). Together with previous reports, we compared the spectrum of PTPN11 mutations in 3 groups: (1) patients with JMML (n = 107); (2) patients with NS/MPD (n = 19); and (3) patients with NS (n = 243). Glu76 was the most commonly affected residue in JMML (n = 45), with the Glu76Lys alteration (n = 29) being most frequent. Eight of 19 patients with NS/MPD carried the Thr73Ile substitution. These data suggest that there is a genotype/phenotype correlation in the spectrum of PTPN11 mutations found in patients with JMML, NS/MPD, and NS. This supports the need to characterize the spectrum of hematologic abnormalities in individuals with NS and to better define the impact of the PTPN11 lesion on the disease course in patients with NS/MPD and JMML.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: K24 CA80916, P30 CA82103, R01 CA104282, R01 CA95621; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL074728, HL71207; NICHD NIH HHS: HD01294; Telethon: GGP04172

    Blood 2005;106;6;2183-5

  • Diverse biochemical properties of Shp2 mutants. Implications for disease phenotypes.

    Keilhack H, David FS, McGregor M, Cantley LC and Neel BG

    Cancer Biology Program, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    Mutations in the Src homology 2 (SH2)-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 (PTPN11) underlie half of the cases of the autosomal dominant genetic disorder Noonan syndrome, and somatic Shp2 mutations are found in several hematologic and solid malignancies. Earlier studies of small numbers of mutants suggested that disease-associated mutations cause constitutive (SH2 binding-independent) activation and that cancer-associated mutants are more active than those associated with Noonan syndrome. We have characterized a larger panel of Shp2 mutants and find that this "activity-centric" model cannot explain the behaviors of all pathogenic Shp2 mutations. Instead, enzymatic, structural, and mathematical modeling analyses show that these mutants can affect basal activation, SH2 domain-phosphopeptide affinity, and/or substrate specificity to varying degrees. Furthermore, there is no absolute correlation between the mutants' extents of basal activation and the diseases they induce. We propose that activated mutants of Shp2 modulate signaling from specific stimuli to a subset of effectors and provide a theoretical framework for understanding the complex relationship between Shp2 activation, intracellular signaling, and pathology.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R37CA49152; NHLBI NIH HHS: T32HL07627; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01GM56203

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;35;30984-93

  • PTPN11 mutations are associated with mild growth hormone resistance in individuals with Noonan syndrome.

    Binder G, Neuer K, Ranke MB and Wittekindt NE

    Pediatric Endocrinology Section, University-Children's Hospital, Hoppe Seyler Strasse 1, 72076 Tubingen, Germany. gerhard.binder@med.uni-tuebingen.de

    Context: Noonan syndrome is frequently associated with an unclear disturbance of GH secretion. Half the individuals with Noonan syndrome carry a heterozygous mutation of the nonreceptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase, Src homology region 2-domain phosphatase-2 (SHP-2), encoded by PTPN11, which has a role in GH receptor signaling.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare GH secretion and IGF-I/IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels of the SHP-2 mutation-positive (mut+ group) vs. mutation-negative individuals (mut- group).

    All children presenting to us with short stature plus at least three typical anomalies of Noonan syndrome or pulmonic stenosis during the last 5 yr (n = 29; 10 females and 19 males) were recruited. Auxological data, dysmorphic features, and cardiac morphology were documented. Hormone levels were measured by RIA. All coding exons of PTPN11 were sequenced after PCR amplification.

    Intervention: A prepubertal subgroup (n = 11) was treated with recombinant human GH (rhGH) to promote growth.

    Results: Sequencing yielded 11 different PTPN11 missense mutations in 16 of the 29 patients (55% mut+). Pulmonic stenosis (81 vs. 15%; P = 0.0007) and septal defects (63 vs. 15%; P = 0.02) were more frequently found in the mut+ group, whereas minor anomalies, cryptorchidism, and learning disabilities were as frequent in the mut+ group as in the mut- group. The mut+ group was younger at presentation (mean +/- sd, 5.1 +/- 2.7 vs. 10.3 +/- 5.2 yr; P = 0.002), but not significantly shorter [-3.15 +/- 0.92 vs. -3.01 +/- 1.35 height sd score (SDS)]. IGF-I levels (-2.03 +/- 0.69 vs. -1.13 +/- 0.89 SDS; P = 0.005) and IGFBP-3 levels (-0.92 +/- 1.26 vs. 0.40 +/- 1.08 SDS; P = 0.006) were significantly lower in the mut+ group. In contrast, GH levels showed a tendency to be higher in the mut+ group during spontaneous secretion at night and arginine stimulation (P > or = 0.075, not significant). The mean change in height SDS after 1 yr of rhGH therapy (0.043 mg/kg.d) was +0.66 +/- 0.21 in the mut+ group (n = 8), but +1.26 +/- 0.36 in the mut- group (n = 3; P = 0.007).

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that SHP-2 mutations in Noonan syndrome cause mild GH resistance by a postreceptor signaling defect, which seems to be partially compensated for by elevated GH secretion. This defect may contribute to the short stature phenotype in children with SHP-2 mutations and their relatively poor response to rhGH.

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2005;90;9;5377-81

  • PTPN11 (protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 11) mutations and response to growth hormone therapy in children with Noonan syndrome.

    Ferreira LV, Souza SA, Arnhold IJ, Mendonca BB and Jorge AA

    Hospital das Clinicas, Labaratorio de Hormonios, Avenue Dr. Eneas de Carvalho Aguiar 155 PAMB, 2 Andar Bloco 6, 05403-900 Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Context: The cause of growth impairment in Noonan syndrome (NS) remains unclear. Mutations in PTPN11 (protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 11) that codify constitutively activated Src homology protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 tyrosine phosphatase and may interfere with GH and IGF-I signaling were identified in approximately 40% of patients with NS.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of PTPN11 status on response to human GH (hGH) treatment in NS children with short stature.

    Setting: This study was performed at a university hospital.

    Design: The study design was to conduct a retrospective analysis of 3 yr of hGH treatment and genotyping of PTPN11 in patients with NS.

    Patients: Fourteen NS patients, half of them with PTPN11 mutations in heterozygous state, were studied. At the beginning of treatment, there were no clinical or laboratory differences between groups with and without mutations in the PTPN11 gene.

    Intervention: Patients were treated with hGH (47 microg/kg.d).

    The main outcome measures were PTPN11 genotype, change in IGF-I levels, and change in height sd score.

    Results: Patients with mutations in PTPN11 presented a significantly smaller increment in IGF-I levels during the treatment compared with patients without mutations (86 +/- 67 and 202 +/- 93 microg/liter, respectively; P = 0.03). hGH treatment significantly improved growth velocity in both groups, with slightly better results observed in patients without mutations. This was translated into greater gains in height sd score relation to baseline during the 3 yr of treatment in patients without mutations (+1.7 +/- 0.1) compared with those with mutations (+0.8 +/- 0.4; P < 0.01).

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the presence of PTPN11 mutations in patients with NS indicates a reduced growth response to long-term hGH treatment.

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2005;90;9;5156-60

  • Time-resolved mass spectrometry of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling network reveals dynamic modules.

    Zhang Y, Wolf-Yadlin A, Ross PL, Pappin DJ, Rush J, Lauffenburger DA and White FM

    Biological Engineering Division, Massachusetts Institute of Technnology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

    Ligand binding to cell surface receptors initiates a cascade of signaling events regulated by dynamic phosphorylation events on a multitude of pathway proteins. Quantitative features, including intensity, timing, and duration of phosphorylation of particular residues, may play a role in determining cellular response, but experimental data required for analysis of these features have not previously been available. To understand the dynamic operation of signaling cascades, we have developed a method enabling the simultaneous quantification of tyrosine phosphorylation of specific residues on dozens of key proteins in a time-resolved manner, downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. Tryptic peptides from four different EGFR stimulation time points were labeled with four isoforms of the iTRAQ reagent to enable downstream quantification. After mixing of the labeled samples, tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides were immunoprecipitated with an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and further enriched by IMAC before LC/MS/MS analysis. Database searching and manual confirmation of peptide phosphorylation site assignments led to the identification of 78 tyrosine phosphorylation sites on 58 proteins from a single analysis. Replicate analyses of a separate biological sample provided both validation of this first data set and identification of 26 additional tyrosine phosphorylation sites and 18 additional proteins. iTRAQ fragment ion ratios provided time course phosphorylation profiles for each site. The data set of quantitative temporal phosphorylation profiles was further characterized by self-organizing maps, which resulted in identification of several cohorts of tyrosine residues exhibiting self-similar temporal phosphorylation profiles, operationally defining dynamic modules in the EGFR signaling network consistent with particular cellular processes. The presence of novel proteins and associated tyrosine phosphorylation sites within these modules indicates additional components of this network and potentially localizes the topological action of these proteins. Additional analysis and modeling of the data generated in this study are likely to yield more sophisticated models of receptor tyrosine kinase-initiated signal transduction, trafficking, and regulation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA96504; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK070172, DK42816; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM68762

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2005;4;9;1240-50

  • Flow activates ERK1/2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase via a pathway involving PECAM1, SHP2, and Tie2.

    Tai LK, Zheng Q, Pan S, Jin ZG and Berk BC

    Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

    Blood flow modulates endothelial cell (EC) functions through specific signaling events. Previous data show that flow stimulates SHP2 translocation to cell membranes and binding to phosphotyrosine proteins. Flow-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation depends on SHP2 phosphatase activity and SHP2 binding to phospho-PECAM1 (platelet endothelial adhesion molecule 1), suggesting that SHP2 forms a signaling module with PECAM1. We hypothesized that flow induces assembly of the multi-protein complexes with SHP2 that are required for downstream signaling. ECs were exposed to flow for 10 min, and endogenous SHP2 was immunoprecipitated. SHP2-associated proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. Tie2 and several known SHP2-binding proteins were identified in flow-induced SHP2 complexes. Flow significantly increased tyrosine phosphorylation of both Tie2 and PECAM1 and their association with SHP2. To evaluate their functional roles, ECs were treated with Tie2 or PECAM1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Tie2 and PECAM1 expression decreased >80% after siRNA treatment, and flow-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase was significantly inhibited by Tie2 and PECAM1 siRNA. Tie2 phosphorylation by flow was significantly inhibited by PECAM1 siRNA treatment. These results establish Tie2 transactivation via PECAM1 as an early event in flow-mediated mechanotransduction and suggest an important role for a PECAM1-SHP2-Tie2 pathway in flow-mediated signal transduction.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL64839, R01 HL064839, R01 HL080611, R01 HL080611-05

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;33;29620-4

  • Quantitative phosphoproteome analysis using a dendrimer conjugation chemistry and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Tao WA, Wollscheid B, O'Brien R, Eng JK, Li XJ, Bodenmiller B, Watts JD, Hood L and Aebersold R

    The Bindley Bioscience Center and Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.

    We present a robust and general method for the identification and relative quantification of phosphorylation sites in complex protein mixtures. It is based on a new chemical derivatization strategy using a dendrimer as a soluble polymer support and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In a single step, phosphorylated peptides are covalently conjugated to a dendrimer in a reaction catalyzed by carbodiimide and imidazole. Modified phosphopeptides are released from the dendrimer via acid hydrolysis and analyzed by MS/MS. When coupled with an initial antiphosphotyrosine protein immunoprecipitation step and stable-isotope labeling, in a single experiment, we identified all known tyrosine phosphorylation sites within the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the T-cell receptor (TCR) CD3 chains, and previously unknown phosphorylation sites on total 97 tyrosine phosphoproteins and their interacting partners in human T cells. The dynamic changes in phosphorylation were quantified in these proteins.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HV-28179

    Nature methods 2005;2;8;591-8

  • Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome: molecular evidence of the concurrence of both disorders in a patient.

    Bertola DR, Pereira AC, Passetti F, de Oliveira PS, Messiaen L, Gelb BD, Kim CA and Krieger JE

    Genetics Clinic Unit, Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. deborab@icr.hcnet.usp.br

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short stature, facial anomalies, webbed neck, sternal deformity, heart defects, and, in males, cryptorchidism. PTPN11 encodes SHP2, an important component of several signal transduction pathways that acts as a positive regulator of RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase signaling. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is another autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hamartomas in multiple organs. The NF1 gene encodes a GAP-related protein, which acts as a negative regulator of the Ras-mediated signal transduction pathway. Clinical overlap between both syndromes, neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome (NFNS) is well known. We studied a female patient with typical findings of NFNS and found two mutations: a novel PTPN11 transversion, 1909A --> G, resulting in Gln510Arg, and an NF1 transversion, 2531A --> G, resulting in Leu844Arg. She inherited the PTPN11 mutation from her father and had a de novo NF1 mutation. This is the first report of molecular concurrence of both disorders in the same patient.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2005;136;3;242-5

  • PTPN11 mutations play a minor role in isolated congenital heart disease.

    Weismann CG, Hager A, Kaemmerer H, Maslen CL, Morris CD, Schranz D, Kreuder J and Gelb BD

    Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Justus Liebig Universität, Giessen, Germany. Constance.Weismann@mssn.edu

    PTPN11 missense mutations cause approximately 50% of Noonan syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder presenting with various congenital heart defects, most commonly valvar pulmonary stenosis, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Atrioventricular septal defects and coarctation of the aorta occur in 15% and 9%, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine if PTPN11 mutations exist in non-syndromic patients with these two relevant forms of congenital heart disease. The 15 coding PTPN11 exons and their intron boundaries from subjects with atrioventricular septal defects (n = 24) and coarctation of the aorta (n = 157) were analyzed using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and sequenced if abnormal. One subject with an atrioventricular septal defect but no other known medical problems had a c.127C > T transition in exon 2, predicting a p.L43F substitution. This mutation affected the phosphotyrosine-binding region in the N-terminal src homology 2 domain and was close to a Noonan syndrome mutation (p.T42A). An otherwise healthy patient with aortic coarctation had a silent c.540C > T change in exon 5 corresponding to p.D180D. Our study showed that PTPN11 mutations are rarely found in two isolated forms of congenital heart disease that commonly occur in Noonan syndrome. The p.L43F mutation belongs to a rare class of PTPN11 mutations altering the phosphotyrosine-binding region. These mutations are not predicted to alter the autoinhibition of the PTPN11 protein product, SHP-2, which is the mechanism for the vast majority of mutations causing Noonan syndrome. Future studies will be directed towards understanding these rare phosphotyrosine binding region mutants.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL71207, HL74728; NICHD NIH HHS: HD01294

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2005;136;2;146-51

  • Role of SHPS-1 in the regulation of insulin-like growth factor I-stimulated Shc and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Ling Y, Maile LA, Lieskovska J, Badley-Clarke J and Clemmons DR

    School of Medicine, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) stimulates smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays an important role in mediating IGF-I-induced mitogenic signaling. Our prior studies have shown that recruitment of Src homology 2 domain tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-2) to the membrane scaffolding protein Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase substrate-1 (SHPS-1) is required for IGF-I-dependent MAPK activation. The current studies were undertaken to define the upstream signaling components that are required for IGF-I-stimulated MAPK activation and the role of SHPS-1 in regulating this process. The results show that IGF-I-induced Shc phosphorylation and its subsequent binding to Grb2 is required for sustained phosphorylation of MAPK and increased cell proliferation in SMCs. Furthermore, for Shc to be phosphorylated in response to IGF-I requires that Shc must associate with SHPS-1 and this association is mediated in part by SHP-2. Preincubation of cells with a peptide that contains a phospho-tyrosine binding motif sequence derived from SHPS-1 inhibited IGF-I-stimulated SHP-2 transfer to SHPS-1, the association of Shc with SHPS-1, and IGF-I-dependent Shc phosphorylation. Expression of an SHPS-1 mutant that did not bind to Shc or SHP-2 resulted in decreased Shc and MAPK phosphorylation in response to IGF-I. In addition, SMCs expressing a mutant form of the beta3 subunit of the alphaVbeta3, which results in impairment of SHP-2 transfer to SHPS-1, also showed attenuated IGF-I-dependent Shc and MAPK phosphorylation. Further analysis showed that Shc and SHP-2 can be coimmunoprecipitated after IGF-I stimulation. A cell-permeable peptide that contained a polyproline sequence from Shc selectively inhibited Shc/SHP-2 association and impaired Shc but not SHP-2 binding to SHPS-1. Exposure to this peptide also inhibited IGF-I-stimulated Shc and MAPK phosphorylation. Cells expressing a mutant form of Shc with the four prolines substituted with alanines showed no Shc/SHPS-1 association in response to IGF-I. We conclude that SHPS-1 functions as an anchor protein that recruits both Shc and SHP-2 and that their recruitment is necessary for IGF-I-dependent Shc phosphorylation, which is required for an optimal mitogenic response in SMCs.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AGO-2331

    Molecular biology of the cell 2005;16;7;3353-64

  • Transformed immortalized gastric epithelial cells by virulence factor CagA of Helicobacter pylori through Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Zhu Y, Zhong X, Zheng S, Du Q and Xu W

    Gastroenterological Department, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

    CagA of Helicobacter pylori is a protein that has been closely associated with gastric cancer and that can intervene with signal pathways in cells. Its precise relationship with the occurrence of gastric cancer, however, remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether CagA can promote transformation of normal gastric epithelial cells and to consider via what mechanisms CagA may exert its effects. Transformed colonies were merged in soft-agarose medium after immortalized gastric epithelial cells were transfected with recombinant pLHCX retrovirus with cagA and/or dimethylhydrazine. The number of transformed colonies in the group containing cagA/pLHCX retrovirus, combined with a subthreshold dose of dimethylhydrazine, was more than that for cagA/pLHCX retrovirus or dimethylhydrazine at a subthreshold dose alone. For cagA-transfected cells, only IQGAP-2, R-Ras and B-Raf of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathway were markedly increased, and the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) kinase was significantly higher than that in dimethylhydrazine-transformed cells or control cells. However, no evidence of alteration of any other molecules of the Ras superfamily was observed in cagA-transfected cells. These findings suggest that CagA can transform gastric epithelial cells through activation of the Erk1/2 pathway; this mechanism may, however, be independent of Ras activation.

    Oncogene 2005;24;24;3886-95

  • Mutations of PTPN11 are rare in adult myeloid malignancies.

    Hugues L, Cavé H, Philippe N, Pereira S, Fenaux P and Preudhomme C

    The PTPN11 gene encodes the phospho-tyrosyine phosphatase protein SHP-2. Constitutional mutations of this gene are involved in Noonan's syndrome, a developmental disorder in which children have a predisposition to develop a myeloid disorder called juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Recently, studies have shown that somatic mutations of PTPN11 can be found in children with myeloid malignancies. We evaluated the incidence of acquired mutation of PTPN11 in 76 adults with acute or chronic myeloid malignancies and summarized our results together with others published recently.

    Haematologica 2005;90;6;853-4

  • PTPN11 mutations and genotype-phenotype correlations in Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes.

    Ogata T and Yoshida R

    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Ohkura, Setagaya, Tokyo, 157-8535, Japan. tomogata@nch.go.jp

    This review summarizes PTPN11 (protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 11) mutations and genotype-phenotype correlations in Noonan syndrome (NS) and LEOPARD syndrome (LS). PTPN11 mutations have been identified in approximately 40% of NS patients and in >80% of LS patients. Since the vast majority of mutations reside in and around the broad intramolecular interaction surface between the N-SH2 and PTP domains of the PTPN11 protein, they have been suggested to affect the intramolecular N-SH2/PTP binding in the absence of a phosphopeptide, leading to excessive phosphatase activities. The type of mutations is diverse in NS and limited in LS, and is almost mutually exclusive between NS and LS. Clinical assessment in NS patients implies that cardiovascular anomalies and hematologic abnormalities are predominant in mutation positive patients, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is predominant in mutation negative patients, and growth deficiency, mental retardation, and minor somatic anomalies are similar between the two groups of patients. Phenotypic evaluation in LS patients suggests that a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy rather than an electrocardiographic conduction abnormality is characteristic of PTPN11 mutation positive patients.

    Pediatric endocrinology reviews : PER 2005;2;4;669-74

  • Interferon-gamma-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of MEKK4 via Pyk2 is regulated by annexin II and SHP2 in keratinocytes.

    Halfter UM, Derbyshire ZE and Vaillancourt RR

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, 1703 E. Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.

    IFNgamma (interferon-gamma) binding to its cognate receptor results, through JAK (Janus kinase), in direct activation of receptor-bound STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1), although there is evidence for additional activation of a MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. In the present paper, we report IFNgamma-dependent activation of the MEKK4 (MAPK/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 4) pathway in HaCaT human keratinocytes. MEKK4 is tyrosine-phosphorylated and the IFNgamma-dependent phosphorylation requires intracellular calcium. Calcium-dependent phosphorylation of MEKK4 is mediated by Pyk2. Moreover, MEKK4 and Pyk2 co-localize in an IFNgamma-dependent manner in the perinuclear region. Furthermore, the calcium-binding protein, annexin II, and the calcium-regulated kinase, Pyk2, co-immunoprecipitate with MEKK4 after treatment with IFNgamma. Immunofluorescence imaging of HaCaT cells shows an IFNgamma-dependent co-localization of annexin II with Pyk2 in the perinuclear region, suggesting that annexin II mediates the calcium-dependent regulation of Pyk2. Tyrosine phosphorylation of MEKK4 correlates with its activity to phosphorylate MKK6 (MAPK kinase 6) in vitro and subsequent p38 MAPK activation in an IFNgamma-dependent manner. Additional studies demonstrate that the SH2 (Src homology 2)-domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 co-immunoprecipitates with MEKK4 in an IFNgamma-dependent manner and co-localizes with MEKK4 after IFNgamma stimulation in the perinuclear region in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, we provide evidence that SHP2 dephosphorylates MEKK4 and Pyk2, terminating the MEKK4-dependent branch of the IFNgamma signalling pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG19710, R01 AG019710; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES12007, P30 ES006694, P30 ES06694, P42 ES004940, P42 ES04940, R01 ES012007

    The Biochemical journal 2005;388;Pt 1;17-28

  • Human somatic PTPN11 mutations induce hematopoietic-cell hypersensitivity to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    Chan RJ, Leedy MB, Munugalavadla V, Voorhorst CS, Li Y, Yu M and Kapur R

    Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, 1044 W Walnut St, R4-402, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. rchan@iupui.edu

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a lethal disease of young children characterized by hypersensitivity of hematopoietic progenitors to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Mutations in PTPN11, which encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp-2, are common in JMML. We hypothesized that PTPN11 mutations induce hypersensitivity of hematopoietic progenitors to GM-CSF and confer increased GM-CSF-stimulated phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) levels. To test this hypothesis, the wild-type (WT) and 3 mutant Ptpn11 cDNAs (E76K, D61V, and D61Y) were transduced into murine bone marrow cells to examine GM-CSF-stimulated granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming unit (CFU-GM) growth, macrophage progenitor proliferation, and activation of the Ras signaling pathway. Expression of the Shp-2 mutants induced progenitor cell hypersensitivity to GM-CSF compared with cells transduced with vector alone or WT Shp-2. Macrophage progenitors expressing the Shp-2 mutants displayed both basal and GM-CSF-stimulated hyperproliferation compared with cells transduced with vector alone or WT Shp-2. Consistently, macrophage progenitors transduced with the Shp-2 mutants demonstrated constitutively elevated phospho-Erk levels and sustained activation of phospho-Erk following GM-CSF stimulation compared with vector alone or WT Shp-2. These data support the hypothesis that PTPN11 mutations induce hematopoietic progenitor hypersensitivity to GM-CSF due to hyperactivation of the Ras signaling axis and provide a basis for the GM-CSF signaling pathway as a target for rational drug design in JMML.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01HL075816

    Blood 2005;105;9;3737-42

  • Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Noonan syndrome: new data and review of the literature.

    Jongmans M, Sistermans EA, Rikken A, Nillesen WM, Tamminga R, Patton M, Maier EM, Tartaglia M, Noordam K and van der Burgt I

    Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, The Netherlands.

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by short stature, minor facial anomalies, and congenital heart defects. In approximately 50% of cases the condition is caused by missense mutations in the PTPN11 gene on chromosome 12, resulting in a gain of function of the protein SHP-2. In this study, PTPN11 mutation analysis was performed in 170 NS patients. In 76 (45%) of them a mutation was identified. We report on the distribution of these mutations, as well as on genotype-phenotype relationships. The benefit of the NS scoring system developed by van der Burgt et al. [(1994); Am J Med Genet 53:187-191] is shown, among physicians who consequently based their diagnosis on the NS scoring system the percentage mutation positive subjects was 54%, whereas this percentage was only 39% among physicians who made less use of the scoring system. In two patients with some uncommon manifestations mutations were found in the C-SH2 domain, a region in which defects are not often identified in NS. A trend was observed in patients carrying the 922A --> G change (Asn308Asp) receiving normal education. In one patient with NS and mild juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) the mutation 218C --> T (Thr73Ile) was found. This confirms previous findings indicating that individuals with NS with specific mutations in PTPN11 are at risk of developing JMML.

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP04172

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2005;134A;2;165-70

  • Requirement of Tyr-992 and Tyr-1173 in phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor by ionizing radiation and modulation by SHP2.

    Sturla LM, Amorino G, Alexander MS, Mikkelsen RB, Valerie K and Schmidt-Ullrichr RK

    Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298-0058, USA.

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated by ionizing radiation (IR) in many human carcinomas, mediating a cytoprotective response and subsequent radioresistance. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be understood, and we propose here a specific role for the Tyr-992 residue of EGFR and examine its regulation by the phosphatase, SHP2. The -fold increase in phosphorylation of Tyr-992 in response to IR is twice that seen with ligand (EGF) binding. Mutation of Tyr-992 blocked completely IR-induced EGFR phosphorylation and reduced activation of the downstream signaling molecule, phospholipase Cgamma. IR has previously been demonstrated to inhibit activity of protein-tyrosine phosphatases. Following protein-tyrosine phosphatase inhibition by sodium vanadate both EGFR expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and A431 exhibited up to an 8-fold increase in the basal level of Tyr-992 phosphorylation, significantly higher than that seen with Tyr-1173, Tyr-1068, and total EGFR Tyr. CHO cells expressing a SHP2 mutant also demonstrated up to an 8-fold increase in the basal level of Tyr-992 phosphorylation. In this study we show the unique association of SHP2 with EGFR in response to IR, with up to a 2.5-fold increase in the direct association of endogenous SHP2 with EGFR-wt in response to 2 gray of IR in both CHO and A431 cells. Mutation of Tyr-992 abolished this response. In conclusion we have identified several differentially activated Tyr residues, one of which is not only more sensitive to activation by IR, translating into differential activation of downstream signaling, but uniquely modulated by the phosphatase SHP2.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA90881, P01CA72955, R01CA65896

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;15;14597-604

  • Acquired PTPN11 mutations occur rarely in adult patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Loh ML, Martinelli S, Cordeddu V, Reynolds MG, Vattikuti S, Lee CM, Wulfert M, Germing U, Haas P, Niemeyer C, Beran ME, Strom S, Lübbert M, Sorcini M, Estey EH, Gattermann N and Tartaglia M

    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are comprised of a heterogeneous group of stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and susceptibility to transform to acute myeloid leukemia. The molecular pathways underlying disease initiation and evolution are still largely unknown. We recently demonstrated that acquired mutations in PTPN11 are a major event in JMML and occur with variable prevalence in children with other hematologic malignancies, including MDS. Here, we investigated contribution of PTPN11 mutations to adult MDS and CMML pathogenesis. Our results indicate that PTPN11 lesions might play a role in adult MDS/CMML pathogenesis but do not represent a major molecular event.

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP04172

    Leukemia research 2005;29;4;459-62

  • Germ-line and somatic PTPN11 mutations in human disease.

    Tartaglia M and Gelb BD

    Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare e Neuroscienze, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. mtartaglia@iss.it

    Reversible protein tyrosyl phosphorylation of cell surface receptors and downstream intracellular transducers is a major regulatory mechanism used to modulate cellular responses to extracellular stimuli, and its deregulation frequently drives aberrant cell proliferation, survival and/or differentiation. SHP-2 is a cytoplasmic Src-homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays an important role in intracellular signaling and is required during development and hematopoiesis. Germ-line missense mutations in PTPN11, the gene coding SHP-2, have been discovered as a major molecular event underlying Noonan syndrome, an autosomal dominant trait characterized by short stature, dysmorphic facies, and congenital heart defects, as well as in other closely related developmental disorders. More recently, a distinct class of missense mutations in the same gene has been identified to occur as a somatic event contributing to myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. This review focuses on the role of SHP-2 in signal transduction, development and hematopoiesis, as well as on the consequences of SHP-2 gain-of-function.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL71207; NICHD NIH HHS: HD01294; Telethon: GGP04172

    European journal of medical genetics 2005;48;2;81-96

  • SHP-2 modulates interleukin-1-induced Ca2+ flux and ERK activation via phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma1.

    Wang Q, Downey GP, Herrera-Abreu MT, Kapus A and McCulloch CA

    Canadian Institutes of Health Research Group in Matrix Dynamics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E8.

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling is dependent on focal adhesions, structures that are enriched with tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. Because the non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) is enriched in focal adhesions and IL-1-induced ERK activation requires increased Ca(2+), we determined whether SHP-2 modulates IL-1-induced Ca(2+) signaling. In SHP-2-deficient fibroblasts, IL-1-induced Ca(2+) signaling and ERK activation were markedly diminished compared with cells expressing SHP-2. IL-1-induced Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum occurred in the vicinity of focal adhesions and was strongly inhibited by the blockage of phospholipase C (PLC) catalytic activity. Immunoprecipitation and immunostaining showed that SHP-2, the endoplasmic reticulum-specific protein calnexin, and PLCgamma1 were associated with focal adhesions; however, these associations and IL-1-induced ERK activation dissipated after cells were plated on non-integrin substrates. IL-1 promoted phosphorylation of SHP-2 and PLCgamma1. IL-1-induced phosphorylation of PLCgamma1 was diminished in SHP-2-deficient cells but was restored by stable transfection with SHP-2. BAPTA/AM (1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester)) blocked IL-1-induced phosphorylation of SHP-2 and PLCgamma1, indicating mutually dependent interactive roles for Ca(2+), SHP-2, and PLCgamma1 in IL-1 signaling. We conclude that SHP-2 is critical for IL-1-induced phosphorylation of PLCgamma1 and thereby enhances IL-1-induced Ca(2+) release and ERK activation. Focal adhesions co-localizing with the endoplasmic reticulum may provide molecular staging sites required for ERK activation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;9;8397-406

  • Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated endothelial cell activation by Axl tyrosine kinase receptor.

    Gallicchio M, Mitola S, Valdembri D, Fantozzi R, Varnum B, Avanzi GC and Bussolino F

    Department of Anatomy, Pharmacology and Forensic Medicine, University of Turin, C. so Massimo D'azeglio 52, 10100 Torino, Italy. margherita.gallicchio@unito.it

    GAS6, the product of a growth arrest specific (GAS) gene, is the ligand of the tyrosine kinase receptor Axl. GAS6 and Axl are both expressed in endothelial cells, where they are involved in many processes such as leukocyte transmigration through capillaries and neointima formation in injured vessels. Here, we show that Axl stimulation by GAS6 results in inhibition of the ligand-dependent activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 and the consequent activation of an angiogenic program in vascular endothelial cells. GAS6 inhibits chemotaxis of endothelial cells stimulated by VEGF-A isoforms, but not that triggered by fibroblast growth factor-2 or hepatocyte growth factor. Furthermore, it inhibits endothelial cell morphogenesis on Matrigel and VEGF-A-dependent vascularization of chick chorion allantoid membrane. GAS6 activates the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 (SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2), which is instrumental in the negative feedback exerted by Axl on VEGF-A activities. A dominant-negative SHP-2 mutant, in which Cys 459 is substituted by Ser, reverted the effect of GAS6 on stimulation of VEGF receptor 2 and endothelial chemotaxis triggered by VEGF-A. These studies provide the first demonstration of a cross talk between Axl and VEGF receptor 2 and add new information on the regulation of VEGF-A activities during tissue vascularization.

    Blood 2005;105;5;1970-6

  • A novel role for Gab1 and SHP2 in epidermal growth factor-induced Ras activation.

    Montagner A, Yart A, Dance M, Perret B, Salles JP and Raynal P

    Département Lipoprotéines et Médiateurs Lipidiques, INSERM U563, Hôpital Purpan, 31300 Toulouse, France.

    SHP2 was recently found to down-regulate PI3K activation by dephosphorylating Gab1 but the mechanisms explaining the positive role of the Gab1/SHP2 pathway in EGF-induced Ras activation remain ill defined. Substrate trapping experiments now suggest that SHP2 dephosphorylates other Gab1 phosphotyrosines located within a central region displaying four YXXP motifs. Because these sites are potential docking motifs for Ras-GAP, we tested whether SHP2 dephosphorylates them to facilitate Ras activation. We observed that a Gab1 construct preventing SHP2 recruitment promoted membrane relocation of RasGAP. Moreover, a RasGAP-inactive mutant restored the activation of Ras in cells transfected with SHP2-inactivating Gab1 mutant or in SHP2-deficient fibroblasts, supporting the hypothesis that RasGAP is a downstream target of SHP2. To determine whether Gab1 is a RasGAP-binding partner, a Gab1 mutant deleted of four YXXP motifs was produced. The deletion suppressed RasGAP redistribution and restored the defective Ras activation caused by SHP2-inactivating mutations. Moreover, Gab1 was found to interact with RasGAP SH2 domains, only under conditions where SHP2 is not activated. To identify Ras-GAP-binding sites, Tyr to Phe mutants of Gab1 YXXP motifs were produced. Gab1 constructs mutated on Tyr(317) were severely affected in RasGAP binding and were the most active in compensating for Ras-defective activation and blocking RasGAP redistribution induced by SHP2 inactivation. We have thus localized on Gab1 a Ras-negative regulatory tyrosine phosphorylation site involved in RasGAP binding and showed that an important SHP2 function is to down-regulate its phosphorylation to disengage RasGAP and sustain Ras activation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;7;5350-60

  • Noonan syndrome type I with PTPN11 3 bp deletion: structure-function implications.

    Lee WH, Raas-Rotschild A, Miteva MA, Bolasco G, Rein A, Gillis D, Vidaud D, Vidaud M, Villoutreix BO and Parfait B

    INSERM U428, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, PARIS, France.

    Noonan syndrome was recently reported to be caused by mutations in the PTPN11 gene in 40% of the cases. This gene encodes the nonreceptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 and has been shown to be self down-regulated with the concurrency of two SH2 domains. Insertion of a specific loop (D'EF) from N-terminal SH2 domain into the SHP-2 active-site is responsible for the reversible inhibition of the phosphatase activity. Here we report the first in frame trinucleotide deletion resulting in the removal of Aspartate 61 (D61del), a key residue of the N-terminal SH2 D'EF loop. Energetic-based structural analysis and electrostatic calculations carried out on the wild-type and mutant proteins predict lower stability of the D'EF loop for the D61del variant as compared to the wild type indicating better access to the active site and most likely an enzyme activated for longer extent. Similar computations were performed on the previously functionally characterized gain-of-function D61Y mutant and similar behaviors were observed. The simulation data for the D61del and D61Y mutants suggest that both variants could yield more catalytic cycles than the wild-type molecule in the same timespan because of the opening of the active site. It also supports the notion that D61 plays a major role for proper down-regulation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase activity of SHP-2.

    Proteins 2005;58;1;7-13

  • Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD and Comb MJ

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc., 166B Cummings Center, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in human cancer, yet the oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell proliferation and survival have been difficult to identify, in part because of the complexity of the pathways and in part because of low cellular levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. In general, global phosphoproteomic approaches reveal small numbers of peptides containing phosphotyrosine. We have developed a strategy that emphasizes the phosphotyrosine component of the phosphoproteome and identifies large numbers of tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Peptides containing phosphotyrosine are isolated directly from protease-digested cellular protein extracts with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and are identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to several cell systems, including cancer cell lines, shows it can be used to identify activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling networks that are activated, a first step in profiling normal and oncogenic signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R43CA101106

    Nature biotechnology 2005;23;1;94-101

  • Substrate-trapping techniques in the identification of cellular PTP targets.

    Blanchetot C, Chagnon M, Dubé N, Hallé M and Tremblay ML

    McGill Cancer Centre, McGill University, 3655 Sir William-Osler, Room 715, Montreal, Quebec, H3G1Y6 Canada. christophe.blanchetot@mcgill.ca

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is negatively regulated by the protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). In order to find the physiological substrates of these enzymes, diverse PTP mutants that do not possess any catalytic activities but appear to bind tightly to their tyrosine phosphorylated substrates have been designed. Hence, they can be used as tools to pull out their respective substrates from heterogeneous extracts. Named PTP "substrate-trapping" mutants by the Tonks laboratory, they represent a diverse variety of defective PTPs that are epitomized by the Cys to Ser mutant (C/S) where the active cysteine residue of the signature motif is mutated to a serine residue. In addition, new mutants have been developed which are expected to help characterize novel and less abundant substrates. In this article, we review and describe all the different substrate-trapping mutants that have successfully been used or that hold interesting promises. We present their methodology to identify substrates in vivo (co-immunoprecipitation) and in vitro (GST pulldown), and provide a current list of substrates that have been identified using these technologies.

    Methods (San Diego, Calif.) 2005;35;1;44-53

  • Functional analysis of PTPN11/SHP-2 mutants identified in Noonan syndrome and childhood leukemia.

    Niihori T, Aoki Y, Ohashi H, Kurosawa K, Kondoh T, Ishikiriyama S, Kawame H, Kamasaki H, Yamanaka T, Takada F, Nishio K, Sakurai M, Tamai H, Nagashima T, Suzuki Y, Kure S, Fujii K, Imaizumi M and Matsubara Y

    Department of Medical Genetics, Tohoku University School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Sendai, 980-8574, Japan.

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by short stature, characteristic facial features, and heart defects. Recently, missense mutations of PTPN11, the gene encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) SHP-2, were identified in patients with NS. Further, somatic mutations in PTPN11 were detected in childhood leukemia. Recent studies showed that the phosphatase activities of five mutations identified in NS and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) were increased. However, the functional properties of the other mutations remain unidentified. In this study, in order to clarify the differences between the mutations identified in NS and leukemia, we examined the phosphatase activity of 14 mutants of SHP-2. We identified nine mutations, including a novel F71I mutation, in 16 of 41 NS patients and two mutations, including a novel G503V mutation, in three of 29 patients with leukemia. Immune complex phosphatase assays of individual mutants transfected in COS7 cells showed that ten mutants identified in NS and four mutants in leukemia showed 1.4-fold to 12.7-fold increased activation compared with wild-type SHP-2. These results suggest that the pathogenesis of NS and leukemia is associated with enhanced phosphatase activity of mutant SHP-2. A comparison of the phosphatase activity in each mutant and a review of previously reported cases showed that high phosphatase activity observed in mutations at codons 61, 71, 72, and 76 was significantly associated with leukemogenesis.

    Journal of human genetics 2005;50;4;192-202

  • Genetic heterogeneity in LEOPARD syndrome: two families with no mutations in PTPN11.

    Kalidas K, Shaw AC, Crosby AH, Newbury-Ecob R, Greenhalgh L, Temple IK, Law C, Patel A, Patton MA and Jeffery S

    Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Clinical Developmental Sciences, St. George's Hospital Medical School, London, SW17 0RE, UK.

    LEOPARD syndrome (lentigines, electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormal genitalia, retardation of growth, and sensorineural deafness) is an autosomal dominant condition. The main clinical features include multiple lentigines, cardiovascular defects, and facial anomalies, some of which are shared with Noonan syndrome (NS). Recent reports have shown that LEOPARD syndrome can be caused by mutations in PTPN11, the gene in which mutations can produce NS. Here we report the findings of mutation screening and linkage analysis of PTPN11 in three families with LEOPARD syndrome. We identified a novel mutation in one family. The mutation (1529A>C) substitutes proline for glutamine at amino acid 510 (Gln510Pro). No variations in sequence were observed in the other two families, and negative LOD scores excluded linkage to the PTPN11 locus, showing that LEOPARD syndrome is genetically heterogeneous.

    Journal of human genetics 2005;50;1;21-25

  • Phosphotyrosine interactome of the ErbB-receptor kinase family.

    Schulze WX, Deng L and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Experimental Bioinformatics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

    Interactions between short modified peptide motifs and modular protein domains are central events in cell signal-transduction. We determined interaction partners to all cytosolic tyrosine residues of the four members of the ErbB-receptor family in an unbiased fashion by quantitative proteomics using pull-down experiments with pairs of phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated synthetic peptides. Each receptor had characteristic preferences for interacting proteins and most interaction partners had multiple binding sites on each receptor. EGFR and ErbB4 had several docking sites for Grb2, while ErbB3 was characterized by six binding sites for PI3K. We identified STAT5 as a direct binding partner to EGFR and ErbB4 and discovered new recognition motifs for Shc and STAT5. The overall pattern of interaction partners of EGFR and ErbB4 suggests similar roles during signaling through their respective ligands. Phosphorylation kinetics of several tyrosine resides was measured by mass spectrometry and correlated with interaction partner preference. Our results demonstrate that system-wide mapping of peptide-protein interactions sites is possible, and suggest shared and unique roles of ErbB-receptor family members in downstream signaling.

    Molecular systems biology 2005;1;2005.0008

  • SHP2 binds catalase and acquires a hydrogen peroxide-resistant phosphatase activity via integrin-signaling.

    Yano S, Arroyo N and Yano N

    Department of Biochemistry, Ponce School of Medicine, Ponce, PR 00731, USA. yanos@coqui.net

    Here, we examined whether catalase binds SHP2 and alters SHP2 susceptibility to H2O2. Our results indicated that serum and fibrinogen commonly evoked catalase binding to SHP2 in HeLa and A549 cells in a herbimycin-A and TNFalpha sensitive manner. Expression of active catalase nearly 15-fold over control levels in tet-off HeLa cells substantially increased the SHP2 binding, and the catalase-associated SHP2 displayed significantly high phosphatase activities with a H2O2-resistance compared to those with little catalase. Site-directed mutagenesis at 280 abolished the binding capability of catalase to SHP2-SH2 in vitro. These results suggest that catalase-280pYIQV binds SHP2 via integrin-signaling to increase a H2O2-resistant SHP2 activity.

    Funded by: NIEHS NIH HHS: R03ES11474; NIGMS NIH HHS: S06 GM008239, S06GM08239

    FEBS letters 2004;577;3;327-32

  • Clinical variability in a Noonan syndrome family with a new PTPN11 gene mutation.

    Bertola DR, Pereira AC, de Oliveira PS, Kim CA and Krieger JE

    Genetics Clinic Unit, Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo, 05403-900 São Paulo, Brazil. drbetola@attglobal.net

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder comprising short stature, facial dysmorphism, short and/or webbed neck, heart defects, and cryptorchidism in males. The gene responsible for the disorder (PTPN11) was recently identified, and explains 30-50% of the cases clinically diagnosed as NS. Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome, a similar but distinct entity, is characterized by relative macrocephaly, characteristic facial appearance, ectodermal abnormalities (sparse and friable hair, sparse eyebrows, hyperkeratotic skin), congenital heart defects, and growth and mental retardation. We describe on a young woman who presents clinical features of NS (short stature, triangular facies, with downslanting palpebral fissures and apparent hypertelorism, webbed neck, pulmonary stenosis, bleeding diathesis, prominent corneal nerves), but with a more prominent ectodermal involvement (sparse and very coarse hair, sparse eyebrows and eyelashes) and developmental delay/mental retardation, which are characteristic of CFC patients. Sequencing of the PTPN11 gene showed a T411M substitution, not previously described in patients with NS. The same mutation was found in her mother and older sister, not initially considered to be affected by NS, but with very subtle clinical findings compatible with this diagnosis. Molecular dynamic studies indicate that this new mutation, similar to other previously described mutations, favors a more active protein conformation. However, the main disruptive effect is not directly in the catalytic domain, suggesting that the location of this mutation could make the protein more susceptible to gene-gene or gene-environment interactions. Atypical cases of NS should be screened for mutations in the PTPN11 gene and in the case of a positive result, first-degree relatives should also be tested for the specific mutation.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2004;130A;4;378-83

  • Two novel and one recurrent PTPN11 mutations in LEOPARD syndrome.

    Yoshida R, Nagai T, Hasegawa T, Kinoshita E, Tanaka T and Ogata T

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2004;130A;4;432-4

  • PTPN11 mutations in patients with LEOPARD syndrome: a French multicentric experience.

    Keren B, Hadchouel A, Saba S, Sznajer Y, Bonneau D, Leheup B, Boute O, Gaillard D, Lacombe D, Layet V, Marlin S, Mortier G, Toutain A, Beylot C, Baumann C, Verloes A, Cavé H and French Collaborative Noonan Study Group

    Laboratoire de Biochimie Génétique, Hôpital Robert Debré, 48, Boulevard Sérurier, 75019 Paris, France. cave@infobiogen.fr.

    Journal of medical genetics 2004;41;11;e117

  • PTPN11 mutations in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia: results from the Children's Cancer Group.

    Loh ML, Reynolds MG, Vattikuti S, Gerbing RB, Alonzo TA, Carlson E, Cheng JW, Lee CM, Lange BJ, Meshinchi S and Children's Cancer Group

    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. lohm@itsa.ucsf.edu <lohm@itsa.ucsf.edu&gt;

    The PTPN11 gene encodes SHP-2, a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that relays signals from activated growth factor receptors to p21(ras) (Ras) and other signaling molecules. Somatic PTPN11 mutations are common in patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and have been reported in some other hematologic malignancies. We analyzed specimens from 278 pediatric patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who were enrolled on Children's Cancer Group trials 2941 and 2961 for PTPN11 mutations. Missense mutations of PTPN11 were detected in 11 (4%) of these samples. None of these patients had mutations in NRAS; however, one patient had evidence of a FLT3 alteration. Four of the patients with PTPN11 mutations (36%) were boys with French-American-British (FAB) morphology M5 AML (P=0.012). Patients with mutations also presented with elevated white blood cell counts. There was no difference in clinical outcome for patients with and without PTPN11 mutations. These characteristics identify a subset of pediatric AML with PTPN11 mutations that share clinical and biologic features with JMML.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: K23 CA80915

    Leukemia 2004;18;11;1831-4

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Mutations in PTPN11 are rare in adult myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia.

    Watkins F, Fidler C, Boultwood J and Wainscoat JS

    American journal of hematology 2004;76;4;417

  • Genetic evidence for lineage-related and differentiation stage-related contribution of somatic PTPN11 mutations to leukemogenesis in childhood acute leukemia.

    Tartaglia M, Martinelli S, Cazzaniga G, Cordeddu V, Iavarone I, Spinelli M, Palmi C, Carta C, Pession A, Aricò M, Masera G, Basso G, Sorcini M, Gelb BD and Biondi A

    Dipartimento di Biologia cellulare e Neuroscienze, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299-00161 Rome, Italy. mtartaglia@iss.it

    SHP-2 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase functioning as signal transducer downstream to growth factor and cytokine receptors. SHP-2 is required during development, and germline mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding SHP-2, cause Noonan syndrome. SHP-2 plays a crucial role in hematopoietic cell development. We recently demonstrated that somatic PTPN11 mutations are the most frequent lesion in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and are observed in a smaller percentage of children with other myeloid malignancies. Here, we report that PTPN11 lesions occur in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Mutations were observed in 23 of 317 B-cell precursor ALL cases, but not among 44 children with T-lineage ALL. In the former, lesions prevalently occurred in TEL-AML1(-) cases with CD19(+)/CD10(+)/cyIgM(-) immunophenotype. PTPN11, NRAS, and KRAS2 mutations were largely mutually exclusive and accounted for one third of common ALL cases. We also show that, among 69 children with acute myeloid leukemia, PTPN11 mutations occurred in 4 of 12 cases with acute monocytic leukemia (FAB-M5). Leukemia-associated PTPN11 mutations were missense and were predicted to result in SHP-2 gain-of-function. Our findings provide evidence for a wider role of PTPN11 lesions in leukemogenesis, but also suggest a lineage-related and differentiation stage-related contribution of these lesions to clonal expansion.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL71207; NICHD NIH HHS: HD01294

    Blood 2004;104;2;307-13

  • The major vault protein is a novel substrate for the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 and scaffold protein in epidermal growth factor signaling.

    Kolli S, Zito CI, Mossink MH, Wiemer EA and Bennett AM

    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8066, USA.

    The catalytic activity of the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-2, is required for virtually all of its signaling effects. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of SHP-2 signaling, therefore, rests upon the identification of its target substrates. In this report, we have used SHP-2 substrate-trapping mutants to identify the major vault protein (MVP) as a putative SHP-2 substrate. MVP is the predominant component of vaults that are cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes of unknown function. We show that MVP is dephosphorylated by SHP-2 in vitro and it forms an enzyme-substrate complex with SHP-2 in vivo. In response to epidermal growth factor (EGF), SHP-2 associates via its SH2 domains with tyrosyl-phosphorylated MVP. MVP also interacts with the activated form of the extracellular-regulated kinases (Erks) in response to EGF and a constitutive complex between tyrosyl-phosphorylated MVP, SHP-2, and the Erks was detected in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Using MVP-deficient fibroblasts, we demonstrate that MVP cooperates with Ras for optimal EGF-induced Elk-1 activation and is required for cell survival. We propose that MVP functions as a novel scaffold protein for both SHP-2 and Erk. The regulation of MVP tyrosyl phosphorylation by SHP-2 may play an important role in cell survival signaling.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: T32-CA09085; NIAMS NIH HHS: R01-AR46504

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;28;29374-85

  • Protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 11 mutation analysis and clinical assessment in 45 patients with Noonan syndrome.

    Yoshida R, Hasegawa T, Hasegawa Y, Nagai T, Kinoshita E, Tanaka Y, Kanegane H, Ohyama K, Onishi T, Hanew K, Okuyama T, Horikawa R, Tanaka T and Ogata T

    Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

    We report on PTPN11 (protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 11) mutation analysis and clinical assessment in 45 patients with Noonan syndrome. Sequence analysis was performed for all of the coding exons 1-15 of PTPN11, revealing a novel 3-bp deletion mutation and 10 recurrent missense mutations in 18 patients. Clinical assessment showed that 1) the growth pattern was similar in mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients, with no significant difference in birth length [-0.6 +/- 2.2 sd (n = 10) vs. -0.6 +/- 1.4 sd (n = 21); P = 0.95], childhood height [-2.6 +/- 1.1 sd (n = 14) vs. -2.1 +/- 1.6 sd (n = 23); P = 0.28], or target height [-0.4 +/- 0.9 sd (n = 14) vs. -0.2 +/- 0.7 sd (n = 17); P = 0.52]; 2) pulmonary valve stenosis was more frequent in mutation-positive patients than in mutation-negative patients (10 of 18 vs. 6 of 27; P = 0.02), as was atrial septal defect (10 of 18 vs. 4 of 27; P = 0.005), whereas hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was present in five mutation-negative patients only; and 3) other features were grossly similar in the prevalence between mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients, but hematological abnormalities, such as bleeding diathesis and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, were exclusively present in mutation-positive patients (5 of 18 vs. 0 of 27; P = 0.007). The results suggest that PTPN11 mutations account for approximately 40% of Noonan syndrome patients, as has been reported previously. Furthermore, assessment of clinical features, in conjunction with data reported previously, implies that the type of cardiovascular lesions and the occurrence of hematological abnormalities are different in mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients, whereas the remaining findings are similar in the two groups of patients.

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2004;89;7;3359-64

  • Activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 and its downstream signaling promote cell survival under oxidative stress.

    Wang JF, Zhang X and Groopman JE

    Division of Experimental Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate cell damage and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases that involve endothelial injury. Cells possess antioxidant systems, including intracellular antioxidants and ROS scavenging enzymes, that control the redox state and prevent cell damage. In addition to intracellular antioxidants, certain growth factor receptors can be activated under oxidative stress and trigger downstream cell survival signaling cascades. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) is a primary modulator of lymphatic endothelial proliferation and survival. Here, we provide evidence that activation of VEGFR-3 signaling in response to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) promotes endothelial cell survival. Treatment with H(2)O(2) induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-3 and its association with the signaling adaptor proteins Shc, growth factor receptor binding protein 2, Sos, p85, SHP-2, and phospholipase C-gamma. Of note, a hereditary lymphoedema-linked mutant of VEGFR-3 was not phosphorylated by H(2)O(2) treatment. Isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), alpha and delta, were also tyrosine-phosphorylated after H(2)O(2) stimulation. However, only the delta isoform of PKC was required for H(2)O(2)-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-3. The tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-3 or isoforms of PKC was completely inhibited by treatment with 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, a specific inhibitor for Src family kinases, indicating that Src family kinases are upstream of PKC and VEGFR-3. Furthermore, expression of the wild-type but not the lymphoedema-linked mutant form of VEGFR-3 in porcine artery endothelial cells significantly enhanced the activation of Akt after H(2)O(2) stimulation. Consistent with these biochemical changes, we observed that expression and activation of the wild-type but not the mutant form of VEGFR-3 inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. These studies suggest that VEGFR-3 protects against oxidative damage in endothelial cells, and that patients with hereditary lymphoedema may be susceptible to ROS-induced cell damage.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01HL61940

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;26;27088-97

  • KIR2DL5 can inhibit human NK cell activation via recruitment of Src homology region 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2).

    Yusa S, Catina TL and Campbell KS

    Division of Basic Science, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Institute for Cancer Research, 333 Cottman Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA.

    Human NK cells use class I MHC-binding inhibitory receptors, such as the killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) family, to discriminate between normal and abnormal cells. Some tumors and virus-infected cells down-regulate class I MHC and thereby become targets of NK cells. Substantial evidence indicates that the mechanism of KIR-mediated inhibition involves recruitment of the protein tyrosine phosphatases, Src homology 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) and SHP-2, to two phosphorylated cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). KIR2DL5 is a type II member of the KIR2D family with an atypical extracellular domain and an intracytoplasmic domain containing one typical ITIM and one atypical ITIM sequence. Although KIR2DL5 structure is expressed by approximately 50% of humans and is conserved among primate species, its function has not been determined. In the present study, we directly compared functional and biochemical properties of KIR2DL5, KIR3DL1 (a type I KIR with two ITIMs), and KIR2DL4 (the only other type II KIR, which has a single ITIM) in a human NK-like cell line. Our results show that KIR2DL5 is an inhibitory receptor that can recruit both SHP-1 and SHP-2, and its inhibitory capacity is more similar to that of the cytoplasmic domain of KIR2DL4 than KIR3DL1. Interestingly, inhibition of NK cell cytotoxicity by KIR2DL5 was blocked by dominant-negative SHP-2, but not dominant-negative SHP-1, whereas both dominant-negative phosphatases can block inhibition by KIR3DL1. Therefore, the cytoplasmic domains of type II KIRs (2DL4 and 2DL5) exhibit distinct inhibitory capacities when compared with type I KIRs (3DL1), due to alterations in the canonical ITIM sequences.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 06927, CA 083859

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2004;172;12;7385-92

  • SHP-2 positively regulates myogenesis by coupling to the Rho GTPase signaling pathway.

    Kontaridis MI, Eminaga S, Fornaro M, Zito CI, Sordella R, Settleman J and Bennett AM

    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

    Myogenesis is an intricate process that coordinately engages multiple intracellular signaling cascades. The Rho family GTPase RhoA is known to promote myogenesis, however, the mechanisms controlling its regulation in myoblasts have yet to be fully elucidated. We show here that the SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-2, functions as an early modulator of myogenesis by regulating RhoA. When MyoD was expressed in fibroblasts lacking functional SHP-2, muscle-specific gene activity was impaired and abolition of SHP-2 expression by RNA interference inhibited muscle differentiation. By using SHP-2 substrate-trapping mutants, we identified p190-B RhoGAP as a SHP-2 substrate. When dephosphorylated, p190-B RhoGAP has been shown to stimulate the activation of RhoA. During myogenesis, p190-B RhoGAP was tyrosyl dephosphorylated concomitant with the stimulation of SHP-2's phosphatase activity. Moreover, overexpression of a catalytically inactive mutant of SHP-2 inhibited p190-B RhoGAP tyrosyl dephosphorylation, RhoA activity, and myogenesis. These observations strongly suggest that SHP-2 dephosphorylates p190-B RhoGAP, leading to the activation of RhoA. Collectively, these data provide a mechanistic basis for RhoA activation in myoblasts and demonstrate that myogenesis is critically regulated by the actions of SHP-2 on the p190-B Rho GAP/RhoA pathway.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: T32 CA009085, T32-CA09085; NIAMS NIH HHS: R01 AR046504, R01-AR45604; NIDDK NIH HHS: P01 DK057751, P01-DK57751; NINDS NIH HHS: T32 NS007136, T32-NS07136

    Molecular and cellular biology 2004;24;12;5340-52

  • Shp2, an SH2-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase, positively regulates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by dephosphorylating and inactivating the inhibitor Sprouty.

    Hanafusa H, Torii S, Yasunaga T, Matsumoto K and Nishida E

    Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

    Src homology 2-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase (Shp2) functions as a positive effector in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling immediately proximal to activated receptors. However, neither its physiological substrate(s) nor its mechanism of action in RTK signaling has been defined. In this study, we demonstrate that Sprouty (Spry) is a possible target of Shp2. Spry acts as a conserved inhibitor of RTK signaling, and tyrosine phosphorylation of Spry is indispensable for its inhibitory activity. Shp2 was able to dephosphorylate fibroblast growth factor receptor-induced phosphotyrosines on Spry both in vivo and in vitro. Shp2-mediated dephosphorylation of Spry resulted in dissociation of Spry from Grb2. Furthermore, Shp2 could reverse the inhibitory effect of Spry on FGF-induced neurite outgrowth and MAP kinase activation. These findings suggest that Shp2 acts as a positive regulator in RTK signaling by dephosphorylating and inactivating Spry.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;22;22992-5

  • Cutting edge: TREM-like transcript-1, a platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif encoding costimulatory immunoreceptor that enhances, rather than inhibits, calcium signaling via SHP-2.

    Barrow AD, Astoul E, Floto A, Brooke G, Relou IA, Jennings NS, Smith KG, Ouwehand W, Farndale RW, Alexander DR and Trowsdale J

    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Wellcome Trust, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom. adb44@cam.ac.uk

    To date, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs) have been shown to mediate inhibitory properties. We report a novel triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) family member, TREM-like transcript-1 (TLT1), which differs from the activating members because its cytoplasmic tail contains two ITIMs at Y245 and Y281. A TLT1 splice variant (TLT1sp) encodes a different cytoplasmic tail lacking ITIMs. Both isoforms are expressed in resting platelet alpha-granules, which are up-regulated to the cell surface following activation. TLT1 recruited Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-2 to the "classical" ITIM (Y281) but not the "nonclassical" ITIM (Y245). In contrast to previously characterized ITIM receptors, TLT1 enhanced, rather than inhibited, FcepsilonRI-mediated calcium signaling in rat basophilic leukemia cells, a property dependent on the SHP-2 recruiting classical Y281 ITIM. Therefore, TLT1 represents a new costimulatory ITIM immunoreceptor and is the second ITIM-bearing receptor to be identified in platelets after platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G9800943

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2004;172;10;5838-42

  • Clinical and molecular analysis of 30 patients with multiple lentigines LEOPARD syndrome.

    Sarkozy A, Conti E, Digilio MC, Marino B, Morini E, Pacileo G, Wilson M, Calabrò R, Pizzuti A and Dallapiccola B

    CSS Hospital, IRCCS, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.

    Journal of medical genetics 2004;41;5;e68

  • Activation of a Dab1/CrkL/C3G/Rap1 pathway in Reelin-stimulated neurons.

    Ballif BA, Arnaud L, Arthur WT, Guris D, Imamoto A and Cooper JA

    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. jcooper@fhcrc.org

    During brain development, many neurons migrate long distances before settling and differentiating. These migrations are coordinated to ensure normal development. The secreted protein Reelin controls the locations of many types of neurons, and its absence causes the classic "Reeler" phenotype. Reelin action requires tyrosine phosphorylation of the intracellular protein Dab1 by Src-family kinases. However, little is known about signaling pathways downstream of Dab1. Here, we identify several proteins in embryonic brain extract that bind to tyrosine-phosphorylated, but not non-phosphorylated, Dab1. Of these, the Crk-family proteins (CrkL, CrkI, and CrkII ), bind significant quantities of Dab1 when embryonic cortical neurons are exposed to Reelin. CrkL binding to Dab1 involves two tyrosine phosphorylation sites, Y220 and 232, that are critical for proper positioning of migrating cortical plate neurons. CrkL also binds C3G, an exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPase Rap1 that is activated in other systems by tyrosine phosphorylation. We report that Reelin stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of C3G and activates Rap1. C3G and Rap1 regulate adhesion of fibroblasts and other cell types. Regulation of Crk/CrkL, C3G, and Rap1 by Reelin may be involved in coordinating neuron migrations during brain development.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 41072, T32 CA 09657; NINDS NIH HHS: F32 NS046492

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;7;606-10

  • Mutations in PTPN11 implicate the SHP-2 phosphatase in leukemogenesis.

    Loh ML, Vattikuti S, Schubbert S, Reynolds MG, Carlson E, Lieuw KH, Cheng JW, Lee CM, Stokoe D, Bonifas JM, Curtiss NP, Gotlib J, Meshinchi S, Le Beau MM, Emanuel PD and Shannon KM

    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Rm HSE-302 Box 0519, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. lohm@itsa.ucsf.edu

    The PTPN11 gene encodes SHP-2 (Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine Phosphatase), a nonreceptor tyrosine protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) that relays signals from activated growth factor receptors to p21Ras (Ras) and other signaling molecules. Mutations in PTPN11 cause Noonan syndrome (NS), a developmental disorder characterized by cardiac and skeletal defects. NS is also associated with a spectrum of hematologic disorders, including juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). To test the hypothesis that PTPN11 mutations might contribute to myeloid leukemogenesis, we screened the entire coding region for mutations in 51 JMML specimens and in selected exons from 60 patients with other myeloid malignancies. Missense mutations in PTPN11 were detected in 16 of 49 JMML specimens from patients without NS, but they were less common in other myeloid malignancies. RAS, NF1, and PTPN11 mutations are largely mutually exclusive in JMML, which suggests that mutant SHP-2 proteins deregulate myeloid growth through Ras. However, although Ba/F3 cells engineered to express leukemia-associated SHP-2 proteins cells showed enhanced growth factor-independent survival, biochemical analysis failed to demonstrate hyperactivation of the Ras effectors extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) or Akt. We conclude that SHP-2 is an important cellular PTPase that is mutated in myeloid malignancies. Further investigation is required to clarify how these mutant proteins interact with Ras and other effectors to deregulate myeloid growth.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA80916, K23 CA80915, P01 CA40046, P30 CA82103; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL04409; NICHD NIH HHS: HD28825

    Blood 2004;103;6;2325-31

  • Selective down-regulation of angiotensin II receptor type 1A signaling by protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Doan T, Farmer P, Cooney T and Ali MS

    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

    The heptahelical AT(1) G-protein-coupled receptor lacks inherent tyrosine kinase activity. Angiotensin II binding to AT(1) nevertheless activates several tyrosine kinases and stimulates both tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphatase activity of the SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase in vascular smooth muscle cells. Since a balance between tyrosine kinase and tyrosine phosphatase activities is essential in angiotensin II signaling, we investigated the role of SHP-2 in modulating tyrosine kinase signaling pathways by stably transfecting vascular smooth muscle cells with expression vectors encoding wild-type SHP-2 protein or a catalytically inactive SHP-2 mutant. Our data indicate that SHP-2 is an efficient negative regulator of angiotensin II signaling. SHP-2 inhibited c-Src catalytic activity by dephosphorylating a positive regulatory tyrosine 418 within the Src kinase domain. Importantly, SHP-2 expression also abrogated angiotensin II-induced activation of ERK, whereas expression of catalytically inactive SHP-2 caused sustained ERK activation. Thus, SHP-2 likely regulates angiotensin II-induced MAP kinase signaling by inactivating c-Src. These SHP-2 effects were specific for a subset of angiotensin II signaling pathways, since SHP-2 overexpression failed to influence Jak2 tyrosine phosphorylation or Fyn catalytic activity. These data show SHP-2 represents a critical negative regulator of angiotensin II signaling, and further demonstrate a new function for this phosphatase in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 61710

    Cellular signalling 2004;16;3;301-11

  • Roles of Gab1 and SHP2 in paxillin tyrosine dephosphorylation and Src activation in response to epidermal growth factor.

    Ren Y, Meng S, Mei L, Zhao ZJ, Jove R and Wu J

    Molecular Oncology Program, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA.

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces paxillin tyrosine dephosphorylation and Src activation, but the signaling pathways that mediate these responses were largely undefined. We found that Gab1, a docking protein for the SHP2 protein-tyrosine phosphatase in EGF-stimulated cells, was associated with paxillin. SHP2 dephosphorylated paxillin and caused dissociation of Csk, a negative regulator of Src, from paxillin but had no effect on paxillin-Src association. A lower level of Src Tyr-530 phosphorylation was detected in paxillin-associated Src in EGF-stimulated cells. Expression of an SHP2 binding defective mutant of Gab1 (Gab1FF) or a catalytically inactive mutant of SHP2 (SHP2DN) prevented paxillin tyrosine dephosphorylation and Src activation induced by EGF. Importantly, Gab1FF blocked paxillin-SHP2 complex formation, Src Tyr-530 dephosphorylation, Erk activation, and cell migration induced by EGF. Inhibition of Src tyrosine kinase activity abrogated EGF-stimulated Erk activation and cell migration. Together, these results reveal that Gab1 recruits SHP2 to dephosphorylate paxillin, leading to dissociation of Csk from the paxillin-Src complex and Src activation and that Src is an SHP2 effector involved in EGF-stimulated Erk activation and cell migration.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA77467, R01 CA077467; NINDS NIH HHS: NS44521, NS45710

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;9;8497-505

  • Familial aggregation of genetically heterogeneous hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a boy with LEOPARD syndrome due to PTPN11 mutation and his nonsyndromic father lacking PTPN11 mutations.

    Digilio MC, Pacileo G, Sarkozy A, Limongelli G, Conti E, Cerrato F, Marino B, Pizzuti A, Calabrò R and Dallapiccola B

    Medical Genetics, Bambino Gesù Hospital, Rome, Italy. digilio@opbg.net

    Background: Nonsyndromic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary cardiac disease transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Multiple chromosomal loci have been found to be involved in the etiology of this defect. LEOPARD syndrome is a genetic condition characteristically associated with HCM. Additional features of the syndrome include multiple lentigines, facial anomalies, sensorineural deafness, and growth retardation. Mutations in PTPN11, a gene encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 located at chromosome 12q24, have been identified in patients with LEOPARD syndrome.

    Cases: We report here on a patient with HCM presenting with classic clinical features of LEOPARD syndrome, whose father also has HCM, but lacks phenotypic anomalies of the syndrome. Molecular analysis searching for PTPN11 mutations was performed in this family. A missense mutation (836A-->G; Tyr279Cys) in exon 7 of PTPN11 gene was identified in the patient with LEOPARD syndrome, whereas no mutation in PTPN11 gene was detected in the father or in additional family members.

    Conclusions: Aggregation of syndromic and nonsyndromic HCM in the same family is an unusual pattern of recurrence. Although genetic heterogeneity of LEOPARD and nonsyndromic HCM is not disputed, the existence of peculiar interactions linking genes causing nonsyndromic HCM and HCM in LEOPARD syndrome can be hypothesized. Different genes can work together, and a more severe cardiac phenotype can be due to additive effects. The involvement of familial susceptibility to specific cardiac malformations based on the presence of common predisposing factors can also be considered. Further molecular studies may shed light on these observations.

    Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology 2004;70;2;95-8

  • Distinct domains in the SHP-2 phosphatase differentially regulate epidermal growth factor receptor/NF-kappaB activation through Gab1 in glioblastoma cells.

    Kapoor GS, Zhan Y, Johnson GR and O'Rourke DM

    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 36th and Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays an important role in inflammation and cancer, is activated by a variety of stimuli including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, UV irradiation, and viruses, as well as receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Although previous studies suggest that EGFR can induce NF-kappaB, the mechanism of this activation remains unknown. In this study, we identify the components of the EGFR-induced signalosome in human glioblastoma cells required to regulate NF-kappaB activation. Immunoprecipitation analyses with ErbB-modulated cells indicate that association between SHP-2 and Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1) is the critical step in the formation of the signalosome linking EGFR to NF-kappaB activation. We also show that EGFR-induced NF-kappaB activation is mediated by the PI3-kinase/Akt activation loop. Overexpression of SHP-2, Gab1, and myristoylated Akt significantly upregulated NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and DNA binding activity in glioblastoma cells. Interestingly, overexpression of either one of the two SH2 domain mutants of SHP-2, R32E or R138E, slightly reduced NF-kappaB activity relative to that of wild-type SHP-2, indicating that the SH2 domains of SHP-2 are required for EGFR-induced NF-kappaB activation. On the other hand, ectopic overexpression of either a Gab1 mutant incapable of binding to SHP-2 (Y627F) or a phosphatase-inactive SHP-2 mutant (C459S) caused a significant increase in NF-kappaB activity. Moreover, SHP-2 C459S-expressing cells displayed higher Gab1 phosphotyrosine content, suggesting that SHP-2 regulates Gab1 phosphorylation through its phosphatase domain, which confers a negative regulatory effect on NF-kappaB activity. These results indicate that SHP-2/Gab1 association is critical for linking EGFR to NF-kappaB transcriptional activity via the PI3-kinase/Akt signaling axis in glioblastoma cells and that SHP-2 acts as a dual regulator of NF-kappaB activation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA 90586, R01 CA090586

    Molecular and cellular biology 2004;24;2;823-36

  • Genetics and variation in phenotype in Noonan syndrome.

    Jongmans M, Otten B, Noordam K and van der Burgt I

    Department of Human Genetics, University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    Noonan syndrome is a well-known clinical entity comprising multiple congenital anomalies characterized by typical facial features, short stature and congenital heart defect. Approximately 50% of cases are sporadic. Familial cases are generally autosomal dominant. In 2001 a gene responsible for Noonan syndrome, PTPN11, encoding for the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, was identified. Mutation analysis of the PTPN11 gene was carried out in Nijmegen in 150 patients with Noonan syndrome. Mutations were found in 68 patients (45%), the most common being A922G in exon 8. In exon 4 a mutation was found that encoded the C-SH2 domain of the PTPN11 gene in two unique patients who shared some uncommon features. A 218C-->T mutation was found in exon 3 in one patient with Noonan syndrome and mild juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia.

    Hormone research 2004;62 Suppl 3;56-9

  • SHP-2 regulates SOCS-1-mediated Janus kinase-2 ubiquitination/degradation downstream of the prolactin receptor.

    Ali S, Nouhi Z, Chughtai N and Ali S

    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Molecular Oncology Group, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A1, Canada.

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 is an important regulator of the Janus kinase-2 (Jak2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) pathway downstream of the cytokine/prolactin receptor family. We report that SHP-2 dephosphorylates tyrosine (Tyr-1007) of Jak2 kinase, a critical recruitment site for the ubiquitin ligase-associated inhibitory protein suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), thereby contributing to Jak2 stability. Inactivation of SHP-2 function by blocking receptor/SHP-2 association or by using a catalytically inactive mutant of SHP-2 led to a marked increase in Jak2 ubiquitination/degradation, Jak2 phosphorylation on Tyr-1007, and Jak2/SOCS-1 association. Furthermore, functional studies indicate that modulating the interaction of Jak2/SOCS-1 by SHP-2 is essential for prolactin/Stat5-mediated signaling. Together our results provide a novel function for SHP-2 as a positive regulator of cytokine receptor signaling by regulating ubiquitination/degradation pathways.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;52;52021-31

  • Molecular mechanism for a role of SHP2 in epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.

    Agazie YM and Hayman MJ

    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Health Sciences Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-5222, USA.

    The Src homology 2-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase (SHP2) is primarily a positive effector of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. However, the molecular mechanism by which SHP2 effects its biological function is unknown. In this report, we provide evidence that defines the molecular mechanism and site of action of SHP2 in the epidermal growth factor-induced mitogenic pathway. We demonstrate that SHP2 acts upstream of Ras and functions by increasing the half-life of activated Ras (GTP-Ras) in the cell by interfering with the process of Ras inactivation catalyzed by Ras GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP). It does so by inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent translocation of RasGAP to the plasma membrane, to its substrate (GTP-Ras) microdomain. Inhibition is achieved through the dephosphorylation of RasGAP binding sites at the level of the plasma membrane. We have identified Tyr992 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to be one such site, since its mutation to Phe renders the EGFR refractory to the effect of dominant-negative SHP2. To our knowledge, this is the first report to outline the site and molecular mechanism of action of SHP2 in EGFR signaling, which may also serve as a model to describe its role in other receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA28146, CA42573, P01 CA028146, R01 CA042573

    Molecular and cellular biology 2003;23;21;7875-86

  • The tyrosine phosphatase Shp-2 mediates intracellular signaling initiated by Ret mutants.

    D'Alessio A, Califano D, Incoronato M, Santelli G, Florio T, Schettini G, Carlomagno MS, Cerchia L and de Franciscis V

    Oncologia Sperimentale E, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Fondazione G. Pascale, 80131 Naples, Italy.

    The Src homology 2-containing tyrosine phosphatase, Shp-2, is a crucial enzyme that mediates intracellular signaling and is implicated in cell proliferation and differentiation. Here we investigated the involvement of the Shp-2 tyrosine phosphatase in determining the downstream signaling pathways initiated by the Ret oncogene, carrying either the cysteine 634 to tyrosine or the methionine 918 to threonine substitutions. These mutations convert the receptor tyrosine kinase, Ret, into a dominant transforming protein and induce constitutive activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity leading to congenital and sporadic cancers in neuroendocrine organs. Using the PC12, rat pheochromocytoma cell line, as model system, we show that Shp-2 mediates immediate-early gene expression if induced by either of the mutant alleles. Furthermore, we show that Shp-2 activity is required for RetM918T-induced Akt activation. The results indicate that Shp-2 is a downstream mediator of the mutated receptors RetC634Y and RetM918T, thus suggesting that it may act as a limiting factor in Ret-associated endocrine tumors, in the neoplastic syndromes multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B.

    Endocrinology 2003;144;10;4298-305

  • Dose-dependent transcriptome changes by metal ores on a human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line.

    Sun NN, Fastje CD, Wong SS, Sheppard PR, Macdonald SJ, Ridenour G, Hyde JD and Witten ML

    Southwest Environmental Science Center and Department of Pediatrics, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, USA.

    The increased morbidity of childhood leukemia in Fallon, Nevada and Sierra Vista, Arizona has prompted great health concern. The main characteristic that these two towns share is the environmental pollution attributed to metal ore from abandoned mining operations. Consequently, we have investigated the transcriptome effects of metal ores from these endemic areas using a human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (T-ALL). Metal ore from Fallon significantly increased cell growth after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation at 1.5 microg/mL concentration, as measured by trypan-blue. Sierra Vista ore significantly increased cell growth with 0.15 and 1.5 microg/mL following 72 h of incubation. From human cDNA microarray, results indicate that in total, eight genes, mostly metallothionein (MT) genes, were up-regulated and 10 genes were down-regulated following treatment of the T-ALL cells with 0.15 and 1.5 microg/mL of metal ores at 72 h, in comparison with untreated cells. Twenty-eight metals of both ores were quantified and their presence may be associated with the cell growth rate and dose-dependent activation of transcriptomes in immature T-cells.

    Toxicology and industrial health 2003;19;7-10;157-63

  • Hepatitis C virus and HIV envelope proteins collaboratively mediate interleukin-8 secretion through activation of p38 MAP kinase and SHP2 in hepatocytes.

    Balasubramanian A, Ganju RK and Groopman JE

    Division of Experimental Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects approximately 40% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients, and the resulting hepatic dysfunction that occurs is the primary cause of death in patients with co-infection. We hypothesized that hepatocytes exposed to HCV and HIV proteins might be susceptible to injury via an "innocent bystander" mechanism. To assess this, we studied the effects of envelope proteins, E2 of HCV and gp120 of HIV, in model HepG2 cells. Upon co-stimulation with HCV-E2 and HIV-gp120, we observed a potent proinflammatory response with the induction of IL-8. Furthermore, our studies revealed that HCV-E2 and HIV-gp120 act collaboratively to trigger a specific set of downstream signaling pathways that include activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and the tyrosine phosphatase, SHP2. Both specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase and sodium vanadate, a potent protein-tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, blocked IL-8 production in a dose-dependent manner. The role of p38 MAP kinase and SHP2 was further defined by transiently overexpressing dominant negative mutants of these proteins into HepG2 cells. These studies revealed that overexpression of an inactive p38 MAP kinase or SHP2 mutant partially abrogated HCV-E2- and HIV-gp120-induced IL-8 production. Further studies revealed that IL-8 induction was not mediated through activation of the NF-kappa B pathway. However, HCV-E2 plus HIV-gp120 was shown to increase the DNA binding activity of AP-1. These results emphasize that expression of the proinflammatory chemokine IL-8, induced by HCV-E2 and HIV-gp120, may be mediated through p38 MAP kinase and SHP2 in an NF-kappa B-independent manner, albeit through AP-1-driven processes.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI49140; NIDA NIH HHS: DA15008

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;37;35755-66

  • Correlation between PTPN11 gene mutations and congenital heart defects in Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes.

    Sarkozy A, Conti E, Seripa D, Digilio MC, Grifone N, Tandoi C, Fazio VM, Di Ciommo V, Marino B, Pizzuti A and Dallapiccola B

    Journal of medical genetics 2003;40;9;704-8

  • SHIP-2 forms a tetrameric complex with filamin, actin, and GPIb-IX-V: localization of SHIP-2 to the activated platelet actin cytoskeleton.

    Dyson JM, Munday AD, Kong AM, Huysmans RD, Matzaris M, Layton MJ, Nandurkar HH, Berndt MC and Mitchell CA

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800, Australia.

    The platelet receptor for the von Willebrand factor (VWF) glycoprotein Ib-IX-V (GPIb-IX-V) complex mediates platelet adhesion at sites of vascular injury. The cytoplasmic tail of the GPIbalpha subunit interacts with the actin-binding protein, filamin, anchoring the receptor in the cytoskeleton. In motile cells, the second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) induces submembraneous actin remodeling. The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase-2 (SHIP-2), hydrolyzes PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 forming phosphatidylinositol 3,4 bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and regulates membrane ruffling via complex formation with filamin. In this study we investigate the intracellular location and association of SHIP-2 with filamin, actin, and the GPIb-IX-V complex in platelets. Immunoprecipitation of SHIP-2 from the Triton-soluble fraction of unstimulated platelets demonstrated association between SHIP-2, filamin, actin, and GPIb-IX-V. SHIP-2 associated with filamin or GPIb-IX-V was active and demonstrated PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase activity. Following thrombin or VWF-induced platelet activation, detection of the SHIP-2, filamin, and receptor complex decreased in the Triton-soluble fraction, although in control studies the level of SHIP-2, filamin, or GPIb-IX-V immunoprecipitated by their respective antibodies did not change following platelet activation. In activated platelets spreading on a VWF matrix, SHIP-2 localized intensely with actin at the central actin ring and colocalized with actin and filamin at filopodia and lamellipodia. In spread platelets, GPIb-IX-V localized to the center of the platelet and showed little colocalization with filamin at the plasma membrane. These studies demonstrate a functionally active complex between SHIP-2, filamin, actin, and GPIb-IX-V that may orchestrate the localized hydrolysis of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and thereby regulate cortical and submembraneous actin.

    Blood 2003;102;3;940-8

  • BTLA is a lymphocyte inhibitory receptor with similarities to CTLA-4 and PD-1.

    Watanabe N, Gavrieli M, Sedy JR, Yang J, Fallarino F, Loftin SK, Hurchla MA, Zimmerman N, Sim J, Zang X, Murphy TL, Russell JH, Allison JP and Murphy KM

    Department of Pathology & Immunology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, Box 8118, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    During activation, T cells express receptors for receiving positive and negative costimulatory signals. Here we identify the B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA), an immunoglobulin domain-containing glycoprotein with two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs. BTLA is not expressed by naive T cells, but it is induced during activation and remains expressed on T helper type 1 (T(H)1) but not T(H)2 cells. Crosslinking BTLA with antigen receptors induces its tyrosine phosphorylation and association with the Src homology domain 2 (SH2)-containing protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2, and attenuates production of interleukin 2 (IL-2). BTLA-deficient T cells show increased proliferation, and BTLA-deficient mice have increased specific antibody responses and enhanced sensitivity to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. B7x, a peripheral homolog of B7, is a ligand of BTLA. Thus, BTLA is a third inhibitory receptor on T lymphocytes with similarities to cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1).

    Nature immunology 2003;4;7;670-9

  • Noonan syndrome with leukaemoid reaction and overproduction of catecholamines: a case report.

    Kondoh T, Ishii E, Aoki Y, Shimizu T, Zaitsu M, Matsubara Y and Moriuchi H

    Department of Paediatrics, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, 852-8501, Nagasaki, Japan. kontatsu@net.nagasaki-u.ac.jp.

    European journal of pediatrics 2003;162;7-8;548-549

  • A novel PTPN11 mutation in LEOPARD syndrome.

    Conti E, Dottorini T, Sarkozy A, Tiller GE, Esposito G, Pizzuti A and Dallapiccola B

    Ospedale CSS, IRCCS, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.

    PTPN11 gene mutations are common to both patients with Noonan (NS) and LEOPARD syndrome (LS). So far only two recurrent mutations have been identified in LS patients by different research groups, i.e., Tyr279Cys and Thr468Met. In this work we describe the third PTPN11 mutation that has been found in a single LS patient. The mutation (c.1517A>C) substitutes a proline for a glutamine at amino acid 506 (Gln506Pro) in the phosphatase domain (PTP) of the PTPN11 peptide SHP2. This region is a mutation hotspot. Changes at amino acids 501 to 504 cause NS. Gln506Pro is predicted, by modeling analysis, to seriously disrupt the normal contacts between the regulating N-SH2 and the active PTP domains, leading to hyperactivity of the phosphatase. This report demonstrates that rarer mutations other than Tyr279Cys and Thr468Met can be found in LS patients and the need of screening the whole gene in those negative for the commonest mutations.

    Human mutation 2003;21;6;654

  • Insulin receptor substrate-4 signaling in quiescent rat hepatocytes and in regenerating rat liver.

    Escribano O, Fernández-Moreno MD, Zueco JA, Menor C, Fueyo J, Ropero RM, Diaz-Laviada I, Román ID and Guijarro LG

    Unidad de Toxicología Molecular Hepática, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Spain.

    This study was designed to characterize insulin receptor substrate-4 (IRS-4) in isolated rat hepatocytes and to examine its role in liver regeneration. Subcellular fractionation revealed that 85% of IRS-4 is located at isolated hepatocyte plasma membranes. The distribution of IRS-4 among intracellular compartments remained unchanged in insulin-stimulated cells. Two bands corresponding to 145 and 138 kd were observed in immunoblotting experiments. Immunoprecipitation of hepatocyte lysates with a highly specific antibody against IRS-4 led to an insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)-dependent increase in phosphotyrosine residues of the 145-kd band. IRS-4 was found to be associated with Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing proteins (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI 3-kinase] and Src homology phosphatase [SHP-2]) and with protein kinase C zeta (PKC zeta). Insulin and IGF-1 elicited a rapid and dose-dependent binding of these 3 proteins to IRS-4. These data suggest that IRS-4 is insulin-/IGF-1-activated by phosphorylation and not by translocation, inducing the recruitment of SH2 domain-containing proteins and PKC zeta to the membrane. To evaluate the possible role of IRS-4 in liver regeneration, we also examined this system after partial hepatectomy (PH). One day after PH, IRS-1 expression increased, consistent with a stimulatory role in the regenerative process, whereas it decreased 7 days after liver resection. This drastic IRS-1 depletion occurred at the expense of increased IRS-2 and IRS-4 expression 7 days after PH. In addition, at this period of time after surgery, the in vivo insulin stimulation of remnant rat livers showed an increase in IRS-4/PI 3-kinase association. Given that 1 and 7 days after PH isolated hepatocytes responded similarly to insulin in terms of induced cell proliferation, a compensatory role is proposed for IRS-2/4 induction. In conclusion, IRS-4 is activated by insulin and IGF-1-like IRS-1 in rat hepatocytes, and the induced expression of IRS-4 is a compensatory mechanism that plays a role in conditions of liver regeneration.

    Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 2003;37;6;1461-9

  • Somatic mutations in PTPN11 in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia.

    Tartaglia M, Niemeyer CM, Fragale A, Song X, Buechner J, Jung A, Hählen K, Hasle H, Licht JD and Gelb BD

    Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

    We report here that individuals with Noonan syndrome and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) have germline mutations in PTPN11 and that somatic mutations in PTPN11 account for 34% of non-syndromic JMML. Furthermore, we found mutations in PTPN11 in a small percentage of individuals with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Functional analyses documented that the two most common mutations in PTPN11 associated with JMML caused a gain of function.

    Nature genetics 2003;34;2;148-50

  • Src homology region 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) can play a direct role in the inhibitory function of killer cell Ig-like receptors in human NK cells.

    Yusa S and Campbell KS

    Division of Basic Science, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Institute for Cancer Research, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA.

    The inhibitory forms of killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIR) are MHC class I-binding receptors that are expressed by human NK cells and prevent their attack of normal cells. Substantial evidence indicates that the mechanism of KIR-mediated inhibition involves recruitment of the protein tyrosine phosphatase, Src homology region 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1, to phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). However, the functional significance of parallel recruitment of a SHP-1-related phosphatase, SHP-2, to KIR ITIMs has not been addressed. In the present study, our results with mutant forms of a classical KIR, KIR3DL1, show a direct correlation between SHP-2 recruitment and functional inhibition of target cell conjugation and cytotoxicity. In addition, KIR3DL1 inhibition of target cell cytotoxicity is blocked by overexpression of a dominant-negative form of SHP-2. Finally, KIR3DL1 fused directly with the catalytic domain of SHP-2 inhibits both target cell conjugation and cytotoxicity responses. These results strongly indicate that SHP-2 catalytic activity plays a direct role in inhibitory KIR functions, and SHP-2 inhibits NK cell activation in concert with SHP-1.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA06927, CA83859

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2003;170;9;4539-47

  • Exclusion of PTPN11 mutations in Costello syndrome: further evidence for distinct genetic etiologies for Noonan, cardio-facio-cutaneous and Costello syndromes.

    Tartaglia M, Cotter PD, Zampino G, Gelb BD and Rauen KA

    Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a rare, multiple congenital anomaly syndrome with characteristic dysmorphic features, cardiac anomalies and a tendency to develop certain cancers. Phenotypically there is some overlap with other genetic disorders, notably cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome and Noonan syndrome (NS), suggesting that these syndromes may be allelic. We recently identified PTPN11, which encodes the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-2, as a major NS disease gene. In this report, we screened a cohort of 27 patients, with the clinical diagnosis of CS, for PTPN11 mutations using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography analysis. No mutations of the PTPN11 gene were found in the CS patients. Common polymorphisms in introns 6 and 7 and exon 8 were identified in four individuals. With our previous exclusion of PTPN11 mutations in CFC syndrome, these data suggest distinct genetic etiologies for Noonan, CFC and Costello syndromes.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL71207

    Clinical genetics 2003;63;5;423-6

  • Development of an efficient "substrate-trapping" mutant of Src homology phosphotyrosine phosphatase 2 and identification of the epidermal growth factor receptor, Gab1, and three other proteins as target substrates.

    Agazie YM and Hayman MJ

    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 11794-5222, USA.

    Src homology containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) is a positive effector of growth factor, cytokine, and integrin signaling. However, neither its physiological substrate nor its mechanism of action in tyrosine kinase signaling has been demonstrated. We reasoned that the identification of physiological substrates of SHP2 would be a stepping stone in elucidating its mechanism of action, and, thus, we constructed a potent trapping mutant of SHP2. Surprisingly, the frequently used Asp to Ala substitution did not give rise to a trapping mutant. However, we were able to develop an efficient trapping mutant of SHP2 by introducing Asp to Ala and Cys to Ser double mutations. The double mutant (DM) protein identified the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the Grb2 binder 1, and three other, as yet unidentified, phosphotyrosyl proteins as candidate physiological substrates. Given that substrate trapping occurred in intact cells and that the interaction was very specific, it is highly likely that EGFR and Gab1 represent physiological SHP2 substrates. Therefore, the DM protein would serve as an important tool in future SHP2 studies, including identification of p190, p150, and p90.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA28146, CA42573

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;16;13952-8

  • Stimulation of the alpha1A adrenergic receptor inhibits PDGF-induced PDGF beta receptor Tyr751 phosphorylation and PI 3-kinase activation.

    Lin HY, Ballou LM and Lin RZ

    Institute of Genetics, Roemerstr 164, University of Bonn, 53117 Bonn, Germany.

    Several reports indicate that some G(alphaq)-coupled receptors antagonize the activation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase by receptor tyrosine kinases. We used Rat-1 fibroblasts expressing the alpha(1A) adrenergic receptor to study how this G(alphaq)-coupled receptor inhibits platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) activation of PI 3-kinase. Phenylephrine (PE) stimulation of the alpha(1A) adrenergic receptor inhibited PDGF-induced binding of PI 3-kinase to the PDGF receptor (PDGFR) and phosphorylation of the PDGFR at Tyr751, which forms a docking site for PI 3-kinase. By contrast, activation of phospholipase C gamma by PDGF and phosphorylation of the PDGFR at Tyr716 and Tyr771 were not inhibited by PE. The protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, which dephosphorylates Tyr751 on the PDGFR, was more active in cells treated with PDGF plus PE than in cells treated with either agent alone. PDGF-induced PI 3-kinase signaling was also inhibited by treatment of cells with Pasteurella multocida toxin to activate G(alphaq). These results suggest that the alpha(1A) adrenergic receptor, and perhaps other G(alphaq)-coupled receptors, uses tyrosine dephosphorylation to block PI 3-kinase activation by PDGF.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK62722

    FEBS letters 2003;540;1-3;106-10

  • The adaptor function of SHP-2 downstream of the prolactin receptor is required for the recruitment of p29, a substrate of SHP-2.

    Minoo P, Chughtai N, Campiglio M, Stein-Gerlach M, Lebrun JJ, Ullrich A and Ali S

    Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Molecular Oncology Group, H5-81, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University, 687 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 1A1.

    SHP-2, a cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase with two SH2 domains and multiple tyrosine phosphorylation sites, contributes to signal transduction as an enzyme and/or adaptor molecule. Here we demonstrate that prolactin (PRL) stimulation of the PRL-responsive Nb2 cells, a rat lymphoma cell line, and T47D cells, a human breast cancer cell line, lead to the complex formation of SHP-2 and growth factor receptor-bound protein-2 (grb2). Using transient co-overexpression studies of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) and several tyrosine to phenylalanine mutants of SHP-2, we show that grb2 associates with SHP-2 through the C-terminal tyrosine residues of SHP-2, Y(546) and Y(584). Furthermore, in this study, we found a highly phosphorylated, 29-kDa protein (p29), a substrate of SHP-2. The recruitment of p29 to SHP-2 requires the carboxy-terminal tyrosine residues of SHP-2 (Y(546) and Y(584)). Together, our results indicate that SHP-2 may function as an adaptor molecule downstream of the PRLR and highlight a new recruitment mechanism of SHP-2 substrates.

    Cellular signalling 2003;15;3;319-26

  • Spectrum of mutations in PTPN11 and genotype-phenotype correlation in 96 patients with Noonan syndrome and five patients with cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome.

    Musante L, Kehl HG, Majewski F, Meinecke P, Schweiger S, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Wieczorek D, Hinkel GK, Tinschert S, Hoeltzenbein M, Ropers HH and Kalscheuer VM

    Max-Planck-Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany.

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a relatively common, but genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant malformation syndrome. Characteristic features are proportionate short stature, dysmorphic face, and congenital heart defects. Only recently, a gene involved in NS could be identified. It encodes the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, which is an important molecule in several intracellular signal transduction pathways that control diverse developmental processes, most importantly cardiac semilunar valvulogenesis. We have screened this gene for mutations in 96 familial and sporadic, well-characterised NS patients and identified 15 different missense mutations in a total of 32 patients (33%), including 23 index patients. Most changes clustered in one exon which encodes parts of the N-SH2 domain. Five of the mutations were recurrent. Interestingly, no mutations in the PTPN11 gene were detected in five additional patients with cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome, which shows clinical similarities to NS.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2003;11;2;201-6

  • Profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation pathways in human cells using mass spectrometry.

    Salomon AR, Ficarro SB, Brill LM, Brinker A, Phung QT, Ericson C, Sauer K, Brock A, Horn DM, Schultz PG and Peters EC

    Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, 10675 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

    The reversible phosphorylation of tyrosine residues is an important mechanism for modulating biological processes such as cellular signaling, differentiation, and growth, and if deregulated, can result in various types of cancer. Therefore, an understanding of these dynamic cellular processes at the molecular level requires the ability to assess changes in the sites of tyrosine phosphorylation across numerous proteins simultaneously as well as over time. Here we describe a sensitive approach based on multidimensional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry that enables the rapid identification of numerous sites of tyrosine phosphorylation on a number of different proteins from human whole cell lysates. We used this methodology to follow changes in tyrosine phosphorylation patterns that occur over time during either the activation of human T cells or the inhibition of the oncogenic BCR-ABL fusion product in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells in response to treatment with STI571 (Gleevec). Together, these experiments rapidly identified 64 unique sites of tyrosine phosphorylation on 32 different proteins. Half of these sites have been documented in the literature, validating the merits of our approach, whereas motif analysis suggests that a number of the undocumented sites are also potentially involved in biological pathways. This methodology should enable the rapid generation of new insights into signaling pathways as they occur in states of health and disease.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;2;443-8

  • The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori is translocated into epithelial cells and binds to SHP-2 in human gastric mucosa.

    Yamazaki S, Yamakawa A, Ito Y, Ohtani M, Higashi H, Hatakeyama M and Azuma T

    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Fukui Medical University, Japan.

    Recent experiments have indicated that CagA of Helicobacter pylori is injected into epithelial cells via the type IV secretion system and undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation in cells and that translocated CagA binds the SRC homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-2). We investigated these phenomena in in vivo human gastric mucosa. Tyrosine-phosphorylated CagA and CagA-coimmunoprecipitated SHP-2 were detected in gastric mucosa from H. pylori-positive patients with atrophic gastritis and in noncancerous tissues from H. pylori-positive patients with early gastric cancer. In contrast, CagA was not detected in gastric mucosa with either intestinal metaplasia or cancer. Our results provide the first evidence that CagA is translocated into the gastric epithelial cells, receives tyrosine phosphorylation, and binds SHP-2 in in vivo human gastric mucosa. Deregulation of SHP-2 by CagA may play a role in the acquisition of a cellular-transformed phenotype at a relatively early stage of multistep gastric carcinogenesis.

    The Journal of infectious diseases 2003;187;2;334-7

  • SHP2 and SOCS3 contribute to Tyr-759-dependent attenuation of interleukin-6 signaling through gp130.

    Lehmann U, Schmitz J, Weissenbach M, Sobota RM, Hortner M, Friederichs K, Behrmann I, Tsiaris W, Sasaki A, Schneider-Mergener J, Yoshimura A, Neel BG, Heinrich PC and Schaper F

    Department of Biochemistry, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, Aachen D-52074, Germany.

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activates the Jak/STAT pathway as well as the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Tyrosine 759 of the IL-6 signal-transducing receptor subunit gp130 has been identified as being involved in negative regulation of IL-6-induced gene induction and activation of the Jak/STAT pathway. Because this site is known to be a recruitment motif for the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, it has been suggested that SHP2 is the mediator of tyrosine 759-dependent signal attenuation. We recently observed that the suppressor of cytokine-signaling SOCS3 also acts through the tyrosine motif 759 of gp130. However, the relative contributions of SHP2 and SOCS3 to the repression of IL-6 signaling are not understood. Therefore, we designed experiments allowing the independent recruitment of each of these proteins to the IL-6-receptor complex. We show that receptor- and membrane-targeted SHP2 counteracts IL-6 signaling independent of SOCS3 binding to gp130. On the other hand, SOCS3 inhibits signaling in cells expressing a truncated SHP2 protein, which is not recruited to gp130. These data suggest, that there are two, largely distinct modes of negative regulation of gp130 activity, despite the fact that both SOCS3 and SHP2 are recruited to the same site within gp130.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;1;661-71

  • PTPN11 mutation in a large family with Noonan syndrome and dizygous twinning.

    Schollen E, Matthijs G, Gewillig M, Fryns JP and Legius E

    Department of Human Genetics, University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium.

    Noonan syndrome (NS, MIM 163950) is an autosomal dominant condition characterised by facial dysmorphy, congenital cardiac defects and short stature. Recently missense mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding the nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 on 12q24, were identified in 50% of analysed Noonan cases. A large four-generation Belgian family with NS and some features suggestive of cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC) was previously used to fine map the Noonan syndrome candidate region to a 5 cM region in 12q24. We now report the identification of a mutation (Gln79Arg) in the PTPN11 gene in this large family. In D. melanogaster and C. elegans the PTPN11 gene has been implicated in oogenesis. In this family two affected females had dizygous twins. This suggests that PTPN11 might also be involved in oogenesis and twinning in humans.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2003;11;1;85-8

  • PTPN11 mutations are not responsible for the Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome.

    Kavamura MI, Pomponi MG, Zollino M, Lecce R, Murdolo M, Brunoni D, Alchorne MM, Opitz JM and Neri G

    Istituto di Genetica Medica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. kavamura@uol.com.br

    Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome characterized by congenital heart defects, characteristic facial appearance, short stature, ectodermal abnormalities and mental retardation. It was described in 1986, and to date is of unknown genetic etiology. All reported cases are sporadic, born to non-consanguineous parents and have apparently normal chromosomes. Noonan and Costello syndromes remain its main differential diagnosis. The recent finding of PTPN11 missense mutations in 45-50% of the Noonan patients studied with penetrance of almost 100% and the fact that in animals mutations of this gene cause defects of semilunar valvulogenesis, made PTPN11 mutation screening in CFC patients a matter of interest. We sequenced the entire coding region of the PTPN11 gene in ten well-characterised CFC patients and found no base changes. We also studied PTPN11 cDNA in our patients and demonstrated that there are no interstitial deletions either. The genetic cause of CFC syndrome remains unknown, and PTPN11 can be reasonably excluded as a candidate gene for the CFC syndrome, which we regard as molecular evidence that CFC and Noonan syndromes are distinct genetic entities.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2003;11;1;64-8

  • SHP-2 is a dual-specificity phosphatase involved in Stat1 dephosphorylation at both tyrosine and serine residues in nuclei.

    Wu TR, Hong YK, Wang XD, Ling MY, Dragoi AM, Chung AS, Campbell AG, Han ZY, Feng GS and Chin YE

    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA.

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are both tyrosine- and serine-phosphorylated, mediating signal transduction and gene regulation. Following gene regulation, STAT activity in the nucleus is then terminated by a nuclear protein phosphatase(s), which remains unidentified. Using novel antibody arrays to screen the Stat1-specific protein phosphatase(s), we identified a SHP-2-Stat1 interaction in the A431 cell nucleus. SHP-2 and Stat1 nuclear localization and their association in response to either epidermal growth factor or interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) were confirmed by immunofluorescent staining and affinity precipitation assays. The SHP-2 C-terminal region containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity interacted with the C-terminal SH2 transcriptional activation domain of Stat1. In SHP-2-/- mouse fibroblast cells, Stat1 phosphorylation at both the tyrosine residue Tyr(701) and the serine residue Ser(727) by IFNgamma was enhanced and prolonged. Consistently, purified GST-SHP-2 dephosphorylated Stat1 at both tyrosine and serine residues when immunoprecipitated phospho-Stat1 or a peptide corresponding to the sequence surrounding Tyr(P)(701) or Ser(P)(727) of Stat1 was used as the substrate. Overexpression of SHP-2 in 293T cells inhibited IFNgamma-dependent Stat1 phosphorylation and suppressed Stat1-dependent induction of luciferase activity. Our findings demonstrate that SHP-2 is a dual-specificity protein phosphatase involved in Stat1 dephosphorylation at both tyrosine and serine residues and plays an important role in modulating STAT function in gene regulation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA82549

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;49;47572-80

  • SHP2 regulates IL-2 induced MAPK activation, but not Stat3 or Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation, in cutaneous T cell lymphoma cells.

    Lundin Brockdorff J, Woetmann A, Mustelin T, Kaltoft K, Zhang Q, Wasik MA, Röpke C and Ødum N

    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3c, 2200 Copenhagen-N, Denmark.

    The phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP2 has been suggested to regulate activation of MAPK, Stat3, and Stat5 in several experimental models. In this study we investigated the role of SHP2 in IL-2 induced activation of MAPK and the Stat proteins using the human CTCL cell line MyLa2059 derived from a cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). For this purpose, MyLa2059 cells were stably transfected with wild-type SHP2 or inactive SHP2. The cells transfected with inactive SHP2 showed reduced MAPK activation upon IL-2 stimulation, suggesting that SHP2 upregulates IL-2 induced MAPK activation in T cells. However, the constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 as well as IL-2 induced Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation and DNA binding were unaffected by the stably transfected wild-type SHP2 as well as the inactive SHP2. In conclusion, we show for the first time that SHP2 positively regulates IL-2 induced MAPK activation in malignant T cells. Furthermore, the results indicate that SHP2 may not be involved in the activation of Stat3 or Stat5 in CTCL cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 89194

    Cytokine 2002;20;4;141-7

  • The alphaVbeta3 integrin regulates insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor phosphorylation by altering the rate of recruitment of the Src-homology 2-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase-2 to the activated IGF-I receptor.

    Maile LA and Clemmons DR

    University of North Carolina Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7170, USA.

    The alphaVbeta3 integrin is an important determinant of IGF-I-stimulated receptor phosphorylation and biological actions. Blocking ligand occupancy of alphaVbeta3 with the distintegrin echistatin reduces IGF-I-stimulated receptor phosphorylation, and it inhibits cellular migration and DNA synthesis responses to IGF-I. We have shown that recruitment of the tyrosine phosphatase Src-homology 2-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) to the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) is an important determinant of the duration of IGF-IR phosphorylation. These studies were undertaken to determine whether an alteration in the recruitment of SHP-2 to the receptor in the presence of echistatin could account for the decrease in receptor phosphorylation. Following an overnight exposure of smooth muscle cell cultures to echistatin, the addition of IGF-I was accompanied by rapid dephosphorylation of IGF-IR compared with cells exposed to media alone. This was associated with an increase in the rate of SHP-2 recruitment to the IGF-IR. In cells expressing a catalytically inactive form of SHP-2, prior exposure to echistatin had no effect on the rate of receptor dephosphorylation. In contrast to the usual physiologic situation in which following IGF-I exposure SHP-2 is recruited to IGF-IR via SHP-2 substrate-1 (SHPS-1) in the presence of echistatin, SHPS-1 was not used for SHP-2 recruitment. Our findings show that IRS-1 may substitute for SHPS-1 under these conditions. These results demonstrate that the activation state of alphaVbeta3 is an important regulator of the duration of IGF-IR phosphorylation and subsequent downstream signaling and that this regulation is mediated through changes in the subcellular localization of SHP-2.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG-02331

    Endocrinology 2002;143;11;4259-64

  • A novel protein-protein interaction between a G protein-coupled receptor and the phosphatase SHP-2 is involved in bradykinin-induced inhibition of cell proliferation.

    Duchene J, Schanstra JP, Pecher C, Pizard A, Susini C, Esteve JP, Bascands JL and Girolami JP

    INSERM U388, Institut Louis Bugnard, Institute Fédératif de Recherche 31, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Rangueil, 1 Avenue J. Poulhes, 31403 Toulouse Cedex, France.

    Mitogenic G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling has been extensively studied. In contrast, little is known about anti-mitogenic GPCR signaling. We show here that anti-mitogenic signaling of a GPCR, the bradykinin B2 receptor, involves a novel direct protein-protein interaction. The antiproliferative effect of bradykinin was accompanied by a transient increase in protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity. Using surface plasmon resonance analysis, we observed that an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) located in the C-terminal part of the B2 receptor interacted specifically with the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. The interaction was confirmed in primary culture renal mesangial cells by co-immunoprecipitation of a B2 receptor.SHP-2 complex. The extent of the interaction was transiently increased by stimulation with bradykinin, which was accompanied by an increase in specific SHP-2 phosphatase activity. Mutational analysis of the key ITIM residue confirmed that the B2 receptor ITIM sequence is required for interaction with SHP-2, SHP-2 activation, and the anti-mitogenic effect of bradykinin. Finally, in mesangial cells transfected with a dominant-negative form of SHP-2, bradykinin lost the ability to inhibit cell proliferation. These observations demonstrate that bradykinin inhibits cell proliferation by a novel mechanism involving a direct protein-protein interaction between a GPCR (the B2 receptor) and SHP-2.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;43;40375-83

  • Gab1 and SHP-2 promote Ras/MAPK regulation of epidermal growth and differentiation.

    Cai T, Nishida K, Hirano T and Khavari PA

    Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Healthcare System and the Program in Epithelial Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

    In epidermis, Ras can influence proliferation and differentiation; however, regulators of epidermal Ras function are not fully characterized, and Ras effects on growth and differentiation are controversial. EGF induced Ras activation in epidermal cells along with phosphorylation of the multisubstrate docking protein Gab1 and its binding to SHP-2. Expression of mutant Gab1Y627F deficient in SHP-2 binding or dominant-negative SHP-2C459S reduced basal levels of active Ras and downstream MAPK proteins and initiated differentiation. Differentiation triggered by both Gab1Y627F and SHP-2C459S could be blocked by coexpression of active Ras, consistent with Gab1 and SHP-2 action upstream of Ras in this process. To study the role of Gab1 and SHP-2 in tissue, we generated human epidermis overexpressing active Gab1 and SHP-2. Both proteins stimulated proliferation. In contrast, Gab1Y627F and SHP-2C459S inhibited epidermal proliferation and enhanced differentiation. Consistent with a role for Gab1 and SHP-2 in sustaining epidermal Ras/MAPK activity, Gab1-/- murine epidermis displayed lower levels of active Ras and MAPK with postnatal Gab1-/- epidermis, demonstrating the hypoplasia and enhanced differentiation seen previously with transgenic epidermal Ras blockade. These data provide support for a Ras role in promoting epidermal proliferation and opposing differentiation and indicate that Gab1 and SHP-2 promote the undifferentiated epidermal cell state by facilitating Ras/MAPK signaling.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR43799, AR44012, AR45192, P01 AR044012, R01 AR043799, R01 AR045192

    The Journal of cell biology 2002;159;1;103-12

  • The SPOT technique as a tool for studying protein tyrosine phosphatase substrate specificities.

    Espanel X, Huguenin-Reggiani M and Hooft van Huijsduijnen R

    Serono Pharmaceutical Research Institute, 14, chemin des Aulx, 1228 Plan-Les-Ouates, Geneva, Switzerland.

    The activity of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) is restricted by their substrate specificities. The analysis of PTP specificity was greatly helped by the discovery that "substrate-trapping" PTP mutants, such as PTP-1B D181A, stably and specifically bind their substrates. We have set up a PTP substrate specificity assay based on the SPOT technique, which involves the microsynthesis of (phospho)peptides on membranes. To validate this approach, substrate trapping PTP-1B was tested on its cognate ligand, the autophosphorylated insulin receptor (IR). On SPOT membranes, IR peptides with phosphotyrosine 1163 were efficiently bound by PTP1B D181A, and dephosphorylated by PTP-1B. Phosphotyrosine 1163 was preferred over the neighboring 1158 and 1162 phosphotyrosines. PTP-1B also recognized IR-like motifs in Trk autophosphorylation domains, and STAT 5 phosphopeptides. Using a gridded 20-by-20 SPOT library, we show that peptides with the YZM motif (Z: phosphotyrosine) are the strongest ligands for PTP-1B D181A, but not the optimal substrates for dephosphorylation by wild-type PTP1B. In addition we show that PTP-1B and PTP-beta dephosphorylation efficiency is strongly modulated by the introduction of phospho-serine or phospho-threonine in their cognate phospho-tyrosine substrates. Altogether our data illustrate that the SPOT technique is a highly efficient tool for the study of PTP substrate specificity.

    Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society 2002;11;10;2326-34

  • Absence of PTPN11 mutations in 28 cases of cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome.

    Ion A, Tartaglia M, Song X, Kalidas K, van der Burgt I, Shaw AC, Ming JE, Zampino G, Zackai EH, Dean JC, Somer M, Parenti G, Crosby AH, Patton MA, Gelb BD and Jeffery S

    Department of Medical Genetics, St. George's Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17ORE, UK.

    CFC (cardiofaciocutaneous) syndrome (MIM 115150) has been considered by several authors to be a more severe expression of Noonan syndrome. Affected patients present with congenital heart defects, cutaneous abnormalities, Noonan-like facial features and severe psychomotor developmental delay. We have recently demonstrated that Noonan syndrome can be caused by missense mutations in PTPN11(MIM 176876), a gene that encodes the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. In this report, we have evaluated the possible involvement of mutations in PTPN11 in CFC syndrome. A cohort of 28 CFC subjects rigorously assessed as having CFC based on OMIM diagnostic criteria was examined for mutations in the PTPN11 coding sequence by using DHPLC analysis. The results showed no abnormalities in the coding region of the PTPN11 gene in any CFC patient, nor any evidence of major deletions within the gene suggesting that mutations in other gene(s) are responsible for this syndrome.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL71207; NICHD NIH HHS: 5 P30 HD 28822, K08HD01218, K24HD01294

    Human genetics 2002;111;4-5;421-7

  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulates glycosylphosphatidylinositol hydrolysis through PLC-gamma(2) activation in erythropoietin-stimulated cells.

    Boudot C, Kadri Z, Petitfrère E, Lambert E, Chrétien S, Mayeux P, Haye B and Billat C

    Laboratoire de Biochimie, CNRS, FRE 2534, IFR 53 Biomolécules, UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, BP 1039, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51687 Reims Cedex 2, France.

    Erythropoietin (Epo)-induced glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) hydrolysis was previously described to be correlated with phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLC-gamma2) activation. Here, we analyzed the involvement of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase in GPI hydrolysis through PLC-gamma2 tyrosine phosphorylation in response to Epo in FDC-P1 cells transfected with a wild type (WT) erythropoietin-receptor (Epo-R). We showed that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns 3-kinase) inhibitor LY294002 inhibits Epo-induced hydrolysis of endogenous GPI and Epo-induced PLC-gamma2 tyrosine phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Wortmannin, another PtdIns 3-kinase inhibitor, also suppressed Epo-induced PLC-gamma2 tyrosine phosphorylation. We also present evidence that PLC-gamma2 translocation to the membrane fraction on Epo stimulation is completely inhibited by LY294002. Upon Epo stimulation, the tyrosine-phosphorylated PLC-gamma2 was found to be associated with the tyrosine-phosphorylated Grb2-associated binder (GAB)2, SHC and SHP2 proteins. LY294002 cell preincubation did not affect GAB2, SHC and SHP2 tyrosine phosphorylation but inhibited the binding of PLC-gamma2 to GAB2 and SHP2. Taken together, these results show that PtdIns 3-kinase controls Epo-induced GPI hydrolysis through PLC-gamma2.

    Cellular signalling 2002;14;10;869-78

  • PTPN11 mutations in Noonan syndrome type I: detection of recurrent mutations in exons 3 and 13.

    Maheshwari M, Belmont J, Fernbach S, Ho T, Molinari L, Yakub I, Yu F, Combes A, Towbin J, Craigen WJ and Gibbs R

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

    We surveyed 16 subjects with the clinical diagnosis of Noonan Syndrome (NS1) from 12 families and their relevant family members for mutations in PTPN11/SHP2 using direct DNA sequencing. We found three different mutations among five families. Two unrelated subjects shared the same de novo missense substitution in exon 13 (S502T); an additional two unrelated families had a mutation in exon 3 (Y63C); and one subject had the amino acid substitution Y62D, also in exon 3. None of the three mutations were present in ethnically matched controls. In the mature protein model, the exon 3 mutants and the exon 13 mutant amino acids cluster at the interface between the N' SH2 domain and the phosphatase catalytic domain. Six of eight subjects with PTPN11/SHP2 mutations had pulmonary valve stenosis while no mutations were identified in those subjects (N = 4) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. An additional four subjects with possible Noonan syndrome were evaluated, but no mutations in PTPN11/SHP2 were identified. These results confirm that mutations in PTPN11/SHP2 underlie a common form of Noonan syndrome, and that the disease exhibits both allelic and locus heterogeneity. The observation of recurrent mutations supports the hypothesis that a special class of gain-of-function mutations in SHP2 give rise to Noonan syndrome.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: 5U5HG002051; NHLBI NIH HHS: P01 HL67155; NICHD NIH HHS: HD39056

    Human mutation 2002;20;4;298-304

  • Prolactin induces SHP-2 association with Stat5, nuclear translocation, and binding to the beta-casein gene promoter in mammary cells.

    Chughtai N, Schimchowitsch S, Lebrun JJ and Ali S

    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Molecular Oncology Group, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, 687 Pine Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A1, Canada.

    The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 contributes to prolactin receptor (PRLR) signal transduction to beta-casein gene promoter activation. We report for the first time that SHP-2 physically associates with the signal transducer and activator of transcription-5a (Stat5a), an important mediator of PRLR signaling to milk protein gene activation, in the mouse mammary HC11 and the human breast cancer T47D cells when stimulated with prolactin (PRL) and human growth hormone, respectively. In addition, overexpression studies indicate that the carboxyl-terminal SH2 domain of SHP-2 is required to maintain tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 and its interaction with SHP-2. Furthermore, we demonstrate by nuclear co-immunoprecipitation and indirect immunofluorescence studies that PRL stimulation of mammary cells leads to the nuclear translocation of SHP-2 as a complex with Stat5a. This process was found to involve the catalytic activity of the phosphatase. Finally, using the Stat5 GAS (gamma-activated sequence) element of the beta-casein gene promoter in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrate that PRL induces the SHP-2-Stat5a complex to bind to DNA. The presence of the phosphatase in the protein-bound DNA complex was verified by using polyclonal antisera to SHP-2. Our studies indicate a tight physical and functional interaction between SHP2 and Stat5 required for regulation and perpetuation of PRL-mediated signaling in mammary cells and suggest a potential role for SHP-2 in the nucleus.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;34;31107-14

  • Some protein tyrosine phosphatases target in part to lipid rafts and interact with caveolin-1.

    Caselli A, Mazzinghi B, Camici G, Manao G and Ramponi G

    Department of Biochemical Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Morgagni 50, 50134 Florence, Italy.

    A profile-based search of the SWISS-PROT database reveals that most protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) contain at least one caveolin-1-binding motif. To ascertain if the presence of caveolin-binding motif(s) in PTPs corresponds to their actual localization in caveolin-1-enriched membrane fractions, we performed subcellular fractionating experiments. We found that all tested PTPs (PTP1B, PTP1C, SHPTP2, PTEN, and LAR) are actually localized in caveolin-enriched membrane fractions, despite their distribution in other subcellular sites, too. More than 1/2 of LAR and about 1/4 of SHPTP2 and PTP-1C are localized in caveolin-enriched membrane fractions whereas, in these fractions, PTP-1B and PTEN are poorly concentrated. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments with antibodies specific for each tested PTP demonstrated that all five phosphatases form molecular complexes with caveolin-1 in vivo. Collectively, our findings propose that particular PTPs could perform some of their cellular actions or are regulated by recruitment into caveolin-enriched membrane fractions.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;296;3;692-7

  • Grouping of multiple-lentigines/LEOPARD and Noonan syndromes on the PTPN11 gene.

    Digilio MC, Conti E, Sarkozy A, Mingarelli R, Dottorini T, Marino B, Pizzuti A and Dallapiccola B

    Division of Medical Genetics, Bambino Gesù Hospital, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Rome, Italy.

    Multiple-lentigines (ML)/LEOPARD (multiple lentigines, electrocardiographic-conduction abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormal genitalia, retardation of growth, and sensorineural deafness) syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition--characterized by lentigines and café au lait spots, facial anomalies, cardiac defects--that shares several clinical features with Noonan syndrome (NS). We screened nine patients with ML/LEOPARD syndrome (including a mother-daughter pair) and two children with NS who had multiple café au lait spots, for mutations in the NS gene, PTPN11, and found, in 10 of 11 patients, one of two new missense mutations, in exon 7 or exon 12. Both mutations affect the PTPN11 phosphotyrosine phosphatase domain, which is involved in <30% of the NS PTPN11 mutations. The study demonstrates that ML/LEOPARD syndrome and NS are allelic disorders. The detected mutations suggest that distinct molecular and pathogenetic mechanisms cause the peculiar cutaneous manifestations of the ML/LEOPARD-syndrome subtype of NS.

    American journal of human genetics 2002;71;2;389-94

  • PTPN11 mutations in LEOPARD syndrome.

    Legius E, Schrander-Stumpel C, Schollen E, Pulles-Heintzberger C, Gewillig M and Fryns JP

    Centre for Human Genetics, University Hospitals, Leuven, Belgium. Eric.Legius@med.kuleuven.ac.be

    LEOPARD syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with multiple lentigines, congenital cardiac abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, and retardation of growth. Deafness and genital abnormalities are less frequently found. We report a father and daughter and a third, unrelated patient with LEOPARD syndrome. Recently, missense mutations in the PTPN11 gene located in 12q24 were found to cause Noonan syndrome. All three cases of LEOPARD syndrome reported here have a Y279C mutation in the PTPN11 gene. We hypothesise that some PTPN11 mutations are associated with the typical Noonan syndrome phenotype and that other mutations, such as the Y279C mutation reported here, are associated with both the Noonan syndrome phenotype and with skin pigmentation anomalies, such as multiple lentigines or café au lait spots.

    Journal of medical genetics 2002;39;8;571-4

  • PTPN11 (protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type 11) mutations in seven Japanese patients with Noonan syndrome.

    Kosaki K, Suzuki T, Muroya K, Hasegawa T, Sato S, Matsuo N, Kosaki R, Nagai T, Hasegawa Y and Ogata T

    Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

    Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder defined by short stature, delayed puberty, and characteristic dysmorphic features. Tartaglia et al. (Nature Genetics, 29:465-468) have recently shown that gain-of-function mutations in the gene PTPN11 (protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type 11) cause Noonan syndrome in roughly half of patients that they examined. To further explore the relevance of PTPN11 mutations to the pathogenesis of Noonan syndrome, we analyzed the PTPN11 gene in 21 Japanese patients. Mutation analysis of the 15 coding exons and their flanking introns by denaturing HPLC and direct sequencing revealed six different heterozygous missense mutations (Asp61Gly, Tyr63Cys, Ala72Ser, Thr73Ile, Phe285Ser, and Asn308Asp) in seven cases (six sporadic and one familial). The mutations clustered either in the N-Src homology 2 domain or in the protein-tyrosine phosphatase domain. The clinical features of the mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients were comparable. The results provide further support to the notion that PTPN11 mutations are responsible for the development of Noonan syndrome in a substantial fraction of patients and that relatively infrequent features of Noonan syndrome, such as sensory deafness and bleeding diathesis, can also result from mutations of PTPN11.

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2002;87;8;3529-33

  • Cloning and characterization of human Siglec-11. A recently evolved signaling molecule that can interact with SHP-1 and SHP-2 and is expressed by tissue macrophages, including brain microglia.

    Angata T, Kerr SC, Greaves DR, Varki NM, Crocker PR and Varki A

    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0687, USA.

    Siglecs are sialic acid-recognizing animal lectins of the immunoglobulin superfamily. We have cloned and characterized a novel human molecule, Siglec-11, that belongs to the subgroup of CD33/Siglec-3-related Siglecs. As with others in this subgroup, the cytosolic domain of Siglec-11 is phosphorylated at tyrosine residue(s) upon pervanadate treatment of cells and then recruits the protein-tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2. However, Siglec-11 has several novel features relative to the other CD33/Siglec-3-related Siglecs. First, it binds specifically to alpha2-8-linked sialic acids. Second, unlike other CD33/Siglec-3-related Siglecs, Siglec-11 was not found on peripheral blood leukocytes. Instead, we observed its expression on macrophages in various tissues, such as liver Kupffer cells. Third, it was also expressed on brain microglia, thus becoming the second Siglec to be found in the nervous system. Fourth, whereas the Siglec-11 gene is on human chromosome 19, it lies outside the previously described CD33/Siglec-3-related Siglec cluster on this chromosome. Fifth, analyses of genome data bases indicate that Siglec-11 has no mouse ortholog and that it is likely to be the last canonical human Siglec to be reported. Finally, although Siglec-11 shows marked sequence similarity to human Siglec-10 in its extracellular domain, the cytosolic tail appears only distantly related. Analysis of genomic regions surrounding the Siglec-11 gene suggests that it is actually a chimeric molecule that arose from relatively recent gene duplication and recombination events, involving the extracellular domain of a closely related ancestral Siglec gene (which subsequently became a pseudogene) and a transmembrane and cytosolic tail derived from another ancestral Siglec.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01 HL57345-05

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;27;24466-74

  • Band 3 is an anchor protein and a target for SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase in human erythrocytes.

    Bordin L, Brunati AM, Donella-Deana A, Baggio B, Toninello A and Clari G

    Dipartimento di Chimica Biologica, and Centro di Studio delle Biomembrane del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, University of Padova, Italy.

    Tyr phosphorylation of the multifunctional transmembrane protein band 3 has been implicated in several erythrocyte functions and disorders. We previously demonstrated that pervanadate treatment of human erythrocytes induces band-3 Tyr phosphorylation, which is catalyzed by the sequential action of tyrosine kinase Syk and tyrosine kinase(s) belonging to the Src family. In this study, we show that Tyr phosphorylation of band 3, elicited by pervanadate, N-ethylmaleimide, or diamide, greatly increases band-3 interaction with the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 in parallel with the translocation of SHP-2 to erythrocyte membranes. These events seem to be mediated by Src-like catalyzed phosphorylation of band 3 because both SHP-2 translocation to cellular membranes and its interaction with Tyr-phosphorylated protein are greatly counteracted by PP2, a specific inhibitor of Src kinases. Binding-competition experiments demonstrate that SHP-2 recruitment to band 3 occurs via its SH2 domain(s). In particular, our data support the view that SHP-2 docks specifically with P-Y359 of band 3. Experiments performed with intact erythrocytes in the presence of the SHP-2 inhibitor calpeptin suggest that, once recruited to Tyr-phosphorylated band 3, the tyrosine phosphatase dephosphorylates the protein. P-Y8, 21, and 904 are the residues affected by SHP-2, as judged by (32)P-peptide mapping of band 3 digested with trypsin. These results indicate that in treated erythrocytes, recruitment of cytosolic SHP-2 to band 3 is a prerequisite for the subsequent dephosphorylation of the transmembrane protein.

    Blood 2002;100;1;276-82

  • Protein kinase C-alpha and protein kinase C-epsilon are required for Grb2-associated binder-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in response to platelet-derived growth factor.

    Saito Y, Hojo Y, Tanimoto T, Abe J and Berk BC

    Center for Cardiovascular Research, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

    Grb2-associated binder-1 (Gab1) is an adapter protein related to the insulin receptor substrate family. It is a substrate for the insulin receptor as well as the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and other receptor-tyrosine kinases. To investigate the role of Gab1 in signaling pathways downstream of growth factor receptors, we stimulated rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) with EGF and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Gab1 was tyrosine-phosphorylated by EGF and PDGF within 1 min. AG1478 (an EGF receptor kinase-specific inhibitor) failed to block PDGF-induced Gab1 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that transactivated EGF receptor is not responsible for this signaling event. Because Gab1 associates with phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma), we studied the role of the PLCgamma pathway in Gab1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Gab1 tyrosine phosphorylation by PDGF was impaired in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing mutant PDGFbeta receptor (Y977F/Y989F: lacking the binding site for PLCgamma). Pretreatment of VSMC with (a specific PLCgamma inhibitor) inhibited Gab1 tyrosine phosphorylation as well, indicating the importance of the PLCgamma pathway. Gab1 was tyrosine-phosphorylated by phorbol ester to the same extent as PDGF stimulation. Studies using antisense protein kinase C (PKC) oligonucleotides and specific inhibitors showed that PKCalpha and PKCepsilon are required for Gab1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Binding of Gab1 to the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase was significantly decreased by PLCgamma and/or PKC inhibition, suggesting the importance of the PLCgamma/PKC-dependent Gab1 tyrosine phosphorylation for the interaction with other signaling molecules. Because PDGF-mediated ERK activation is enhanced in Chinese hamster ovary cells that overexpress Gab1, Gab1 serves as an important link between PKC and ERK activation by PDGFbeta receptors in VSMC.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL49192, HL63462

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;26;23216-22

  • PTPN11 mutations in Noonan syndrome: molecular spectrum, genotype-phenotype correlation, and phenotypic heterogeneity.

    Tartaglia M, Kalidas K, Shaw A, Song X, Musat DL, van der Burgt I, Brunner HG, Bertola DR, Crosby A, Ion A, Kucherlapati RS, Jeffery S, Patton MA and Gelb BD

    Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA.

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a developmental disorder characterized by facial dysmorphia, short stature, cardiac defects, and skeletal malformations. We recently demonstrated that mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding the non-receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 (src homology region 2-domain phosphatase-2), cause NS, accounting for approximately 50% of cases of this genetically heterogeneous disorder in a small cohort. All mutations were missense changes and clustered at the interacting portions of the amino-terminal src-homology 2 (N-SH2) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) domains. A gain of function was postulated as a mechanism for the disease. Here, we report the spectrum and distribution of PTPN11 mutations in a large, well-characterized cohort with NS. Mutations were found in 54 of 119 (45%) unrelated individuals with sporadic or familial NS. There was a significantly higher prevalence of mutations among familial cases than among sporadic ones. All defects were missense, and several were recurrent. The vast majority of mutations altered amino acid residues located in or around the interacting surfaces of the N-SH2 and PTP domains, but defects also affected residues in the C-SH2 domain, as well as in the peptide linking the N-SH2 and C-SH2 domains. Genotype-phenotype analysis revealed that pulmonic stenosis was more prevalent among the group of subjects with NS who had PTPN11 mutations than it was in the group without them (70.6% vs. 46.2%; P<.01), whereas hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was less prevalent among those with PTPN11 mutations (5.9% vs. 26.2%; P<.005). The prevalence of other congenital heart malformations, short stature, pectus deformity, cryptorchidism, and developmental delay did not differ between the two groups. A PTPN11 mutation was identified in a family inheriting Noonan-like/multiple giant-cell lesion syndrome, extending the phenotypic range of disease associated with this gene.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: 5K24 HD 001294, 5P30 HD 28822, K24 HD001294

    American journal of human genetics 2002;70;6;1555-63

  • SPAP2, an Ig family receptor containing both ITIMs and ITAMs.

    Xu MJ, Zhao R, Cao H and Zhao ZJ

    Hematology/Oncology Division, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232-6305, USA.

    This study reports cloning and characterization of SPAP2, a novel transmembrane protein. The extracellular portion of SPAP2 contains six immunoglobulin-like domains and its intracellular segment has two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) and two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs). We also identified four alternatively spliced products. Sequence alignment with the genomic database revealed that the SPAP2 gene contains 16 exons and is localized at chromosome 1q21. PCR analyses demonstrated that SPAP2 mRNA is expressed in restricted human tissues including the kidney, salivary gland, adrenal gland, uterus, and bone marrow. Tyrosine-phosphorylated SPAP2 is specifically associated with SH2 domain-containing tyrosine kinases Syk and Zap70 and SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2. Site-specific mutagenesis studies revealed that tyrosyl residues 650 and 662 embedded in the ITIMs are responsible for the binding of Syk and Zap70 while tyrosyl residues 692 and 722 embedded in the ITIMs are involved in interactions with SHP-1 and SHP-2. Finally, recruitment of SHP-1 to the tyrosine-phosphorylated ITIMs led to a marked activation of the enzyme.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-68485, CA75218; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-57393; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK15555

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;293;3;1037-46

  • Clustering-induced signaling of CEACAM1 in PC12 cells.

    Budt M, Cichocka I, Reutter W and Lucka L

    Institut für Molekularbiologie und Biochemie, Fachbereich Humanmedizin, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), an Ig-like transmembrane protein, functions in cell adhesion, angiogenesis and epithelial cell morphogenesis, and has been identified as a tumor suppressor. For all of these functions, CEACAM1 requires signaling capabilities. However, the mechanisms of CEACAM1-mediated signaling are only poorly understood. Here we characterized for the first time CEACAM1 expression and signaling in the neuroendocrine rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line. Stimulation of CEACAM1 by ligation on the cell surface with antibodies induced formation of large CEACAM1 clusters and a rapid and transient CEACAM1 tyrosine dephosphorylation. Functionally, this dephosphorylation correlated with a reduced association between CEACAM1 and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Clustering also stimulated binding of CEACAM1 to the actin cytoskeleton, measured by a partial translocation of CEACAM1 into the insoluble fraction after detergent extraction. Both tyrosine dephosphorylation and interaction with the cytoskeleton were sensitive to neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. The first detected downstream activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1 and ERK2, but not of JNK or p38, describes a novel target of CEACAM1-mediated signaling and contributes to the understanding of how CEACAM1 regulates cellular function.

    Biological chemistry 2002;383;5;803-12

  • Specific SHP-2 partitioning in raft domains triggers integrin-mediated signaling via Rho activation.

    Lacalle RA, Mira E, Gomez-Mouton C, Jimenez-Baranda S, Martinez-A C and Manes S

    Department of Immunology and Oncology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología/CSIC, UAM Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.

    Cell signaling does not occur randomly over the cell surface, but is integrated within cholesterol-enriched membrane domains, termed rafts. By targeting SHP-2 to raft domains or to a non-raft plasma membrane fraction, we studied the functional role of rafts in signaling. Serum-depleted, nonattached cells expressing the raft SHP-2 form, but not non-raft SHP-2, display signaling events resembling those observed after fibronectin attachment, such as beta1 integrin clustering, 397Y-FAK phosphorylation, and ERK activation, and also increases Rho-GTP levels. Expression of the dominant negative N19Rho abrogates raft-SHP-2-induced signaling, suggesting that Rho activation is a downstream event in SHP-2 signaling. Expression of a catalytic inactive SHP-2 mutant abrogates the adhesion-induced feedback inhibition of Rho activity, suggesting that SHP-2 contributes to adhesion-induced suppression of Rho activity. Because raft recruitment of SHP-2 occurs physiologically after cell attachment, these results provide a mechanism by which SHP-2 may influence cell adhesion and migration by spatially regulating Rho activity.

    The Journal of cell biology 2002;157;2;277-89

  • SHP-2 is involved in heterodimer specific loss of phosphorylation of Tyr771 in the PDGF beta-receptor.

    Ekman S, Kallin A, Engström U, Heldin CH and Rönnstrand L

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Biomedical Center, Box 595, S-751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.

    We have previously shown that the binding site for GTPase activating protein of Ras (RasGAP) in the PDGF beta-receptor, Tyr771, is phosphorylated to a much lower extent in the heterodimeric configuration of PDGF alpha- and beta-receptors, compared to the PDGF beta-receptor homodimer. The decreased recruitment of the RasGAP to the receptor leads to prolonged activation of the Ras/MAP kinase pathway, which could explain the increase in mitogenicity seen upon induction of heterodimers. The molecular mechanism underlying these differences was investigated. We could show that the loss of phosphorylation of Tyr771 was dependent on presence of intact binding sites for the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 on the PDGF beta-receptor. Thus, in PDGF receptor mutants in which binding of SHP-2 was lost, a higher degree of phosphorylation of Tyr771 was seen, while other phosphorylation sites in the receptor remained virtually unaffected. Thus, SHP-2 appears to play an important role in modulating phosphorylation of Y771, thereby controlling RasGAP recruitment and Ras/MAP kinase signaling in the heterodimeric configuration of the PDGF receptors.

    Oncogene 2002;21;12;1870-5

  • Cell surface glycoprotein PZR is a major mediator of concanavalin A-induced cell signaling.

    Zhao R, Guerrah A, Tang H and Zhao ZJ

    Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-6307, USA.

    PZR is an immunoglobulin superfamily cell surface protein containing a pair of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs. As a glycoprotein, PZR displays a strong association with concanavalin A (ConA), a member of the plant lectin family. Treatment of several cell lines with ConA caused tyrosine phosphorylation of a major cellular protein. Immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation studies indicated that this protein corresponded to PZR. Tyrosine phosphorylation of PZR was accompanied by recruitment of SHP-2 and was inhibited by PP1, a selective inhibitor of the Src family tyrosine kinases. Furthermore, c-Src was constitutively associated with PZR and was activated upon treatment of cells with ConA. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation of PZR was markedly enhanced in v-Src-transformed NIH-3T3 cells and was predominant in Escherichia coli cells co-expressing c-Src. Expression of an intracellular domain-truncated form of PZR in HT-1080 cells affected cell morphology and had a dominant negative effect on ConA-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PZR, activation of c-Src, and agglutination of the cells. Together, the data indicate that PZR is a major receptor of ConA and has an important role in cell signaling via c-Src. Considering the various biological activities of ConA, the study of PZR may have major therapeutic implications.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA68485, CA75218; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL57393, HL69806; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK15555, T32-DK07186

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;10;7882-8

  • Molecular interactions of SHP1 and SHP2 in IL-3-signalling.

    Wheadon H, Paling NR and Welham MJ

    Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Claverton Down, BA2 7AY, Bath, UK.

    SHP1 and SHP2 tyrosine phosphatases have both been implicated in signalling pathways downstream of the interleukin-3 (IL-3) receptor. We have investigated the co-association of SHP1 and SHP2 with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in IL-3-dependent BaF/3 cells. We demonstrate that both SHP1 and SHP2 associate with Aic2A (beta chain of the IL-3 receptor), Gab2 and the paired inhibitory receptor B (PIR-B). The individual SH2 domains of SHP2 can independently bind Gab2, potentially important for the adapter function of SHP2. Association of both phosphatases with Aic2A and Gab2 increases upon IL-3 treatment. Recruitment of SHP1 to PIR-B also increases in response to IL-3, suggesting a functional link between inhibitory and cytokine receptor signalling. Aic2A is a rapid target for dephosphorylation following IL-3 stimulation and substrate-trapping versions of both phosphatases identify Aic2A and Gab2 as substrates for SHP1 and SHP2. These studies suggest that SH2-domain interactions are important for targetting these phosphatases to their substrates.

    Cellular signalling 2002;14;3;219-29

  • Molecular dissection of the signaling and costimulatory functions of CD150 (SLAM): CD150/SAP binding and CD150-mediated costimulation.

    Howie D, Simarro M, Sayos J, Guirado M, Sancho J and Terhorst C

    Division of Immunology, RE-204, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215, USA. dhowie@caregroup.harvard.edu

    CD150 signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM), a T/B/dendritic cell surface glycoprotein, is a costimulatory receptor involved in T-cell activation and is also a receptor for measles virus. CD150-induced signal transduction is controlled by SAP/SH2D1A, the gene that is aberrant in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease and familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. This report shows that CD150 colocalizes with the T-cell receptor (TCR) following CD3 triggering in human peripheral blood T cells and is rapidly and reversibly tyrosine phosphorylated on TCR cross-linking. The Src-like kinases Lck and Fyn phosphorylate tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of CD150. The results demonstrate that the SAP protein has 2 modes of binding to CD150. Binding to the motif Thr-Ile-Tyr281Ala-Gln-Val occurs in a phosphotyrosine-independent fashion and to the motif Thr-Val-Tyr327Ala-Ser-Val in a phosphotyrosine-dependent manner. Within both SAP binding motifs the threonine residue at position -2 to tyrosine is essential to stabilize the interaction irrespective of tyrosine phosphorylation, a feature unique to the SAP SH2 domain. A leucine residue, Leu278, further stabilizes nonphospho binding of SAP to Tyr281 of CD150. SAP blocking of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 occurs primarily on Tyr281 of CD150 because SHP-2 requires both Tyr281 and Tyr327 for binding to CD150, and SAP binds to nonphosphorylated Tyr281. CD150 exhibits lateral mobility, segregating into intercellular contacts. The lateral mobility and homophilic clustering of CD150 between neighboring cells is not dependent on SAP/CD150 interaction.

    Blood 2002;99;3;957-65

  • SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase as an intracellular target of Helicobacter pylori CagA protein.

    Higashi H, Tsutsumi R, Muto S, Sugiyama T, Azuma T, Asaka M and Hatakeyama M

    Division of Molecular Oncology, Institute for Genetic Medicine and Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0815, Japan.

    Helicobacter pylori CagA protein is associated with severe gastritis and gastric carcinoma. CagA is injected from the attached Helicobacter pylori into host cells and undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation. Wild-type but not phosphorylation-resistant CagA induced a growth factor-like response in gastric epithelial cells. Furthermore, CagA formed a physical complex with the SRC homology 2 domain (SH2)-containing tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and stimulated the phosphatase activity. Disruption of the CagA-SHP-2 complex abolished the CagA-dependent cellular response. Conversely, the CagA effect on cells was reproduced by constitutively active SHP-2. Thus, upon translocation, CagA perturbs cellular functions by deregulating SHP-2.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2002;295;5555;683-6

  • The Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase SHP2 is phosphorylated on serine residues 576 and 591 by protein kinase C isoforms alpha, beta 1, beta 2, and eta.

    Strack V, Krützfeldt J, Kellerer M, Ullrich A, Lammers R and Häring HU

    Medical Clinic, Department IV, Eberhard-Karls-University Tübingen, Otfried-Müller-Strasse 10, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.

    To study whether protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms can interact with protein-tyrosine-phosphatases (PTPs) which are connected to the insulin signaling pathway, we co-overexpressed PKC isoforms together with insulin receptor, docking proteins, and the PTPs SHP1 and SHP2 in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. After phorbol ester induced activation of PKC isoforms alpha, beta 1, beta 2, and eta, we could show a defined gel mobility shift of SHP2, indicating phosphorylation on serine/threonine residues. This phosphorylation was not dependent on insulin receptor or insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) overexpression and did not occur for the closely related phosphatase SHP1. Furthermore, PKC phosphorylation of SHP2 was completely blocked by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide and was not detectable when SHP2 was co-overexpressed with kinase negative mutants of PKC beta 1 and -beta 2. The phosphorylation also occurred on endogenous SHP2 in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably overexpressing PKC beta 2. Using point mutants of SHP2, we identified serine residues 576 and 591 as phosphorylation sites for PKC. However, no change of phosphatase activity by TPA treatment was detected in an in vitro assay. In summary, SHP2 is phosphorylated on serine residues 576 and 591 by PKC isoforms alpha, beta 1, beta 2, and eta.

    Biochemistry 2002;41;2;603-8

  • PKB-mediated negative feedback tightly regulates mitogenic signalling via Gab2.

    Lynch DK and Daly RJ

    Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia.

    Heregulin (HRG)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the Gab2 docking protein was enhanced by pretreatment with wortmannin, indicating negative regulation via a PI3-kinase-dependent pathway. This represents phosphorylation by the serine/threonine kinase protein kinase B (PKB), since PKB constitutively associates with Gab2, phosphorylates Gab2 on a consensus phosphorylation site, Ser159, in vitro and inhibits Gab2 tyrosine phosphorylation. However, expression of Gab2 mutated at this site (S159A Gab2) not only enhanced HRG-induced Gab2 tyrosine phosphorylation and association with Shc and ErbB2, but also markedly increased tyrosine phosphorylation of ErbB2 and other cellular proteins and amplified activation of the ERK and PKB pathways. The impact of this negative regulation was further emphasized by a potent transforming activity for S159A Gab2, but not wild-type Gab2, in fibroblasts. These studies establish Gab2 as a proto-oncogene, and a model in which receptor recruitment of Gab2 is tightly regulated via an intimate association with PKB. Release of this negative constraint enhances growth factor receptor signalling, possibly since Gab2 binding limits dephosphorylation and disassembly of receptor-associated signalling complexes.

    The EMBO journal 2002;21;1-2;72-82

  • Death receptors bind SHP-1 and block cytokine-induced anti-apoptotic signaling in neutrophils.

    Daigle I, Yousefi S, Colonna M, Green DR and Simon HU

    Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), Davos, Switzerland.

    Death domain-containing receptors of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/nerve growth factor (NGF) family can induce apoptosis upon activation in many cellular systems. We show here that a conserved phosphotyrosine-containing motif within the death domain of these receptors can mediate inhibitory functions. The Src homology domain 2 (SH2)-containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), SHP-2 and SH2-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP) bound to this motif in a caspase-independent but cell-dependent manner. We also found that stimulation of death receptors disrupted anti-apoptosis pathways initiated (at least under certain conditions) by survival factors in neutrophils. In these cells, activation of the tyrosine kinase Lyn, an important anti-apoptotic event, was prevented as a consequence of death-receptor stimulation, most likely through association of the receptor with activated SHP-1. Thus, we provide molecular and functional evidence for negative signaling by death receptors.

    Nature medicine 2002;8;1;61-7

  • Gab3, a new DOS/Gab family member, facilitates macrophage differentiation.

    Wolf I, Jenkins BJ, Liu Y, Seiffert M, Custodio JM, Young P and Rohrschneider LR

    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109-1024, USA.

    Using the FDC-P1 cell line expressing the exogenous macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) receptor, Fms, we have analyzed the role of a new mammalian DOS/Gab-related signaling protein, called Gab3, in macrophage cell development of the mouse. Gab3 contains an amino-terminal pleckstrin homology domain, multiple potential sites for tyrosine phosphorylation and SH2 domain binding, and two major polyproline motifs potentially interacting with SH3 domains. Among the growing family of Gab proteins, Gab3 exhibits a unique and overlapping pattern of expression in tissues of the mouse compared with Gab1 and Gab2. Gab3 is more restricted to the hematopoietic tissues such as spleen and thymus but is detectable at progressively lower levels within heart, kidney, uterus, and brain. Like Gab2, Gab3 is tyrosine phosphorylated after M-CSF receptor stimulation and associates transiently with the SH2 domain-containing proteins p85 and SHP2. Overexpression of exogenous Gab3 in FD-Fms cells dramatically accelerates macrophage differentiation upon M-CSF stimulation. Unlike Gab2, which shows a constant mRNA expression level after M-CSF stimulation, Gab3 expression is initially absent or low in abundance in FD cells expressing the wild-type Fms, but Gab3 mRNA levels are increased upon M-CSF stimulation. Moreover, M-CSF stimulation of FD-FmsY807F cells (which grow but do not differentiate) fails to increase Gab3 expression. These results suggest that Gab3 is important for macrophage differentiation and that differentiation requires the early phosphorylation of Gab2 followed by induction and subsequent phosphorylation of Gab3.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA40987, R01 CA040987

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;1;231-44

  • Molecular events in transmembrane signaling via E-selectin. SHP2 association, adaptor protein complex formation and ERK1/2 activation.

    Hu Y, Szente B, Kiely JM and Gimbrone MA

    Vascular Research Division, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02132, USA. yenya.hu@surgery.mc.vanderbilt.edu

    E-selectin is a cytokine-inducible adhesion molecule that is expressed by activated endothelial cells at sites of inflammation. In addition to supporting rolling and stable arrest of leukocytes, there is increasing evidence that E-selectin functions in transmembrane signaling into endothelial cells during these adhesive interactions. We have previously shown that adhesion of HL-60 cells (which express ligands for E-selectin), or antibody-mediated cross-linking of E-selectin, results in formation of a Ras/Raf-1/phospho-MEK macrocomplex, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) activation, and c-fos up-regulation. All of these downstream signaling events appear to require an intact cytoplasmic domain of E-selectin. Here we demonstrate that tyrosine 603 in the cytoplasmic domain of E-selectin is required for the E-selectin-dependent ERK1/2 activation. Tyrosine 603 plays an important role in mediating the association of E-selectin with SHP2, and the catalytic domain of SHP2 is, in turn, critical for E-selectin-dependent ERK1/2 activation. An adapter protein complex consisting of Shc.Grb2.Sos bridges between SHP2 and the Ras.Raf.phospho-MEK macrocomplex. These molecular events thus outline a mechanism by which cross-linking of E-selectin by engagement of ligands on adherent leukocytes can initiate a multifunctional signaling pathway in the activated endothelial cell at sites of inflammation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01-HL36028

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;51;48549-53

  • Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif of the IL-4 receptor associates with SH2-containing phosphatases and regulates IL-4-induced proliferation.

    Kashiwada M, Giallourakis CC, Pan PY and Rothman PB

    Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

    Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM) have been implicated in the negative modulation of immunoreceptor signaling pathways. The IL-4R alpha-chain (IL-4Ralpha) contains a putative ITIM in the carboxyl terminal. To determine the role of ITIM in the IL-4 signaling pathway, we ablated the ITIM of IL-4Ralpha by deletion and site-directed mutagenesis and stably expressed the wild-type (WT) and mutant hIL-4Ralpha in 32D/insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) cells. Strikingly, 32D/IRS-2 cells expressing mutant human (h)IL-4Ralpha were hyperproliferative in response to IL-4 compared with cells expressing WT hIL-4Ralpha. Enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat6, but not IRS-2, induced by hIL-4 was observed in cells expressing mutant Y713F. Using peptides corresponding to the ITIM of hIL-4Ralpha, we demonstrate that tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides, but not their nonphosphorylated counterparts, coprecipitate SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase-1, SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase-2, and SH2-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase. The in vivo association of SH2-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase with IL-4Ralpha was verified by coimmunoprecipitation with anti-IL-4Ralpha Abs. These results demonstrate a functional role for ITIM in the regulation of IL-4-induced proliferation.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: P01AI500514

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2001;167;11;6382-7

  • Mutations in PTPN11, encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, cause Noonan syndrome.

    Tartaglia M, Mehler EL, Goldberg R, Zampino G, Brunner HG, Kremer H, van der Burgt I, Crosby AH, Ion A, Jeffery S, Kalidas K, Patton MA, Kucherlapati RS and Gelb BD

    Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA. tartam02@doc.mssm.edu

    Noonan syndrome (MIM 163950) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by dysmorphic facial features, proportionate short stature and heart disease (most commonly pulmonic stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). Webbed neck, chest deformity, cryptorchidism, mental retardation and bleeding diatheses also are frequently associated with this disease. This syndrome is relatively common, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 1,000-2,500 live births. It has been mapped to a 5-cM region (NS1) [corrected] on chromosome 12q24.1, and genetic heterogeneity has also been documented. Here we show that missense mutations in PTPN11 (MIM 176876)-a gene encoding the nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, which contains two Src homology 2 (SH2) domains-cause Noonan syndrome and account for more than 50% of the cases that we examined. All PTPN11 missense mutations cluster in interacting portions of the amino N-SH2 domain and the phosphotyrosine phosphatase domains, which are involved in switching the protein between its inactive and active conformations. An energetics-based structural analysis of two N-SH2 mutants indicates that in these mutants there may be a significant shift of the equilibrium favoring the active conformation. This implies that they are gain-of-function changes and that the pathogenesis of Noonan syndrome arises from excessive SHP-2 activity.

    Nature genetics 2001;29;4;465-8

  • G6b, a novel immunoglobulin superfamily member encoded in the human major histocompatibility complex, interacts with SHP-1 and SHP-2.

    de Vet EC, Aguado B and Campbell RD

    Medical Research Council United Kingdom Human Genome Mapping Project Resource Center, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SB, United Kingdom.

    The G6b gene, located in the class III region of the human major histocompatibility complex, has been suggested to encode a putative receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Genomic sequence information was used as a starting point to clone the corresponding cDNA. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that expression of the gene is restricted to certain hematopoietic cell lines including K562, Molt 4, and Jurkat. Several splice variants were detected, varying only in their C-terminal parts. One of the potential membrane-bound isoforms contained two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs in its cytoplasmic tail. Four of the isoforms were expressed as epitope-tagged proteins in the cell lines K562 and COS-7. The two splice isoforms lacking the hydrophobic transmembrane segment were secreted from the cell. Glycosidase treatment of the four recombinant proteins provided evidence for N- and O-glycosylation. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that the spliced isoforms having a transmembrane segment were directed to the cell membrane. The G6b isoform containing two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs in its cytoplasmic tail was found to be phosphorylated on tyrosine residues after pervanadate treatment of cells and, subsequently, interacts with the SH2-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2. Mutagenesis studies showed that phosphorylation of tyrosine 211 is critical for the interaction of G6b with SHP-1 and SHP-2.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;45;42070-6

  • Structural basis for the interaction of the free SH2 domain EAT-2 with SLAM receptors in hematopoietic cells.

    Morra M, Lu J, Poy F, Martin M, Sayos J, Calpe S, Gullo C, Howie D, Rietdijk S, Thompson A, Coyle AJ, Denny C, Yaffe MB, Engel P, Eck MJ and Terhorst C

    Division of Immunology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. mmorra@caregroup.harvard.edu

    The T and natural killer (NK) cell-specific gene SAP (SH2D1A) encodes a 'free SH2 domain' that binds a specific tyrosine motif in the cytoplasmic tail of SLAM (CD150) and related cell surface proteins. Mutations in SH2D1A cause the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, a primary immunodeficiency. Here we report that a second gene encoding a free SH2 domain, EAT-2, is expressed in macrophages and B lympho cytes. The EAT-2 structure in complex with a phosphotyrosine peptide containing a sequence motif with Tyr281 of the cytoplasmic tail of CD150 is very similar to the structure of SH2D1A complexed with the same peptide. This explains the high affinity of EAT-2 for the pTyr motif in the cytoplasmic tail of CD150 but, unlike SH2D1A, EAT-2 does not bind to non-phosphorylated CD150. EAT-2 binds to the phosphorylated receptors CD84, CD150, CD229 and CD244, and acts as a natural inhibitor, which interferes with the recruitment of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. We conclude that EAT-2 plays a role in controlling signal transduction through at least four receptors expressed on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: P01 AI035714, P01-AI-35714

    The EMBO journal 2001;20;21;5840-52

  • Involvement of tyrosine phosphatase PTP1D in the inhibition of interleukin-6-induced Stat3 signaling by alpha-thrombin.

    Gunaje JJ and Bhat GJ

    Icogen Corporation, 454 North 34th Street, Seattle, WA 98103, USA. gunajej@icogen.com

    We previously demonstrated that exposure of CCL39 lung fibroblasts to alpha-thrombin inhibits interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 (signal transducers and activators of transcription 3) via activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase 1 [Bhat et al. (1998) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 350, 307-314]. In this study, using CCL39/MRC-5 cells, we investigated if additional signaling intermediates are involved in alpha-thrombin's inhibitory effects on IL-6-induced Stat3 signaling. We also determined if alpha-thrombin inhibits oncostatin M (OSM)-induced Stat3/Stat1, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-induced Stat1 tyrosine phosphorylation. We demonstrate that, although both IL-6 and OSM belong to the same cytokine family, alpha-thrombin inhibited only the IL-6-induced Stat3 tyrosine phosphorylation. The tyrosine phosphatase PTP1D coprecipitated with Stat3 from alpha-thrombin + IL-6, but not from alpha-thrombin + OSM-treated cells. Pretreatment of cells with a phosphatase inhibitor reversed the inhibitory actions of alpha-thrombin, suggesting a role for PTP1D in alpha-thrombin-mediated inhibition of IL-6-induced Stat3 signaling. Interestingly, alpha-thrombin failed to inhibit OSM- and IFN-gamma-induced Stat1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Cytokine-specific inhibition of the Stat3 signaling involving MAP kinase kinase 1 and PTP1D by alpha-thrombin may play an important role in regulation of gene expression.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: 1RO1 HL 66000

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2001;288;1;252-7

  • Characterization of SH2D1A missense mutations identified in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease patients.

    Morra M, Simarro-Grande M, Martin M, Chen AS, Lanyi A, Silander O, Calpe S, Davis J, Pawson T, Eck MJ, Sumegi J, Engel P, Li SC and Terhorst C

    Division of Immunology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by extreme susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus. The XLP disease gene product SH2D1A (SAP) interacts via its SH2 domain with a motif (TIYXXV) present in the cytoplasmic tail of the cell-surface receptors CD150/SLAM, CD84, CD229/Ly-9, and CD244/2B4. Characteristically, the SH2D1A three-pronged interaction with Tyr(281) of CD150 can occur in absence of phosphorylation. Here we analyze the effect of SH2D1A protein missense mutations identified in 10 XLP families. Two sets of mutants were found: (i) mutants with a marked decreased protein half-life (e.g. Y7C, S28R, Q99P, P101L, V102G, and X129R) and (ii) mutants with structural changes that differently affect the interaction with the four receptors. In the second group, mutations that disrupt the interaction between the SH2D1A hydrophobic cleft and Val +3 of its binding motif (e.g. T68I) and mutations that interfere with the SH2D1A phosphotyrosine-binding pocket (e.g. C42W) abrogated SH2D1A binding to all four receptors. Surprisingly, a mutation in SH2D1A able to interfere with Thr -2 of the CD150 binding motif (mutant T53I) severely impaired non-phosphotyrosine interactions while preserving unaffected the binding of SH2D1A to phosphorylated CD150. Mutant T53I, however, did not bind to CD229 and CD224, suggesting that SH2D1A controls several critical signaling pathways in T and natural killer cells. Because no correlation is present between identified types of mutations and XLP patient clinical presentation, additional unidentified genetic or environmental factors must play a strong role in XLP disease manifestations.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: P01-AI-35714

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;39;36809-16

  • NTB-A [correction of GNTB-A], a novel SH2D1A-associated surface molecule contributing to the inability of natural killer cells to kill Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease.

    Bottino C, Falco M, Parolini S, Marcenaro E, Augugliaro R, Sivori S, Landi E, Biassoni R, Notarangelo LD, Moretta L and Moretta A

    Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, 16132 Genoa, Italy.

    In humans, natural killer (NK) cell function is regulated by a series of receptors and coreceptors with either triggering or inhibitory activity. Here we describe a novel 60-kD glycoprotein, termed NTB-A, that is expressed by all human NK, T, and B lymphocytes. Monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated cross-linking of NTB-A results in the induction of NK-mediated cytotoxicity. Similar to 2B4 (CD244) functioning as a coreceptor in the NK cell activation, NTB-A also triggers cytolytic activity only in NK cells expressing high surface densities of natural cytotoxicity receptors. This suggests that also NTB-A may function as a coreceptor in the process of NK cell activation. Molecular cloning of the cDNA coding for NTB-A molecule revealed a novel member of the immunoglobulin superfamily belonging to the CD2 subfamily. NTB-A is characterized, in its extracellular portion, by a distal V-type and a proximal C2-type domain and by a cytoplasmic portion containing three tyrosine-based motifs. NTB-A undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation and associates with the Src homology 2 domain-containing protein (SH2D1A) as well as with SH2 domain-containing phosphatases (SHPs). Importantly, analysis of NK cells derived from patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) showed that the lack of SH2D1A protein profoundly affects the function not only of 2B4 but also of NTB-A. Thus, in XLP-NK cells, NTB-A mediates inhibitory rather than activating signals. These inhibitory signals are induced by the interaction of NTB-A with still undefined ligands expressed on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected target cells. Moreover, mAb-mediated masking of NTB-A can partially revert this inhibitory effect while a maximal recovery of target cell lysis can be obtained when both 2B4 and NTB-A are simultaneously masked. Thus, the altered function of NTB-A appears to play an important role in the inability of XLP-NK cells to kill EBV-infected target cells.

    Funded by: Telethon: E.0892

    The Journal of experimental medicine 2001;194;3;235-46

  • Association of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 with F-actin at low cell densities.

    Xu F, Zhao R, Peng Y, Guerrah A and Zhao ZJ

    Department of Medicine/Hematology-Oncology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-6305, USA.

    SHP-2 is an intracellular SH2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase with an essential role in cell signaling. Here we demonstrate that localization of SHP-2 is regulated by cell density in a cell adhesion-dependent manner. When cells were plated at low densities, SHP-2 was distributed in Triton X-100-insoluble fractions, whereas it was totally soluble when cells were plated at high densities or when low density cells approached confluency. In all cases, the total protein level of SHP-2 was not changed. Fluorescent cell staining revealed that SHP-2 was co-localized with actin stress fibers to the cell peripheral at low cell densities but was diffused in the entire cytoplasm at high cell densities. Transient transfection of cells with truncated forms of SHP-2 demonstrated that the catalytic domain of the enzyme was responsible for the density-regulated distribution of SHP-2, but the catalytic activity was not required. An in vitro co-sedimentation study demonstrated direct binding of full-length and SH2 domain-truncated forms of SHP-2 to F-actin. The data indicate that SHP-2 is regulated by cell density and that it may have a role in assembling and disassembling of the actin network.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-68485, CA75218; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-57393; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-15555, T32-DK07186

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;31;29479-84

  • Nerve growth factor activates persistent Rap1 signaling in endosomes.

    Wu C, Lai CF and Mobley WC

    Departments of Neurology and Neurological Sciences and of Pediatrics and the Program in Neuroscience, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. cbwu@stanford.edu

    We investigated a role for endogenous Rap1, a small monomeric GTP-binding protein of the Ras family, in nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling in PC12 cells. Although both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and NGF caused transient activation of Ras, only NGF induced the activation of Rap1. Moreover, Rap1 activation was sustained for hours, an effect that matched the sustained activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. To investigate the molecular basis for Rap1 activation, we examined complexes containing C3G, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rap1, and CrkL, an adapter protein known to influence Rap1 signaling. NGF induced the formation of a long-lived complex containing C3G/CrkL/Shp2/Gab2/TrkA. Linking the complex to Rap1 activation, we coprecipitated activated TrkA and activated MAPK with activated Rap1 in NGF-treated cells. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation showed that activated Rap1 and the other proteins of the signaling complex were present in endosomes. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with brefeldin A (BFA), which disrupts the Golgi and endosomal compartments, had little effect on Ras activation but strongly inhibited NGF-induced Rap1 activation and continuing MAPK activation. We propose that endosomes are a site from which NGF induces the prolonged activation of Rap1 and MAPK.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS24054

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2001;21;15;5406-16

  • Critical role for the docking-protein FRS2 alpha in FGF receptor-mediated signal transduction pathways.

    Hadari YR, Gotoh N, Kouhara H, Lax I and Schlessinger J

    Department of Pharmacology and The Skirball Institute, New York University Medical School, New York, NY 10016, USA.

    The docking protein FRS2 alpha has been implicated as a mediator of signaling via fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). We have demonstrated that targeted disruption of FRS2 alpha gene causes severe impairment in mouse development resulting in embryonal lethality at E7.0--E7.5. Experiments with FRS2 alpha-deficient fibroblasts demonstrate that FRS2 alpha plays a critical role in FGF-induced mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase stimulation, phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase activation, chemotactic response, and cell proliferation. Following FGF stimulation, tyrosine phosphorylated FRS2 alpha functions as a site for coordinated assembly of a multiprotein complex that includes Gab1 and the effector proteins that are recruited by this docking protein. Furthermore, we demonstrate that different tyrosine phosphorylation sites on FRS2 alpha are responsible for mediating different FGF-induced biological responses. These experiments establish the central role of FRS2 alpha in signaling via FGFRs and demonstrate that FRS2 alpha mediates multiple FGFR-dependent signaling pathways critical for embryonic development.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;15;8578-83

  • Analysis of tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent protein-protein interactions in TrkB-mediated intracellular signaling using modified yeast two-hybrid system.

    Yamada M, Suzuki K, Mizutani M, Asada A, Matozaki T, Ikeuchi T, Koizumi S and Hatanaka H

    Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. yamada@protein.osaka-u.ac.jp

    Activated receptor tyrosine kinases induce a large number of tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent protein-protein interactions through which they mediate their various ligand-exerted functions including regulation of proliferation, differentiation and survival. TrkB receptor tyrosine kinase activated by binding of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) also stimulates various protein interactions in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent manner in neuronal cells. To examine tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent interactions stimulated by active TrkB, we developed a modified yeast two-hybrid system, which we call the yeast two-and-a-half-hybrid system. In this system, yeast was engineered to express a tyrosine kinase domain of TrkB as an effector, in addition to two fusion proteins with GAL4 DNA-binding and GAL4 activation domains as bait and prey proteins, respectively. Using this system with Shp2 as the bait, we demonstrated that Shp2 interacts directly with BIT/SHPS-1 (also called SIRP) and Grb2 depending on tyrosine phosphorylation mediated by TrkB. Furthermore, we screened an adult human brain cDNA library with the yeast two-and-a-half-hybrid system in order to identify other Shp2-binding proteins in TrkB-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation signaling. We found that fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2beta (FRS2beta), also called SNT2, interacts with Shp2 dependently on TrkB-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of FRS2beta/SNT2. Therefore, we show that the two-and-a-half-hybrid system is a powerful tool for studying tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent protein-protein interactions in intracellular signaling pathways stimulated by TrkB receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Journal of biochemistry 2001;130;1;157-65

  • Distinct interactions of the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome gene product SAP with cytoplasmic domains of members of the CD2 receptor family.

    Lewis J, Eiben LJ, Nelson DL, Cohen JI, Nichols KE, Ochs HD, Notarangelo LD and Duckett CS

    Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1578, USA.

    X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP; Duncan's disease) is a primary immunodeficiency disease that manifests as an inability to regulate the immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Here we examine the ability of the product of the gene defective in XLP, SAP (DSHP/SH2D1A), to associate with the cytoplasmic domains of several members of the CD2 subfamily of cell surface receptors, including SLAM, 2B4, and CD84. While recruitment of SAP to SLAM occurred in a phosphorylation-independent manner, SAP was found to bind preferentially to tyrosine-phosphorylated cytoplasmic domains within 2B4 and CD84. Missense or nonsense mutations in the SAP open reading frame were identified in five of seven clinically diagnosed XLP patients from different kindreds. Four of these variants retained the ability to bind to the cytoplasmic tails of SLAM and CD84. While ectopic expression of wild-type SAP was observed to block the binding of SHP-2 to SLAM, mutant SAP derivatives that retained the ability to bind SLAM did not inhibit recruitment of SHP-2 to SLAM. In contrast, SAP binding to CD84 had no effect on the ability of CD84 to recruit SHP-2, but instead displaced SHP-1 from the cytoplasmic tail of CD84. These results suggest that mutations in the gene encoding the XLP protein SAP lead to functional defects in the protein that include receptor binding and SHP-1 and SHP-2 displacement and that SAP utilizes different mechanisms to regulate signaling through the CD2 family of receptors.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD17427

    Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.) 2001;100;1;15-23

  • Identification and characterization of S2V, a novel putative siglec that contains two V set Ig-like domains and recruits protein-tyrosine phosphatases SHPs.

    Yu Z, Lai CM, Maoui M, Banville D and Shen SH

    Pharmaceutical Sector, Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2, Canada.

    We describe the molecular cloning and characterization of S2V, a novel sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectin. The cDNA of S2V encodes a type 1 transmembrane protein with four extracellular immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domains and a cytoplasmic tail bearing a typical immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) and an ITIM-like motif. A unique feature of S2V is the presence of two V-set Ig-like domains responsible for the binding to sialic acid, whereas all other known siglecs possess only one. S2V is predominantly expressed in macrophage. In vivo S2V was tyrosine-phosphorylated when co-expressed with exogenous c-Src kinase. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation, S2V recruits both Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2, two important inhibitory regulators of immunoreceptor signal transduction. These findings suggest that S2V is involved in the negative regulation of the signaling in macrophage by functioning as an inhibitory receptor. When expressed in COS-7 cells, S2V was able to mediate sialic acid-dependent binding to human red blood cells, suggesting that S2V may function through cell-cell interaction.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;26;23816-24

  • Phosphotyrosines 627 and 659 of Gab1 constitute a bisphosphoryl tyrosine-based activation motif (BTAM) conferring binding and activation of SHP2.

    Cunnick JM, Mei L, Doupnik CA and Wu J

    Molecular Oncology Program, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA.

    A major Grb2-associated binder-1 (Gab1) binding partner in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated cells is protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) SHP2, which contains tandem SH2 domains. The SHP2 PTPase activity is required for activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) subfamily of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase by EGF. To investigate the mechanism by which Gab1 and SHP2 mediate ERK activation, we characterized the Gab1-SHP2 interaction. We found that both Tyr-627 and Tyr-659 of Gab1 were required for SHP2 binding to Gab1 and for ERK2 activation by EGF. Far Western blot analysis suggested that the tandem SH2 domains of SHP2 bind to Gab1 in a specific orientation, in which the N-SH2 domain binds to phosphotyrosine (Tyr(P))-627 and the C-SH2 domain binds to Tyr(P)-659. When assayed with peptide substrates, SHP2 PTPase was activated by a bisphosphopeptide containing both Tyr(P)-627 and Tyr(P)-659, but not by monophosphopeptides containing Tyr(P)-627 or Tyr(P)-659 or a mixture of these monophosphopeptides. These results suggest that Tyr(P)-627 and Tyr(P)-659 of Gab1 constitute a bisphosphoryl tyrosine-based activation motif (BTAM) that binds and activates SHP2. Remarkably, while a constitutively active SHP2 (SHP2DeltaN) could not rescue the defect of a SHP2-binding defective Gab1 (Gab1FF) in ERK2 activation, expression of a Gab1FF-SHP2DeltaN chimera resulted in constitutive activation of ERK2 in transfected cells. Thus, physical association of activated SHP2 with Gab1 is necessary and sufficient to mediate the ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Phosphopeptides derived from Gab1 were dephosphorylated by active SHP2 in vitro. Consistently, substrate-trapping experiments with a SHP2 catalytic inactive mutant suggested that Gab1 was a SHP2 PTPase substrate in the cells. Therefore, Gab1 not only is a SHP2 activator but also is a target of its PTPase.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA77467, R29 CA077467; NINDS NIH HHS: NS34062, NS40480

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;26;24380-7

  • Cell surface receptors Ly-9 and CD84 recruit the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease gene product SAP.

    Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P and Terhorst C

    Division of Immunology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215, USA.

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a rare immune disorder commonly triggered by infection with Epstein-Barr virus. Major disease manifestations include fatal acute infectious mononucleosis, B-cell lymphoma, and progressive dys-gammaglobulinemia. SAP/SH2D1A, the product of the gene mutated in XLP, is a small protein that comprises a single SH2 domain and a short tail of 26 amino acids. SAP binds to a specific motif in the cytoplasmic tails of the cell surface receptors SLAM and 2B4, where it blocks recruitment of the phosphatase SHP-2. Here it is reported that Ly-9 and CD84, 2 related glycoproteins differentially expressed on hematopoietic cells, also recruit SAP. Interactions between SAP and Ly-9 or CD84 were analyzed using a novel yeast 2-hybrid system, by COS cell transfections and in lymphoid cells. Recruitment of SAP is most efficient when the specific tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tails of Ly-9 or CD84 are phosphorylated. It is concluded that in activated T cells, the SAP protein binds to and regulates signal transduction events initiated through the engagement of SLAM, 2B4, CD84, and Ly-9. This suggests that combinations of dysfunctional signaling pathways initiated by these 4 cell surface receptors may cause the complex phenotypes of XLP. (Blood. 2001;97:3867-3874)

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: P01 AI-35714

    Blood 2001;97;12;3867-74

  • Structural and functional dissection of the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane adaptor protein SIT (SHP2-interacting transmembrane adaptor protein).

    Pfrepper KI, Marie-Cardine A, Simeoni L, Kuramitsu Y, Leo A, Spicka J, Hilgert I, Scherer J and Schraven B

    Immunomodulation Laboratory of the Institute for Immunology, Ruprecht-Karls University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

    SIT (SHP2-interacting transmembrane adaptor protein) is a recently identified transmembrane adaptor protein, which is expressed in lymphocytes. Its structural properties, in particular the presence of five potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites, suggest involvement of SIT in TCR-mediated recruitment of SH2 domain-containing intracellular signaling molecules to the plasma membrane. Indeed, it has recently been demonstrated that SIT inducibly interacts with the SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) via an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM). Moreover, SIT is capable to inhibit TCR-mediated signals proximal of activation of protein kinase C. However, inhibition of T cell activation by SIT occurs independently of SHP2 binding. The present study was performed to further characterize the molecular interaction between SIT and intracellular effector molecules and to identify the protein(s) mediating its inhibitory function. We demonstrate that SIT not only interacts with SHP2 but also with the adaptor protein Grb2 via two consensus YxN motifs. However, mutation of both Grb2-binding sites also does not influence the inhibitory function of SIT. In contrast, mutation of the tyrosine-based signaling motif Y(168) ASV completely abrogates the ability of SIT to inhibit T cell activation. Co-precipitation experiments revealed that the tyrosine kinase p50(csk) could represent the negative regulatory effector molecule that binds to this motif.

    European journal of immunology 2001;31;6;1825-36

  • Complete sequence, genomic organization, and chromosomal localization of the human gene encoding the SHP2-interacting transmembrane adaptor protein (SIT).

    Hübener C, Mincheva A, Lichter P, Schraven B and Bruyns E

    Immunogenetics 2001;53;4;337-41

  • Scaffolding protein Gab2 mediates differentiation signaling downstream of Fms receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Liu Y, Jenkins B, Shin JL and Rohrschneider LR

    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. yliu@fhcrc.org

    Fms is the receptor for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and contains intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Expression of exogenous Fms in a murine myeloid progenitor cell line, FDC-P1 (FD-Fms), results in M-CSF-dependent growth and macrophage differentiation. Previously, we described a 100-kDa protein that was tyrosine phosphorylated upon M-CSF stimulation of FD-Fms cells. In this report, we identify this 100-kDa protein as the recently cloned scaffolding protein Gab2, and we demonstrate that Gab2 associates with several molecules involved in M-CSF signaling, including Grb2, SHP2, the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase, SHIP, and SHC. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Gab2 in response to M-CSF requires the kinase activity of Fms, but not that of Src. Overexpression of Gab2 in FD-Fms cells enhanced both mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity and macrophage differentiation, but reduced proliferation, in response to M-CSF. In contrast, a mutant of Gab2 that is unable to bind SHP2 did not potentiate MAPK activity. Furthermore, overexpression of this mutant in FD-Fms cells inhibited macrophage differentiation and resulted in a concomitant increase in growth potential in response to M-CSF. These data indicate that Gab2 is involved in the activation of the MAPK pathway and that the interaction between Gab2 and SHP2 is essential for the differentiation signal triggered by M-CSF.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA6608, CA6648

    Molecular and cellular biology 2001;21;9;3047-56

  • A yeast two-hybrid study of human p97/Gab2 interactions with its SH2 domain-containing binding partners.

    Crouin C, Arnaud M, Gesbert F, Camonis J and Bertoglio J

    Inserm Unit 461, Faculté de Pharmacie Paris-XI, Châtenay-Malabry, france.

    p97/Gab2 is a recently characterized member of a large family of scaffold proteins that play essential roles in signal transduction. Gab2 becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to a variety of growth factors and forms multimolecular complexes with SH2 domain-containing signaling molecules such as the p85-regulatory subunit of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (p85-PI3K), the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 and the adapter protein CrkL. To characterize the interactions between Gab2 and its SH2-containing binding partners, we designed a modified yeast two-hybrid system in which the Lyn tyrosine kinase is expressed in a regulated manner in yeast. Using this assay, we demonstrated that p97/Gab2 specifically interacts with the SH2 domains of PI3K, SHP-2 and CrkL. Interaction with p85-PI3K is mediated by tyrosine residues Y452, Y476 and Y584 of Gab2, while interaction with SHP-2 depends exclusively on tyrosine Y614. CrkL interaction is mediated by its SH2 domain recognizing Y266 and Y293, despite the latter being in a non-consensus (YTFK) environment.

    FEBS letters 2001;495;3;148-53

  • Molecular cloning of MIS, a myeloid inhibitory siglec, that binds protein-tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2.

    Ulyanova T, Shah DD and Thomas ML

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ulyanova@pathology.wustl.edu

    We describe the molecular cloning and characterization of a novel myeloid inhibitory siglec, MIS, that belongs to the family of sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins. A full-length MIS cDNA was obtained from murine bone marrow cells. MIS is predicted to contain an extracellular region comprising three immunoglobulin-like domains (V-set amino-terminal domain followed by two C-set domains), a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic tail with two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-like sequences. The closest relative of MIS in the siglec family is human siglec 8. Extracellular regions of these two siglecs share 47% identity at the amino acid level. Southern blot analysis suggests the presence of one MIS gene. MIS is expressed in the spleen, liver, heart, kidney, lung and testis tissues. Several isoforms of MIS protein exist due to the alternative splicing. In a human promonocyte cell line, MIS was able to bind Src homology 2-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatases, SHP-1 and SHP-2. This binding was mediated by the membrane-proximal ITIM of MIS. Moreover, MIS exerted an inhibitory effect on FcgammaRI receptor-induced calcium mobilization. These data suggest that MIS can play an inhibitory role through its ITIM sequences.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM56455

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;17;14451-8

  • Identification of SNT/FRS2 docking site on RET receptor tyrosine kinase and its role for signal transduction.

    Kurokawa K, Iwashita T, Murakami H, Hayashi H, Kawai K and Takahashi M

    Department of Pathology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.

    SNT/FRS2 is a lipid anchored docking protein that contains an amino-terminal myristylation signal, followed by a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain and a carboxy-terminal region with multiple tyrosine residues. Here we show that the SNT/FRS2 PTB domain binds to RET receptor tyrosine kinase activated by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2 mutations. Analyses by site directed-mutagenesis revealed that it binds to tyrosine 1062 in RET that is also known to be a binding site for the SHC adaptor protein. Whereas SHC bound to RET was associated with GRB2 and GAB1 proteins, SNT/FRS2 was associated with GRB2 only, suggesting that SNT/FRS2 is involved mainly in the activation of the RAS/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway but not the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/AKT pathway. In addition, phosphorylated SNT/FRS2 appeared to directly complex with SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase. These results suggest that tyrosine 1062 in RET provides a site for the interaction of multiple signaling molecules and that the balance of SHC and SNT/FRS2 binding may affect the nature of the intracellular signaling for cell proliferation, differentiation and survival induced by activated RET.

    Oncogene 2001;20;16;1929-38

  • A critical role for phosphoinositide 3-kinase upstream of Gab1 and SHP2 in the activation of ras and mitogen-activated protein kinases by epidermal growth factor.

    Yart A, Laffargue M, Mayeux P, Chretien S, Peres C, Tonks N, Roche S, Payrastre B, Chap H and Raynal P

    INSERM U326, IFR 30, Hôpital Purpan, Toulouse 31059, INSERM U363, Hôpital Cochin, 27 rue du Faubourg Saint-Jacques, Paris 75014, France.

    Although the mechanisms involved in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) by receptor tyrosine kinases do not display an obvious role for phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks), we have observed in the nontransformed cell line Vero stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) that wortmannin and LY294002 nearly abolished MAPK activation. The effect was observed under strong stimulation and was independent of EGF concentration. In addition, three mutants of class Ia PI3Ks were found to inhibit MAPK activation to an extent similar to their effect on Akt/protein kinase B activation. To determine the importance of PI3K lipid kinase activity in MAPK activation, we have used the phosphatase PTEN and the pleckstrin homology domain of Tec kinase. Overexpression of these proteins, but not control mutants, was found to inhibit MAPK activation, suggesting that the lipid products of class Ia PI3K are necessary for MAPK signaling. We next investigated the location of PI3K in the MAPK cascade. Pharmacological inhibitors and dominant negative forms of PI3K were found to block the activation of Ras induced by EGF. Upstream from Ras, although association of Grb2 with its conventional effectors was independent of PI3K, we have observed that the recruitment of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 required PI3K. Because SHP2 was also essential for Ras activation, this suggested the existence of a PI3K/SHP2 pathway leading to the activation of Ras. In addition, we have observed that the docking protein Gab1, which is involved in PI3K activation during EGF stimulation, is also implicated in this pathway downstream of PI3K. Indeed, the association of Gab1 with SHP2 was blocked by PI3K inhibitors, and expression of Gab1 mutant deficient for binding to SHP2 was found to inhibit Ras stimulation without interfering with PI3K activation. These results show that, in addition to Shc and Grb2, a PI3K-dependent pathway involving Gab1 and SHP2 is essential for Ras activation under EGF stimulation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;12;8856-64

  • Influence of the somatostatin receptor sst2 on growth factor signal cascades in human glioma cells.

    Held-Feindt J, Forstreuter F, Pufe T and Mentlein R

    Department of Anatomy, University of Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, D-24098, Kiel, Germany. held-feiundt@anat.uni-kiel.de

    The somatostatin receptor subtype sst2A is highly expressed, non-mutated and functionally active in gliomas. After stimulation of cultivated human U343 glioma cells with somatostatin, octreotide (sst2-, sst3- and sst5-selective peptide agonist) or the sst2-selective non-peptide agonist L-054,522 multiple signal transduction pathways are induced: elevated cAMP levels are reduced, protein tyrosine phosphatases (especially SHP2) are activated and mitogen-activated protein kinases are inhibited. Stimulation of the phosphatases resulted in dephosphorylation of activated receptors for EGF and PDGF (epidermal and platelet-derived growth factor), and as a consequence the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK 1 and 2 (p42/p44) were de-phosphorylated in co-stimulation experiments. Furthermore, somatostatin or sst2-selective agonists reduced EGF-stimulated expression of the AP-1 complex (c-jun/c-jun) on the transcriptional and translational level. These experiments show that the interaction of stimulatory and inhibitory receptors are important mechanisms for the regulation of signal cascades and gene expression.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 2001;87;1;12-21

  • SHP2 and cbl participate in alpha-chemokine receptor CXCR4-mediated signaling pathways.

    Chernock RD, Cherla RP and Ganju RK

    Divisions of Experimental Medicine and Hematology/Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

    Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1alpha and its receptor, CXCR4, play an important role in cell migration, embryonic development, and human immunodeficiency virus infection. However, the cellular signaling pathways that mediate these processes are not fully elucidated. We and others have shown that the binding of SDF-1alpha to CXCR4 activates phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3 kinase), p44/42 mitogen-associated protein kinase, and the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB, and it also enhances the tyrosine phosphorylation and association of proteins involved in the formation of focal adhesions. In this study, we examined the role of phosphatases in CXCR4-mediated signaling pathways. We observed significant inhibition of SDF-1alpha-induced migration by phosphatase inhibitors in CXCR4-transfected pre-B lymphoma L1.2 cells, Jurkat T cells, and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Further studies revealed that SDF-1alpha stimulation induced robust tyrosine phosphorylation in the SH2-containing phosphatase SHP2. SHP2 associated with the CXCR4 receptor and the signaling molecules SHIP, cbl, and fyn. Overexpression of wild-type SHP2 increased SDF-1alpha-induced chemotaxis. Enhanced activation of fyn and lyn kinases and the tyrosine phosphorylation of cbl were also observed. In addition, SDF-1alpha stimulation enhanced the association of cbl with PI-3 kinase, Crk-L, and 14-3-3beta proteins. Our results suggest that CXCR4-mediated signaling is regulated by SHP2 and cbl, which collectively participate in the formation of a multimeric signaling complex.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA76950

    Blood 2001;97;3;608-15

  • Negative regulation of Ros receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. An epithelial function of the SH2 domain protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1.

    Keilhack H, Müller M, Böhmer SA, Frank C, Weidner KM, Birchmeier W, Ligensa T, Berndt A, Kosmehl H, Günther B, Müller T, Birchmeier C and Böhmer FD

    Research Unit, Molecular Cell Biology, D-07747 Jena, Germany.

    Male "viable motheaten" (me(v)) mice, with a naturally occurring mutation in the gene of the SH2 domain protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, are sterile. Known defects in sperm maturation in these mice correlate with an impaired differentiation of the epididymis, which has similarities to the phenotype of mice with a targeted inactivation of the Ros receptor tyrosine kinase. Ros and SHP-1 are coexpressed in epididymal epithelium, and elevated phosphorylation of Ros in the epididymis of me(v) mice suggests that Ros signaling is under control of SHP-1 in vivo. Phosphorylated Ros strongly and directly associates with SHP-1 in yeast two-hybrid, glutathione S-transferase pull-down, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Strong binding of SHP-1 to Ros is selective compared to six other receptor tyrosine kinases. The interaction is mediated by the SHP-1 NH(2)-terminal SH2 domain and Ros phosphotyrosine 2267. Overexpression of SHP-1 results in Ros dephosphorylation and effectively downregulates Ros-dependent proliferation and transformation. We propose that SHP-1 is an important downstream regulator of Ros signaling.

    The Journal of cell biology 2001;152;2;325-34

  • Modulation of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway by Shp-2 tyrosine phosphatase in mediating the induction of interleukin (IL)-6 by IL-1 or tumor necrosis factor.

    You M, Flick LM, Yu D and Feng GS

    Burnham Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    Shp-2, a src homology (SH)2-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase, appears to be involved in cytoplasmic signaling downstream of a variety of cell surface receptors, although the mechanism is unclear. Here, we have determined a role of Shp-2 in the cytokine circuit for inflammatory and immune responses. Production of interleukin (IL)-6 in response to IL-1 alpha or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was nearly abolished in homozygous mutant (Shp-2(-/)-) fibroblast cells. The targeted Shp-2 mutation has no significant effect on the activation of the three types of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (Jnk), and p38, by IL-1/TNF, indicating that Shp-2 does not work through MAP kinase pathways in mediating IL-1/TNF-induced IL-6 synthesis. In contrast, IL-1/TNF-stimulated nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B DNA binding activity and inhibitor of kappa B (I kappa B) phosphorylation was dramatically decreased in Shp-2(-/)- cells, while the expression and activity of NF-kappa B-inducing kinase (NIK), Akt, and I kappa B kinase (IKK) were not changed. Reintroduction of a wild-type Shp-2 protein into Shp-2(-/)- cells rescued NF-kappa B activation and IL-6 production in response to IL-1/TNF stimulation. Furthermore, Shp-2 tyrosine phosphatase was detected in complexes with IKK as well as with IL-1 receptor. Thus, this SH2-containing enzyme is an important cytoplasmic factor required for efficient NF-kappa B activation. These results elucidate a novel mechanism of Shp-2 in cytokine signaling by specifically modulating the NF-kappa B pathway in a MAP kinase-independent fashion.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA78606; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM53660

    The Journal of experimental medicine 2001;193;1;101-10

  • SOCS3 mediates feedback inhibition of the leptin receptor via Tyr985.

    Bjorbak C, Lavery HJ, Bates SH, Olson RK, Davis SM, Flier JS and Myers MG

    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel-Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, and Section on Obesity, Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

    During leptin signaling, each of the phosphorylated tyrosine residues on the long form of the leptin receptor (LRb) mediates distinct signals. Phosphorylated Tyr(1138) binds STAT3 to mediate its tyrosine phosphorylation and transcriptional activation, while phosphorylated Tyr(985) binds the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 and reportedly mediates both activation of ERK kinases and inhibition of LRb-mediated STAT3 activation. We show here that although mutation of Tyr(985) does not alter STAT3 signaling by erythropoietin receptor-LRb (ELR) chimeras in transfected 293 cells at short times of stimulation, this mutation enhances STAT3 signaling at longer times of stimulation (>6 h). These data suggest that Tyr(985) may mediate feedback inhibition of LRb signaling by an LRb-induced LRb inhibitor, such as SOCS3. Indeed, SOCS3 binds specifically to phosphorylated Tyr(985) of LRb, and SOCS3 fails to inhibit transcription by ELR following mutation of Tyr(985), suggesting that SOCS3 inhibits LRb signaling by binding to phosphorylated Tyr(985). Additionally, overexpression of SOCS3, but not SHP-2, impairs ELR signaling, and the overexpression of SHP-2 blunts SOCS3-mediated inhibition of ELR signaling. Thus, our data suggest that in addition to mediating SHP-2 binding and ERK activation during acute stimulation, Tyr(985) of LRb mediates feedback inhibition of LRb signaling by binding to LRb-induced SOCS3.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DKR0156731, DKR3728082

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;51;40649-57

  • Recruitment of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 to the C-terminal tyrosine of the prolactin receptor and to the adaptor protein Gab2.

    Ali S and Ali S

    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Molecular Oncology Group, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A1, Canada.

    The protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 modulates signaling events through receptor tyrosine kinases and cytokine receptors including the receptor for prolactin (PRLR). Here we investigated mechanisms of SHP-2 recruitment within the PRLR signaling complex. Using SHP-2 and PRLR immunoprecipitation studies in 293 cells and in the mouse mammary epithelial cell line HC11, we found that SHP-2 co-immunoprecipitates with the PRLR and that the C-terminal tyrosine of the PRLR plays a regulatory role in both the tyrosine phosphorylation and the recruitment of SHP-2. Our results further indicate that SHP-2 association to the PRLR occurs via the C-terminal SH2 domain of the phosphatase. In addition, we determined that the newly identified adaptor protein Gab2, but not Gab1, is specifically tyrosine phosphorylated and is able to recruit SHP-2 and phosphatidyinositol 3-kinase in response to PRLR activation. Together, these studies suggest the presence of dual recruitment sites for SHP-2; the first is to the C-terminal tyrosine of the PRLR and the second is to the adaptor protein Gab2.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;50;39073-80

  • SHP2 mediates the protective effect of interleukin-6 against dexamethasone-induced apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells.

    Chauhan D, Pandey P, Hideshima T, Treon S, Raje N, Davies FE, Shima Y, Tai YT, Rosen S, Avraham S, Kharbanda S and Anderson KC

    Department of Adult Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of Experimental Medicine and Hematology/Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Institutes of Medicine and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Our previous studies have shown that activation of a related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase (RAFTK) (also known as Pyk2) is required for dexamethasone (Dex)-induced apoptosis in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and that human interleukin-6 (IL-6), a known growth and survival factor for MM cells, blocks both RAFTK activation and apoptosis induced by Dex. However, the mechanism whereby IL-6 inhibits Dex-induced apoptosis is undefined. In this study, we demonstrate that protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 mediates this protective effect. We show that IL-6 triggers selective activation of SHP2 and its association with RAFTK in Dex-treated MM cells. SHP2 interacts with RAFTK through a region other than its Src homology 2 domains. We demonstrate that RAFTK is a direct substrate of SHP2 both in vitro and in vivo, and that Tyr(906) in the C-terminal domain of RAFTK mediates its interaction with SHP2. Moreover, overexpression of dominant negative SHP2 blocked the protective effect of IL-6 against Dex-induced apoptosis. These findings demonstrate that SHP2 mediates the anti-apoptotic effect of IL-6 and suggest SHP2 as a novel therapeutic target in MM.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 50947, CA 75216

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;36;27845-50

  • Signal transduction of IL-6, leukemia-inhibitory factor, and oncostatin M: structural receptor requirements for signal attenuation.

    Anhuf D, Weissenbach M, Schmitz J, Sobota R, Hermanns HM, Radtke S, Linnemann S, Behrmann I, Heinrich PC and Schaper F

    Department of Biochemistry, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen, Germany.

    Stimulation of the IL-6R complex leads to Src homology domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) recruitment to the receptor subunit gp130 and its subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation. SHP2 is a two-SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase that is activated by many cytokines and growth factors. SHP2 counteracts the activation of transcription factors of the STAT family and the induction of IL-6-responsive genes. Tyrosine 759 of gp130, the signal transducing subunit of the IL-6R complex, is essential for the phosphorylation of SHP2. Mutation of tyrosine 759 to phenylalanine leads to an enhanced inducibility of IL-6-dependent genes. Here we demonstrate that no further tyrosines in the cytoplasmic part of gp130 are required for the phosphorylation of SHP2. We also tested whether the tyrosine 759 motifs in both subunits of the gp130 dimer are required for SHP2 association and tyrosine phosphorylation. Interestingly, one SHP2-recruiting phosphotyrosine motif in a single chain of the gp130 dimer is sufficient to mediate SHP2 association to the gp130 receptor subunit and its tyrosine phosphorylation as well as to attenuate IL-6-dependent gene induction. Furthermore, we show that repression of gene induction via Y759 does not require the presence of the SHP2 and STAT recruitment sites within the same receptor subunit, but within the same receptor complex. The Y759 motif in gp130 also attenuates gene induction mediated by the oncostatin M and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor complexes, which both contain gp130 as the shared subunit.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2000;165;5;2535-43

  • Mutation of the SHP-2 binding site in growth hormone (GH) receptor prolongs GH-promoted tyrosyl phosphorylation of GH receptor, JAK2, and STAT5B.

    Stofega MR, Herrington J, Billestrup N and Carter-Su C

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109, USA.

    Binding of GH to GH receptor (GHR) rapidly and transiently activates multiple signal transduction pathways that contribute to the growth-promoting and metabolic effects of GH. While the events that initiate GH signal transduction, such as activation of the Janus tyrosine kinase JAK2, are beginning to be understood, the signaling events that terminate GH signaling, such as dephosphorylation of tyrosyl-phosphorylated signaling molecules, are poorly understood. In this report, we examine the role of the SH2 (Src homology-2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 in GH signaling. We demonstrate that the SH2 domains of SHP-2 bind directly to tyrosyl phosphorylated GHR from GH-treated cells. Tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutation of tyrosine 595 of rat GHR greatly diminishes association of the SH2 domains of SHP-2 with GHR, and tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutation of tyrosine 487 partially reduces association of the SH2 domains of SHP-2 with GHR. Mutation of tyrosine 595 dramatically prolongs the duration of tyrosyl phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription STAT5B in response to GH, while mutation of tyrosine 487 moderately prolongs the duration of STAT5B tyrosyl phosphorylation. Consistent with the effects on STAT5B phosphorylation, tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutation of tyrosine 595 prolongs the duration of tyrosyl phosphorylation of GHR and JAK2. These data suggest that tyrosine 595 is a major site of interaction of GHR with SHP-2, and that GHR-bound SHP-2 negatively regulates GHR/JAK2 and STAT5B signaling.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-34171, DK-48283, R01 DK034171

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 2000;14;9;1338-50

  • Inhibition of EGFR-mediated phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase (PI3-K) signaling and glioblastoma phenotype by signal-regulatory proteins (SIRPs).

    Wu CJ, Chen Z, Ullrich A, Greene MI and O'Rourke DM

    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, PA 19104, USA.

    Several growth factors and cytokines, including EGF, are known to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Signal Regulatory Proteins (SIRPs). Consistent with the idea that increased phosphorylation activates SIRP function, we overexpressed human SIRPalpha1 in U87MG glioblastoma cells in order to examine how SIRPalpha1 modulates EGFR signaling pathways. Endogenous EGFR proteins are overexpressed in U87MG cells and these cells exhibit survival and motility phenotypes that are influenced by EGFR kinase activity. Overexpression of the SIRPalpha1 cDNA diminished EGF-induced phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase (PI3-K) activation in U87MG cells. Reduced EGF-stimulated activation of PI3-K was mediated by interactions between carboxyl terminus of SIRPalpha1 and the Src homology-2 (SH2)-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase, SHP2. SIRPalpha1 overexpression also reduced the EGF-induced association between SHP2 and the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3-K. Inhibition of transformation and enhanced apoptosis following gamma-irradiation were observed in SIRPalpha1-overexpressing U87MG cells, and enhanced apoptosis was associated with reduced levels of bcl-xL protein. Furthermore, SIRPalpha1-overexpressing U87MG cells displayed reduced cell migration and cell spreading that was mediated by association between SIRPalpha1 and SHP2. However, SIRPalpha1-overexpressing U87MG clonal derivatives exhibited no differences in cell growth or levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. These data reveal a pathway that negatively regulates EGFR-induced PI3-K activation in glioblastoma cells and involves interactions between SHP2 and tyrosine phosphorylated SIRPalpha1. These results also suggest that negative regulation of PI3-K pathway activation by the SIRP family of transmembrane receptors may diminish EGFR-mediated motility and survival phenotypes that contribute to transformation of glioblastoma cells. Oncogene (2000) 19, 3999 - 4010.

    Oncogene 2000;19;35;3999-4010

  • FDF03, a novel inhibitory receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is expressed by human dendritic and myeloid cells.

    Fournier N, Chalus L, Durand I, Garcia E, Pin JJ, Churakova T, Patel S, Zlot C, Gorman D, Zurawski S, Abrams J, Bates EE and Garrone P

    Laboratory for Immunological Research, Schering-Plough, Dardilly, France; DNAX Research Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA.

    In this study, we describe human FDF03, a novel member of the Ig superfamily expressed as a monomeric 44-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein and containing a single extracellular V-set Ig-like domain. Two potential secreted isoforms were also identified. The gene encoding FDF03 mapped to chromosome 7q22. FDF03 was mostly detected in hemopoietic tissues and was expressed by monocytes, macrophages, and granulocytes, but not by lymphocytes (B, T, and NK cells), indicating an expression restricted to cells of the myelomonocytic lineage. FDF03 was also strongly expressed by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) and preferentially by CD14+/CD1a- DC derived from CD34+ progenitors. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis showed FDF03 expression by CD11c+ blood and tonsil DC, but not by CD11c- DC precursors. The FDF03 cytoplasmic tail contained two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-like sequences. When overexpressed in pervanadate-treated U937 cells, FDF03 was tyrosine-phosphorylated and recruited Src homology-2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-2 and to a lesser extent SHP-1. Like engagement of the ITIM-bearing receptor LAIR-1/p40, cross-linking of FDF03 inhibited calcium mobilization in response to CD32/FcgammaRII aggregation in transfected U937 cells, thus demonstrating that FDF03 can function as an inhibitory receptor. However, in contrast to LAIR-1/p40, cross-linking of FDF03 did not inhibit GM-CSF-induced monocyte differentiation into DC. Thus, FDF03 is a novel ITIM-bearing receptor selectively expressed by cells of myeloid origin, including DC, that may regulate functions other than that of the broadly distributed LAIR-1/p40 molecule.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2000;165;3;1197-209

  • Subcellular localization of intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatases in T cells.

    Gjörloff-Wingren A, Saxena M, Han S, Wang X, Alonso A, Renedo M, Oh P, Williams S, Schnitzer J and Mustelin T

    Laboratory of Signal Transduction, La Jolla Cancer Research Center, The Burnham Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    A high protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) activity is required to maintain circulating T lymphocytes in a resting phenotype, and to limit the initiation of T cell activation. We report that 15 of the currently known 24 intracellular PTPases are expressed in T cells, namely HePTP, TCPTP, SHP1, SHP2, PEP, PTP-PEST, PTP-MEG2, PTEN, PTPH1, PTP-MEG1, PTP36, PTP-BAS, LMPTP, PRL-1 and OV-1. Most were found in the cytosol and many were enriched at the plasma membrane. Only TCPTP and PTP-MEG2 had subcellular localizations that essentially excludes them from a direct role in early T cell antigen receptor signaling events. Overexpression of 6 of the PTPases reduced IL-2 gene activation, 3 of them thereby identified as novel candidates for negative regulators of TCR signaling. Our findings expand the repertoire of PTPases that should be considered for a regulatory role in T cell activation.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI35603, AI40552, AI41481; ...

    European journal of immunology 2000;30;8;2412-21

  • Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31), a scaffolding molecule for selected catenin family members whose binding is mediated by different tyrosine and serine/threonine phosphorylation.

    Ilan N, Cheung L, Pinter E and Madri JA

    Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.

    Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 is a 130-kDa glycoprotein commonly used as an endothelium-specific marker. Evidence to date suggests that PECAM-1 is more than just an endothelial cell marker but is intimately involved in signal transduction pathways. This is mediated in part by phosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues within the ITAM domain of PECAM-1 and by recruitment of adapter and signaling molecules. Recently we demonstrated that PECAM-1/beta-catenin association functions to regulate beta-catenin localization and, moreover, to modulate beta-catenin tyrosine phosphorylation levels. Here we show that: 1) not only beta-catenin, but also gamma-catenin is associated with PECAM-1 in vitro and in vivo; 2) PKC enzyme directly phosphorylates purified PECAM-1; 3) PKC-derived PECAM-1 serine/threonine phosphorylation inversely correlates with gamma-catenin association; 4) PECAM-1 recruits gamma-catenin to cell-cell junctions in transfected SW480 cells; and 5) gamma-catenin may recruit PECAM-1 into an insoluble cytoskeletal fraction. These data further support the concept that PECAM-1 functions as a binder and modulator of catenins and provides a molecular mechanism for previously reported PECAM-1/cytoskeleton interactions.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R37-HL28373; NIDDK NIH HHS: P01-DK38979

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;28;21435-43

  • Coupling of Gab1 to c-Met, Grb2, and Shp2 mediates biological responses.

    Schaeper U, Gehring NH, Fuchs KP, Sachs M, Kempkes B and Birchmeier W

    Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin, Germany. uschaep@mdc-berlin.de

    Gab1 is a substrate of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met and involved in c-Met-specific branching morphogenesis. It associates directly with c-Met via the c-Met-binding domain, which is not related to known phosphotyrosine-binding domains. In addition, Gab1 is engaged in a constitutive complex with the adaptor protein Grb2. We have now mapped the c-Met and Grb2 interaction sites using reverse yeast two-hybrid technology. The c-Met-binding site is localized to a 13-amino acid region unique to Gab1. Insertion of this site into the Gab1-related protein p97/Gab2 was sufficient to confer c-Met-binding activity. Association with Grb2 was mapped to two sites: a classical SH3-binding site (PXXP) and a novel Grb2 SH3 consensus-binding motif (PX(V/I)(D/N)RXXKP). To detect phosphorylation-dependent interactions of Gab1 with downstream substrates, we developed a modified yeast two-hybrid assay and identified PI(3)K, Shc, Shp2, and CRKL as interaction partners of Gab1. In a trk-met-Gab1-specific branching morphogenesis assay, association of Gab1 with Shp2, but not PI(3)K, CRKL, or Shc was essential to induce a biological response in MDCK cells. Overexpression of a Gab1 mutant deficient in Shp2 interaction could also block HGF/SF-induced activation of the MAPK pathway, suggesting that Shp2 is critical for c-Met/Gab1-specific signaling.

    The Journal of cell biology 2000;149;7;1419-32

  • Beta-chemokine receptor CCR5 signals through SHP1, SHP2, and Syk.

    Ganju RK, Brubaker SA, Chernock RD, Avraham S and Groopman JE

    Division of Experimental Medicine, Hematology/Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. rganju@caregroup.harvard.edu

    The beta-chemokine receptor CCR5 has been shown to modulate cell migration, proliferation, and immune functions and to serve as a co-receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus. We and others have shown that CCR5 activates related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase (RAFTK)/Pyk2/CAK-beta. In this study, we further characterize the signaling molecules activated by CCR5 upon binding to its cognate ligand, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta (MIP1beta). We observed enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of the phosphatases SHP1 and SHP2 upon MIP1beta stimulation of CCR5 L1.2 transfectants and T-cells derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Furthermore, we observed that SHP1 associated with RAFTK. However, using a dominant-negative phosphatase-binding mutant of RAFTK (RAFTK(m906)), we found that RAFTK does not mediate SHP1 or SHP2 phosphorylation. SHP1 and SHP2 also associated with the adaptor protein Grb2 and the Src-related kinase Syk. Pretreatment of CCR5 L1.2 transfectants or T-cells with the phosphatase inhibitor orthovanadate markedly abolished MIP1beta-induced chemotaxis. Syk was also activated upon MIP1beta stimulation of CCR5 L1.2 transfectants or T-cells and associated with RAFTK. Overexpression of a dominant-negative Src-binding mutant of RAFTK (RAFTK(m402)) significantly attenuated Syk activation, whereas overexpression of wild-type RAFTK enhanced Syk activity, indicating that RAFTK acts upstream of CCR5-mediated Syk activation. Taken together, these results suggest that MIP1beta stimulation mediated by CCR5 induces the formation of a signaling complex consisting of RAFTK, Syk, SHP1, and Grb2.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA76950; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL53745, HL61940

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;23;17263-8

  • Phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains (PAG), a novel ubiquitously expressed transmembrane adaptor protein, binds the protein tyrosine kinase csk and is involved in regulation of T cell activation.

    Brdicka T, Pavlistová D, Leo A, Bruyns E, Korínek V, Angelisová P, Scherer J, Shevchenko A, Hilgert I, Cerný J, Drbal K, Kuramitsu Y, Kornacker B, Horejsí V and Schraven B

    Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 14220 Prague, Czech Republic.

    According to a recently proposed hypothesis, initiation of signal transduction via immunoreceptors depends on interactions of the engaged immunoreceptor with glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (GEMs). In this study, we describe a novel GEM-associated transmembrane adaptor protein, termed phosphoprotein associated with GEMs (PAG). PAG comprises a short extracellular domain of 16 amino acids and a 397-amino acid cytoplasmic tail containing ten tyrosine residues that are likely phosphorylated by Src family kinases. In lymphoid cell lines and in resting peripheral blood alpha/beta T cells, PAG is expressed as a constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated protein and binds the major negative regulator of Src kinases, the tyrosine kinase Csk. After activation of peripheral blood alpha/beta T cells, PAG becomes rapidly dephosphorylated and dissociates from Csk. Expression of PAG in COS cells results in recruitment of endogenous Csk, altered Src kinase activity, and impaired phosphorylation of Src-specific substrates. Moreover, overexpression of PAG in Jurkat cells downregulates T cell receptor-mediated activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells. These findings collectively suggest that in the absence of external stimuli, the PAG-Csk complex transmits negative regulatory signals and thus may help to keep resting T cells in a quiescent state.

    The Journal of experimental medicine 2000;191;9;1591-604

  • Differential regulation of leukemia inhibitory factor-stimulated neuronal gene expression by protein phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 through mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent pathways.

    Bartoe JL and Nathanson NM

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195-7750, USA.

    The neurally active cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signals through a bipartite receptor complex composed of LIF receptor alpha (LIFR) and gp130. gp130 and LIFR contain consensus binding motifs for the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 surrounding tyrosines 118 and 115 (Y118 and Y115) of their cytoplasmic domains, respectively. These sites are necessary for maximal activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Coexpression of catalytically inactive, but not wild-type, SHP-2 reduced LIFR- and gp130-mediated activation of MAPK up to 75%. Conversely, coexpression of the wild-type, but not catalytically inactive, SHP-1, a related phosphatase, reduced activity up to 80%, demonstrating that SHP-2 and SHP-1 have opposing effects on the MAPK pathway. Mutation of Y115 of the cytoplasmic domain of LIFR eliminates receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP-2. In contrast, SHP-1 association with gp130 and LIFR is constitutive and independent of Y118 and Y115, respectively. SHP-1 has a positive regulatory role on LIF-stimulated vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) reporter gene expression in neuronal cells, whereas the effect of SHP-2 is negative. Furthermore, LIF-stimulated MAPK activation negatively regulates this VIP reporter gene induction. SHP-2 also negatively regulates LIF-dependent expression of choline acetyltransferase, but this regulation could be dissociated from its effects on MAPK activation. These data indicate that SHP-1 and SHP-2 are important regulators of LIF-dependent neuronal gene expression via both MAPK-dependent and -independent pathways.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: T32-GM07727; NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS30410

    Journal of neurochemistry 2000;74;5;2021-32

  • Sustained recruitment of phospholipase C-gamma to Gab1 is required for HGF-induced branching tubulogenesis.

    Gual P, Giordano S, Williams TA, Rocchi S, Van Obberghen E and Comoglio PM

    Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), University of Torino Medical School, Str. Prov. 142, Km 3.95, 10060 Candiolo, Italy.

    A distinctive property of Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) is its ability to induce differentiation of tubular structures from epithelial and endothelial cells (branching tubulogenesis). The HGF receptor directly activates PI3 kinase, Ras and STAT signalling pathways and phosphorylates the adaptator GRB2 Associated Binder-1 (Gab1). Gab1 is also phosphorylated in response to Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) but is unable to induce tubule formation. Comparison of 32P-peptide maps of Gab1 from EGF- versus HGF-treated cells, demonstrates that the same sites are phosphorylated in vivo. However, while both EGF and HGF induce rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of Gab1 with a peak at 15 min, the phosphorylation persists for over 1 h, only in response to HGF. Nine tyrosines are phosphorylated by both receptors. Three of them (Y307, Y373, Y407) bind phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma). Interestingly, the overexpression of a Gab1 mutant unable to bind PLC-gamma (Gab1 Y307/373/407F) did not alter HGF-stimulated cell scattering, only partially reduced the growth stimulation but completely abolished HGF-mediated tubulogenesis. It is concluded that sustained recruitment of PLCgamma to Gab1 plays an important role in branching tubulogenesis.

    Oncogene 2000;19;12;1509-18

  • SHP2 association with VE-cadherin complexes in human endothelial cells is regulated by thrombin.

    Ukropec JA, Hollinger MK, Salva SM and Woolkalis MJ

    Department of Physiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107-6799, USA.

    Thrombin-mediated changes in endothelial cell adherens junctions modulate vascular permeability. We demonstrate that the nonreceptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 co-precipitates with VE-cadherin complexes in confluent, quiescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Ligand-binding blots using a SHP2-glutathione S-transferase fusion peptide established that SHP2 associates selectively with beta-catenin in VE-cadherin complexes. Thrombin treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells promotes SHP2 tyrosine phosphorylation and dissociation from VE-cadherin complexes. The loss of SHP2 from the cadherin complexes correlates with a dramatic increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-catenin, gamma-catenin, and p120-catenin complexed with VE-cadherin. We propose that thrombin regulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin-associated beta-catenin, gamma-catenin, and p120-catenin by modulating the quantity of SHP2 associated with VE-cadherin complexes. Such changes in adherens junction complex composition likely underlie thrombin-elicited alterations in endothelial monolayer permeability.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL52132

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;8;5983-6

  • Dissecting the interaction of SHP-2 with PZR, an immunoglobulin family protein containing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs.

    Zhao R and Zhao ZJ

    Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-6305, USA.

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of membrane proteins plays a crucial role in cell signaling by recruiting Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing signaling molecules. Recently, we have isolated a transmembrane protein designated PZR that specifically binds tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, which has two SH2 domains (Zhao, Z. J., and Zhao, R. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 29367-29372). PZR belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Its intracellular segment contains four putative sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. By site-specific mutagenesis, we found that the tyrosine 241 and 263 embedded in the consensus immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs VIYAQL and VVYADI, respectively, accounted for the entire tyrosine phosphorylation of PZR. The interaction between PZR and SHP-2 requires involvement of both tyrosyl residues of the former and both SH2 domains of the latter, since its was disrupted by mutating a single tyrosyl residue or an SH2 domain. Overexpression of catalytically inactive but not active forms of SHP-2 bearing intact SH2 domains in cells caused hyperphosphorylation of PZR. In vitro, tyrosine-phosphorylated PZR was efficiently dephosphorylated by the full-length form of SHP-2 but not by its SH2 domain-truncated form. Together, the data indicate that PZR serves not only as a specific anchor protein of SHP-2 on the plasma membrane but also as a physiological substrate of the enzyme. The coexisting binding and dephosphorylation of PZR by SHP-2 may function to terminate signal transduction initiated by PZR and SHP-2 and to set a threshold for the signal transduction to be initiated.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-68485, CA75218; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-57393

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;8;5453-9

  • Requirement for protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 in insulin-induced activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase.

    Fukunaga K, Noguchi T, Takeda H, Matozaki T, Hayashi Y, Itoh H and Kasuga M

    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017, Japan.

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases, including extracellular signal-regulated kinases and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinases (JNKs), are activated by insulin. Although the mechanism by which the insulin receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases is relatively well defined, the pathway that leads to JNK activation is poorly understood. Overexpression of a catalytically inactive mutant (SHP-2C/S) of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 in Rat-1 fibroblasts that also express human insulin receptors has now revealed that activation of JNKs by insulin and epidermal growth factor, but not that by anisomycin or sorbitol, requires SHP-2. A dominant negative mutant (RasN17) of Ha-Ras blocked insulin-induced JNK activation, whereas a dominant negative mutant (RacN17) of Rac1 or a specific inhibitor (LY294002) of phosphoinositide 3-kinase did not, indicating a role for Ras, but not for Rac or phosphoinositide 3-kinase, in this effect. SHP-2C/S markedly inhibited Ras activation in response to insulin without affecting insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular substrates or the dissociation of the Crk-p130(Cas) complex. In contrast, SHP-2C/S did not inhibit activation of JNKs induced by a constitutively active mutant (RasV12) of Ha-Ras. Furthermore, expression of myristoylated SOS, which functions as a potent activator of Ras, induced JNK activation even when SHP-2 was inactivated. These results suggest that SHP-2 contributes to JNK activation in response to insulin by positively regulating the Ras signaling pathway at the same level as, or upstream from, SOS.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;7;5208-13

  • PILRalpha, a novel immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-bearing protein, recruits SHP-1 upon tyrosine phosphorylation and is paired with the truncated counterpart PILRbeta.

    Mousseau DD, Banville D, L'Abbé D, Bouchard P and Shen SH

    Mammalian Cell Genetics, National Research Council-Biotechnology Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2.

    SHP-1-mediated dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues is central to the regulation of several cell signaling pathways, the specificity of which is dictated by the intrinsic affinity of SH2 domains for the flanking sequences of phosphotyrosine residues. By using a modified yeast two-hybrid system and SHP-1 as bait, we have cloned a human cDNA, PILRalpha, encoding a 303-amino acid immunoglobulin-like transmembrane receptor bearing two cytoplasmic tyrosines positioned within an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif. Substrate trapping in combination with pervanadate treatment of 293T cells confirms that PILRalpha associates with SHP-1 in vivo upon tyrosine phosphorylation. Mutation of the tyrosine residues in PILRalpha indicates the pivotal role of the Tyr-269 residue in recruiting SHP-1. Surface plasmon resonance analysis further suggests that the association between PILRalpha-Tyr-269 and SHP-1 is mediated primarily via the amino-terminal SH2 domain of the latter. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of cDNA in combination with genomic sequence analysis revealed a second gene, PILRbeta, coding for a putative activating receptor as suggested by a truncated cytoplasmic tail and a charged lysine residue in its transmembrane region. The PILRalpha and PILRbeta genes are localized to chromosome 7 which is in contrast with the mapping of known members of the inhibitory receptor superfamily.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;6;4467-74

  • Activation of EphA2 kinase suppresses integrin function and causes focal-adhesion-kinase dephosphorylation.

    Miao H, Burnett E, Kinch M, Simon E and Wang B

    Rammelkamp Center for Research, MetroHealth Campus, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 2500 MetroHealth Drive, Cleveland, Ohio 44109, USA.

    Interactions between receptor tyrosine kinases of the Eph family and their ligands, ephrins, are implicated in establishment of organ boundaries and repulsive guidance of cell migration during development, but the mechanisms by which this is achieved are unclear. Here we show that activation of endogenous EphA2 kinase induces an inactive conformation of integrins and inhibits cell spreading, migration and integrin-mediated adhesion. Moreover, EphA2 is constitutively associated with focal-adhesion kinase (FAK) in resting cells. Within one minute after stimulation of EphA2 with its ligand, ephrin-A1, the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 is recruited to EphA2; this is followed by dephosphorylation of FAK and paxillin, and dissociation of the FAK-EphA2 complex. We conclude that Eph kinases mediate some of their functions by negatively regulating integrins and FAK.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: P50 DK54178

    Nature cell biology 2000;2;2;62-9

  • Potential involvement of FRS2 in insulin signaling.

    Delahaye L, Rocchi S and Van Obberghen E

    INSERM, U-145 and IFR 50, Nice, France. delahaye@unice.fr

    Shp-2 is implicated in several tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathways. This phosphotyrosine phosphatase is composed of a catalytic domain in its C-terminus and two SH2 domains in its N-terminus. Shp-2 becomes activated upon binding through one or both SH2 domains to tyrosine phosphorylated molecules such as Shc or insulin receptor substrates. We were interested in finding a new molecule(s), tyrosine phosphorylated by the insulin receptor (IR), that could interact with Shp-2. To do so, we screened a human placenta complementary DNA (cDNA) library with the SH2 domain-containing part of Shp-2 using a modified yeast two-hybrid system. In this system we induce or repress the expression of a constitutive active IR beta-subunit. When expressed, IR phosphorylates proteins produced from the library that can then associate with Shp-2. Using this approach, we isolated FRS2 as a potential target for tyrosine phosphorylation by the IR. After cloning the entire cDNA, we found that 1) in the yeast two-hybrid system, FRS2 interacts with Shp-2 in a fashion dependent on the presence of the IR; and 2) in the PC12/IR cell-line, insulin leads to an increase in FRS2 association with the phosphatase. We next wanted to determine whether FRS2 could be a direct substrate for IR. In an in vitro kinase assay we found that wheat-germ agglutinin-purified IR phosphorylates glutathione-S-transferase-FRS2 fusion protein. Finally, in intact cells we show that insulin stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous FRS2. In summary, by screening a two-hybrid cDNA library, we have isolated FRS2 as a possible substrate for IR. We found that IR can directly phosphorylate FRS2. Moreover, in intact cells insulin stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of FRS2 and its subsequent association with Shp-2. Taken together these results suggest that FRS2 could participate in insulin signaling by recruiting Shp-2 and, hence, could function as a docking molecule similar to insulin receptor substrate proteins.

    Endocrinology 2000;141;2;621-8

  • Cytosolic tyrosine dephosphorylation of STAT5. Potential role of SHP-2 in STAT5 regulation.

    Yu CL, Jin YJ and Burakoff SJ

    Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    STAT5, a member of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), is important in modulating T cell functions through interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptors. Like other STAT proteins, STAT5 undergoes a rapid activation and inactivation cycle upon cytokine stimulation. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are critical in regulating STAT5 activity. A number of protein tyrosine kinases have been shown to phosphorylate STAT5; however, the phosphatases responsible for STAT5 dephosphorylation remain unidentified. Using CTLL-20 as a model system, we provide evidence that tyrosine dephosphorylation of STAT5 subsequent to IL-2-induced phosphorylation occurs in the absence of STAT5 nuclear translocation and new protein synthesis. Nevertheless, down-regulation of the upstream Janus kinase activity during the deactivation cycle of IL-2-induced signaling does involve new protein synthesis. These findings point to the constitutive presence of STAT5 tyrosine phosphatase activity in the cytosolic compartment. We further demonstrate that SHP-2, but not SHP-1, directly dephosphorylates STAT5 in an in vitro tyrosine phosphatase assay with purified proteins. Furthermore, tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT5 associates with the substrate-trapping mutant (Cys --> Ser) of SHP-2 but not SHP-1. These results suggest a potential role for cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine phosphatases in directly dephosphorylating STAT proteins and in maintaining a basal steady state level of STAT activity.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1-F32-CA-79154-01, CA-70758

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;1;599-604

  • SH2-B and SIRP: JAK2 binding proteins that modulate the actions of growth hormone.

    Carter-Su C, Rui L and Stofega MR

    Department of Physiology, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109-0622, USA.

    Growth hormone (GH) has long been known to be a primary determinant of body height and an important regulator of body metabolism, yet the cellular and molecular bases for these effects of GH are only beginning to be understood. In 1993, GH receptor (GHR) was first observed to bind to the tyrosine kinase JAK2. GH increased JAK2's affinity for GHR, potently activated JAK2, and stimulated the phosphorylation of tyrosines within JAK2 and the cytoplasmic domain of GHR. In the intervening six years, a variety of signaling molecules have been identified that are tyrosyl phosphorylated in response to GH, presumably by the activated JAK2. These signaling molecules include 1) the latent cytoplasmic transcription factors--designated signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stats)--that have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of GH-dependent genes; 2) Shc proteins that lead to activation of the Ras-MAP kinase pathway: and 3) insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins that bind and thereby activate phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase and presumably other proteins. Recently, we have identified two additional signaling molecules for GH that bind to JAK2 and are phosphorylated on tyrosines in response to GH: SH2-B and signal regulated protein (SIRP). Based upon amino acid sequence analysis, SH2-B is presumed to be a cytoplasmic adapter protein. It binds with high affinity via its SH2 domain to phosphorylated tyrosines within JAK2. GH-induced binding of SH2-B to JAK2 via this site potently activates JAK2, leading to enhanced tyrosyl phosphorylation of Stat proteins and other cellular proteins. Because of its other potential protein-protein interaction domains and its recruitment and phosphorylation by kinases that are not activated by SH2-B, SH2-B is thought likely to mediate other, more-specific actions of GH, as yet to be determined. SIRP is a transmembrane protein that is now known to bind to integrin-associated protein. It appears to bind directly to JAK2 by a process that does not require tyrosyl phosphorylation, although is itself highly phosphorylated on tyrosines in response to GH. The phosphorylated SIRP recruits one or more molecules of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 that, in turn, de-phosphorylates SIRP and most likely JAK2. Thus, SIRP is predicted to be a negative regulator of GH action. It seems likely that the diverse actions of GH will be found to require coordinated interaction of all of these signaling proteins with each other as well as with other signaling molecules that are activated by GH and the numerous other ligands that are present at cells during a response to GH.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK034171, R01 DK054222, R01-DK34171, R01-DK48293, R01-DK54222

    Recent progress in hormone research 2000;55;293-311

  • Tie-1 receptor tyrosine kinase endodomain interaction with SHP2: potential signalling mechanisms and roles in angiogenesis.

    Marron MB, Hughes DP, McCarthy MJ, Beaumont ER and Brindle NP

    University of Leicester Cardiovascular Research Institute, UK.

    The endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase plays an essential role in vascular development where it is thought to be required for vessel maturation and stabilization. The ligands responsible for activating Tie-1, its signalling pathways and specific cellular functions are however not known. As with some other receptor tyrosine kinases, Tie-1 is subject to extracellular proteolytic cleavage generating a membrane bound receptor fragment comprising the intracellular and transmembrane domains. Here we examine the signalling potential of this Tie-1 endodomain. We show that the Tie-1 endodomain has poor ability to induce tyrosine phosphorylation. However, on formation the endodomain physically associates with a number of tyrosine phosphorylated signalling intermediates including the tyrosine phosphatase and adaptor protein SHP2. The assembly of this multimolecular complex is consistent with the endodomain having a ligand-independent signalling role in the endothelial cell. The potential roles of ectodomain cleavage and cleavage activated signalling in regulating microvessel stability in angiogenesis, vessel remodelling and regression are considered.

    Advances in experimental medicine and biology 2000;476;35-46

  • Identification of Tek/Tie2 binding partners. Binding to a multifunctional docking site mediates cell survival and migration.

    Jones N, Master Z, Jones J, Bouchard D, Gunji Y, Sasaki H, Daly R, Alitalo K and Dumont DJ

    Division of Cancer Biology Research, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5.

    The Tek/Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase plays a pivotal role in vascular and hematopoietic development. To study the signal transduction pathways that are mediated by this receptor, we have used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify signaling molecules that associate with the phosphorylated Tek receptor. Using this approach, we demonstrate that five molecules, Grb2, Grb7, Grb14, Shp2, and the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase can interact with Tek in a phosphotyrosine-dependent manner through their SH2 domains. Mapping of the binding sites of these molecules on Tek reveals the presence of a multisubstrate docking site in the carboxyl tail of Tek (Tyr(1100)). Mutation of this site abrogates binding of Grb2 and Grb7 to Tek in vivo, and this site is required for tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb7 and p85 in vivo. Furthermore, stimulation of Tek-expressing cells with Angiopoietin-1 results in phosphorylation of both Tek and p85 and in activation of endothelial cell migration and survival pathways that are dependent in part on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Angiopoietin-1-induced signaling from the Tek receptor is mediated by a multifunctional docking site that is responsible for activation of both cell migration and cell survival pathways.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;43;30896-905

  • Identification and molecular cloning of p75/AIRM1, a novel member of the sialoadhesin family that functions as an inhibitory receptor in human natural killer cells.

    Falco M, Biassoni R, Bottino C, Vitale M, Sivori S, Augugliaro R, Moretta L and Moretta A

    Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, 16132 Genova, Italy.

    In this study, by the generation of a specific monoclonal antibody, we identified p75/AIRM1 (for adhesion inhibitory receptor molecule 1), a novel inhibitory receptor that is mostly confined to human natural killer cells. p75/AIRM1 is a 75-kD glycoprotein that, upon sodium pervanadate treatment, becomes tyrosine phosphorylated and associates to src homology 2 domain-bearing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1. The p75/AIRM1 gene is located on human chromosome 19 and encodes a novel member of the sialoadhesin family characterized by three immunoglobulin-like extracellular domains (one NH(2)-terminal V-type and two C2-type) and a classical immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in the cytoplasmic portion. The highest amino acid sequence similarity has been found with the myeloid-specific CD33 molecule and the placental CD33L1 protein. Similar to other sialoadhesin molecules, p75/AIRM1 appears to mediate sialic acid-dependent ligand recognition.

    The Journal of experimental medicine 1999;190;6;793-802

  • Leptin receptor activation of SH2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 modulates Ob receptor signal transduction.

    Li C and Friedman JM

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY, USA.

    Leptin exerts its weight-reducing effects by binding to its receptor and activating signal transduction in hypothalamic neurons and other cell types. To identify the components of the leptin signal transduction pathway, an approach was developed in which bacterially expressed phosphorylated fragments of Ob receptor b (Ob-Rb) were used as affinity agents. Leptin binding to the Ob-Rb form of the leptin receptor leads to tyrosyl phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain of its receptor. Two of the three cytoplasmic tyrosines of Ob-Rb, at positions 985 and 1138, are phosphorylated after leptin treatment. Affinity chromatography using a tyrosine-phosphorylated fragment spanning Tyr 985 of Ob-Rb was used to identify proteins that bind to this site. The SH2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) was isolated from bovine and mouse hypothalamus by using this method. After cotransfection of Ob-Rb, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and SHP-2 into 293T cells, leptin results in direct binding of SHP-2 to the phosphorylated Tyr 985. The bound SHP-2 is itself tyrosine phosphorylated after leptin treatment. SHP-2 is not phosphorylated after leptin treatment when a Y-->F 985 receptor mutant is cotransfected. In the absence of SHP-2 phosphorylation, the level of JAK2 phosphorylation was increased. Tyrosyl phosphorylation of the leptin receptor and signal transducer and activater of transcription 3 (STAT3) are not affected by phosphorylation of SHP-2. These data suggest that activation of SHP-2 by the leptin receptor results in a decreased phosphorylation of JAK2 and may act to attenuate leptin signal transduction. The method used in this report can in principle be used to isolate additional components of the leptin, or other, signal transduction pathway.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1999;96;17;9677-82

  • H-2Dd engagement of Ly49A leads directly to Ly49A phosphorylation and recruitment of SHP1.

    Daws MR, Eriksson M, Oberg L, Ullén A and Sentman CL

    Umeâ Center for Molecular Pathogenesis, Umeâ University, Umeâ, Sweden.

    We have used a number of in vitro and in vivo techniques to identify the molecules that can bind to the cytoplasmic tail of the Ly49A receptor. Affinity chromatography using peptides corresponding to the N-terminal 18 amino acids of Ly49A allowed the recovery of a number of proteins that bound preferentially to the tyrosine-phosphorylated peptide, including SH2-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP1) and the SH2-containing inositol 5' phosphatase (SHIP). In another approach, using the entire cytoplasmic domain of the Ly49A receptor, we found that SHP2 also interacted with the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the Ly49A cytoplasmic tail. Using BIACORE(R)2000 analysis, we determined that both SHP1 and SHP2 bound to the tyrosine-phosphorylated cytoplasmic tail of Ly49A with affinities in the nanomolar range, whilst SHIP showed no binding. Mutation of tyrosine-36 to phenylalanine did not significantly affect the affinities of these proteins for the tyrosine-phosphorylated cytoplasmic tail of Ly49A. In addition, using a whole-cell system with T-cell lymphoma cell lines that expressed the Ly49A receptor or its H-2Dd ligand, we determined that engagement of Ly49A by its major histocompatibility complex (MHC) ligand leads to tyrosine-phosphorylation events and recruitment of SHP1. Recruitment of SHP1 was rapid and transient, reaching a maximum after 5 min. These data suggest that mechanisms for the inhibitory signal are generated following receptor engagement. They also provide direct evidence that ligand engagement of the Ly49A receptor is responsible for recruitment of downstream signalling molecules.

    Immunology 1999;97;4;656-64

  • Gab2, a new pleckstrin homology domain-containing adapter protein, acts to uncouple signaling from ERK kinase to Elk-1.

    Zhao C, Yu DH, Shen R and Feng GS

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Walther Oncology Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-5254, USA.

    We describe a novel human adapter molecule containing a pleckstrin homolgy (PH) domain at the N terminus that is closely related to human Grb2-associated binder 1, Gab1, and Drosophila daughter of sevenless. We designate this protein as Gab2. Northern blot analysis indicates that Gab2 is widely expressed and has an overlapping but distinctive expression pattern as compared with Gab1, with high levels of Gab2 mRNA detected in the heart, brain, placenta, spleen, ovary, peripheral blood leukocytes, and spinal cord. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation, Gab2 physically interacts with Shp2 tyrosine phosphatase and Grb2 adapter protein. Strikingly, Gab2 has an inhibitory effect on the activation of Elk-1-dependent transcription triggered by a dominant active Ras mutant (RasV12) or under growth factor stimulation, whereas Gab1 acts to potentiate slightly the Elk-1 activity in the same system. In contrast to the reciprocal effects of Gab1 and Gab2 in mediating Elk-1 induction, these two molecules have a similar function in extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation induced by either oncogenic Ras or growth factor stimulation. Taken together, these results argue that Gab1 and Gab2, two closely related PH-containing adapter proteins, might have distinct roles in coupling cytoplasmic-nuclear signal transduction. This is the first evidence that an intracellular molecule with a PH domain operates as a negative effector in signal relay to the regulation of gene expression.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R29GM53660

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;28;19649-54

  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor stimulates interactions of Shp2 with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Grb2 in cultured cerebral cortical neurons.

    Yamada M, Ohnishi H, Sano S, Araki T, Nakatani A, Ikeuchi T and Hatanaka H

    Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

    Shp2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase possessing SH2 domains, is utilized in the intracellular signaling of various growth factors. Shp2 is highly expressed in the CNS. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, which also shows high levels of expression in the CNS, exerts neurotrophic and neuromodulatory effects in CNS neurons. We examined how BDNF utilizes Shp2 in its signaling pathway in cultured cerebral cortical neurons. We found that BDNF stimulated coprecipitation of several tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins with anti-Shp2 antibody and that Grb2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) were coprecipitated with anti-Shp2 antibody in response to BDNF. In addition, both anti-Grb2 and anti-PI3-K antibodies coprecipitated Shp2 in response to BDNF. The BDNF-stimulated coprecipitation of the tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, Grb2, and PI3-K with anti-Shp2 antibody was completely inhibited by K252a, an inhibitor of TrkB receptor tyrosine kinase. This BDNF-stimulated Shp2 signaling was markedly sustained as well as BDNF-induced phosphorylation of TrkB and mitogen-activated protein kinases. In PC12 cells stably expressing TrkB, both BDNF and nerve growth factor stimulated Shp2 signaling similarly to that by BDNF in cultured cortical neurons. These results indicated that Shp2 shows cross-talk with various signaling molecules including Grb2 and PI3-K in BDNF-induced signaling and that Shp2 may be involved in the regulation of various actions of BDNF in CNS neurons.

    Journal of neurochemistry 1999;73;1;41-9

  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances association of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1D with the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in the cortical postsynaptic density.

    Lin SY, Wu K, Len GW, Xu JL, Levine ES, Suen PC, Mount HT and Black IB

    Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 679 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

    Our recent studies revealed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) rapidly enhances tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the NMDA receptor subunit, NR2B, in the postsynaptic density (PSD), potentially regulating synaptic plasticity. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic NR2B signaling, we examined the protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP1D; BDNF reportedly increases association of PTP1D with tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in cortical neurons and PC 12 cells. We now report that PTP1D is an intrinsic component of the rat cerebrocortical PSD, based on Western blot analysis using specific anti-PTP1D antibodies. In addition, NR2B was co-immunoprecipitated with PTP1D using anti-NR2B antibodies or anti-PTP1D antibodies, indicating physical association of the subunit with PTP1D. Moreover, treatment of the purified PSD with BDNF for 5 min elicited a two-fold increase in the association of NR2B with PTP1D. The BDNF action appeared to be specific, since nerve growth factor, another member of the neurotrophin gene family, did not alter the association. Finally, an overlay assay revealed that BDNF caused a two-fold increase in binding of blotted PSD NR2B proteins to PTP1D-SH2 domains, revealing molecular mechanisms mediating the PTP1D-NR2B binding. Taken together, our results raise the possibility that PTP1D participates in BDNF-mediated NR2B signaling cascades at the postsynaptic site, thereby regulating synaptic plasticity.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD 23315

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1999;70;1;18-25

  • Fcgamma receptor-mediated inhibition of human B cell activation: the role of SHP-2 phosphatase.

    Koncz G, Pecht I, Gergely J and Sármay G

    Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Science at the Department of Immunology, L. Eötvös University, Göd.

    Co-clustering of the type II receptors binding the Fc part of IgG (FcgammaRIIb) and B cell receptors results in the translocation of cytosolic, negative regulatory molecules to the phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (P-ITIM) of the FcgammaRIIb. SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatases (SHP-1 and SHP-2), and the polyphosphoinositol 5'-phosphatase (SHIP) have been reported earlier to bind to murine FcgammaRIIb P-ITIM. However, neither the functional substrates of these enzymes, nor the mechanism of the inhibition are fully resolved. We show here that the human FcgammaRIIb binds SHP-2 when co-clustered with the B cell receptors, whereas its synthetic P-ITIM peptide bindes SHP-2 and SHIP in lysates of the Burkitt's lymphoma cell line BL41. The P-ITIM peptide binding enhances SHP-2 activity, resulting in dephosphorylation and release of P-ITIM-bound SHIP and Shc. Moreover, P-ITIM-bound SHP-2 dephosphorylates synthetic peptides corresponding to the sites of tyrosine phosphorylation on SHIP and Shc, indicating that these proteins are its potential substrates. Thus SHP-2-induced dephosphorylation may modulate the intracellular localization and/or activity of SHIP and Shc, thereby inhibiting further activation pathways which they mediate.

    European journal of immunology 1999;29;6;1980-9

  • Differential association of cytoplasmic signalling molecules SHP-1, SHP-2, SHIP and phospholipase C-gamma1 with PECAM-1/CD31.

    Pumphrey NJ, Taylor V, Freeman S, Douglas MR, Bradfield PF, Young SP, Lord JM, Wakelam MJ, Bird IN, Salmon M and Buckley CD

    Division of Immunity and Infection, University of Birmingham, UK.

    Recent studies have shown that, in addition to its role as an adhesion receptor, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1/CD31 becomes phosphorylated on tyrosine residues Y663 and Y686 and associates with protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2. In this study, we screened for additional proteins which associate with phosphorylated platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1, using surface plasmon resonance. We found that, besides SHP-1 and SHP-2, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 binds the cytoplasmic signalling proteins SHIP and PLC-gamma1 via their Src homology 2 domains. Using two phosphopeptides, NSDVQpY663TEVQV and DTETVpY686SEVRK, we demonstrate differential binding of SHP-1, SHP-2, SHIP and PLC-gamma1. All four cytoplasmic signalling proteins directly associate with cellular platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1, immunoprecipitated from pervanadate-stimulated THP-1 cells. These results suggest that overlapping immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif/immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-like motifs within platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 mediate differential interactions between the Src homology 2 containing signalling proteins SHP-1, SHP-2, SHIP and PLC-gamma1.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    FEBS letters 1999;450;1-2;77-83

  • Fyn kinase-directed activation of SH2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 by Gi protein-coupled receptors in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    Tang H, Zhao ZJ, Huang XY, Landon EJ and Inagami T

    Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.

    SHP-2, an SH2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase, plays an important role in receptor tyrosine kinase-regulated cell proliferation and differentiation. Little is known about the activation mechanisms and the participation of SHP-2 in the activity of G protein-coupled receptors lacking intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. We show that the activity of SHP-2 (but not SHP-1) is specifically stimulated by the selective alpha2A-adrenergic receptor agonist UK14304 and by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. UK14304 and LPA promote the tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP-2 and its association with Grb2. The agonist-induced direct interaction of Grb2 with SHP-2 is mediated by the SH2 domain of Grb2 and the tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP-2. Rapid activation of Src family kinase by UK14304 preceded the SHP-2 activation. Among the Src family members (Src, Fyn, Lck, Yes, and Lyn) present in MDCK cells, Fyn was the only one specifically associated with SHP-2, and the physical interaction between them, which requires the Src family kinase activity, was increased in response to the agonists. Pertussis toxin, PP1 (a selective Src family kinase inhibitor), or overexpression of a catalytically inactive mutant of Fyn blocked the UK14304- or LPA-stimulated activity of SHP-2, SHP-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, and SHP-2 association with Grb2. Therefore, we have demonstrated for the first time that the activation of SHP-2 by these Gi protein-coupled receptors requires Fyn kinase and that there is a specific physical interaction of Fyn kinase with SHP-2 in MDCK cells.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-57393, HL-58205

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;18;12401-7

  • The myeloid-specific sialic acid-binding receptor, CD33, associates with the protein-tyrosine phosphatases, SHP-1 and SHP-2.

    Taylor VC, Buckley CD, Douglas M, Cody AJ, Simmons DL and Freeman SD

    Cell Adhesion Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom.

    The myeloid restricted membrane glycoprotein, CD33, is a member of the recently characterized "sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-related lectin" family. Although CD33 can mediate sialic acid-dependent cell interactions as a recombinant protein, its function in myeloid cells has yet to be determined. Since CD33 contains two potential immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs in its cytoplasmic tail, we investigated whether it might act as a signaling receptor in myeloid cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation of CD33 in myeloid cell lines was stimulated by cell surface cross-linking or by pervanadate, and inhibited by PP2, a specific inhibitor of Src family tyrosine kinases. Phosphorylated CD33 recruited both the protein-tyrosine phosphatases, SHP-1 and SHP-2. CD33 was dephosphorylated in vitro by the co-immunoprecipitated tyrosine phosphatases, suggesting that it might also be an in vivo substrate. The first CD33 phosphotyrosine motif is dominant in CD33-SHP-1/SHP-2 interactions, since mutating tyrosine 340 in a CD33-cytoplasmic tail fusion protein significantly reduced binding to SHP-1 and SHP-2 in THP-1 lysates, while mutation of tyrosine 358 had no effect. Furthermore, the NH2-terminal Src homology 2 domain of SHP-1 and SHP-2, believed to be essential for phosphatase activation, selectively bound a CD33 phosphopeptide containing tyrosine 340 but not one containing tyrosine 358. Finally, mutation of tyrosine 340 increased red blood cell binding by CD33 expressed in COS cells. Hence, CD33 signaling through selective recruitment of SHP-1/SHP-2 may modulate its ligand(s) binding activity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;17;11505-12

  • SHP2-interacting transmembrane adaptor protein (SIT), a novel disulfide-linked dimer regulating human T cell activation.

    Marie-Cardine A, Kirchgessner H, Bruyns E, Shevchenko A, Mann M, Autschbach F, Ratnofsky S, Meuer S and Schraven B

    Immunomodulation Laboratory of the Institute for Immunology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

    T lymphocytes express several low molecular weight transmembrane adaptor proteins that recruit src homology (SH)2 domain-containing intracellular molecules to the cell membrane via tyrosine-based signaling motifs. We describe here a novel molecule of this group termed SIT (SHP2 interacting transmembrane adaptor protein). SIT is a disulfide-linked homodimeric glycoprotein that is expressed in lymphocytes. After tyrosine phosphorylation by src and possibly syk protein tyrosine kinases SIT recruits the SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 via an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif. Overexpression of SIT in Jurkat cells downmodulates T cell receptor- and phytohemagglutinin-mediated activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) by interfering with signaling processes that are probably located upstream of activation of phospholipase C. However, binding of SHP2 to SIT is not required for inhibition of NF-AT induction, suggesting that SIT not only regulates NF-AT activity but also controls NF-AT unrelated pathways of T cell activation involving SHP2.

    The Journal of experimental medicine 1999;189;8;1181-94

  • Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PIR-B) inhibits BCR-induced activation of Syk and Btk by SHP-1.

    Maeda A, Scharenberg AM, Tsukada S, Bolen JB, Kinet JP and Kurosaki T

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Liver Research, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi, Japan.

    Coligation of paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PIR-B) with B cell antigen receptor (BCR) blocks antigen-induced B cell activation. This inhibition is mediated in part by recruitment of SHP-1 and SHP-2 to the phosphorylated ITIMs in the cytoplasmic domain of PIR-B; however the molecular target(s) of these phosphatases remain elusive. Here we show that PIR-B ligation inhibits the BCR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Igalpha/Igbeta, Syk, Btk and phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma2. Overexpression of a catalytically inactive form of SHP-1 prevents the PIR-B-mediated inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk, Btk, and PLC-gamma2. Dephosphorylation of Syk and Btk mediated by SHP-1 leads to a decrease of their kinase activity, which in turn inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma2. Furthermore, we define a requirement for Lyn in mediating tyrosine phosphorylation of PIR-B. Based on these results, we propose a model of PIR-B-mediated inhibitory signaling in which coligation of PIR-B and BCR results in phosphorylation of ITIMs by Lyn, subsequent recruitment of SHP-1, and a resulting inhibition of the BCR-induced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate generation by dephosphorylation of Syk and Btk.

    Oncogene 1999;18;14;2291-7

  • Concerted activity of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 and focal adhesion kinase in regulation of cell motility.

    Mañes S, Mira E, Gómez-Mouton C, Zhao ZJ, Lacalle RA and Martínez-A C

    Department of Immunology and Oncology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid, Spain. smanes@cnb.uam.es

    The coordinated interplay of substrate adhesion and deadhesion is necessary for cell motility. Using MCF-7 cells, we found that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) induces the adhesion of MCF-7 to vitronectin and collagen in a dose- and time-dependent manner, suggesting that IGF-I triggers the activation of different integrins. On the other hand, IGF-I promotes the association of insulin receptor substrate 1 with the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, resulting in FAK and paxillin dephosphorylation. Abrogation of SHP-2 catalytic activity with a dominant-negative mutant (SHP2-C>S) abolishes IGF-I-induced FAK dephosphorylation, and cells expressing SHP2-C>S show reduced IGF-I-stimulated chemotaxis compared with either mock- or SHP-2 wild-type-transfected cells. This impairment of cell migration is recovered by reintroduction of a catalytically active SHP-2. Interestingly, SHP-2-C>S cells show a larger number of focal adhesion contacts than wild-type cells, suggesting that SHP-2 activity participates in the integrin deactivation process. Although SHP-2 regulates mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD-98059 has only a marginal effect on MCF-7 cell migration. The role of SHP-2 as a general regulator of cell chemotaxis induced by other chemotactic agents and integrins is discussed.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1999;19;4;3125-35

  • Gab-family adapter proteins act downstream of cytokine and growth factor receptors and T- and B-cell antigen receptors.

    Nishida K, Yoshida Y, Itoh M, Fukada T, Ohtani T, Shirogane T, Atsumi T, Takahashi-Tezuka M, Ishihara K, Hibi M and Hirano T

    Division of Molecular Oncology, Biomedical Research Center, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka, Japan.

    We previously found that the adapter protein Gab1 (110 kD) is tyrosine-phosphorylated and forms a complex with SHP-2 and PI-3 kinase upon stimulation through either the interleukin-3 receptor (IL-3R) or gp130, the common receptor subunit of IL-6-family cytokines. In this report, we identified another adapter molecule (100 kD) interacting with SHP-2 and PI-3 kinase in response to various stimuli. The molecule displays striking homology to Gab1 at the amino acid level; thus, we named it Gab2. It contains a PH domain, proline-rich sequences, and tyrosine residues that bind to SH2 domains when they are phosphorylated. Gab1 is phosphorylated on tyrosine upon stimulation through the thrombopoietin receptor (TPOR), stem cell factor receptor (SCFR), and T-cell and B-cell antigen receptors (TCR and BCR, respectively), in addition to IL-3R and gp130. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Gab2 was induced by stimulation through gp130, IL-2R, IL-3R, TPOR, SCFR, and TCR. Gab1 and Gab2 were shown to be substrates for SHP-2 in vitro. Overexpression of Gab2 enhanced the gp130 or Src-related kinases-mediated ERK2 activation as that of Gab1 did. These data indicate that Gab-family molecules act as adapters for transmitting various signals.

    Blood 1999;93;6;1809-16

  • Flt3 signaling involves tyrosyl-phosphorylation of SHP-2 and SHIP and their association with Grb2 and Shc in Baf3/Flt3 cells.

    Zhang S, Mantel C and Broxmeyer HE

    Department of Microbiology/Immunology, and the Walther Oncology Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202-5254, USA.

    Flt3 ligand (FL) is an early-acting potent co-stimulatory cytokine that regulates proliferation and differentiation of a number of blood cell lineages. Its receptor Flt3/Flk2 belongs to class III receptor tyrosine kinases that also include the receptors for colony-stimulating factor 1, Steel factor, and platelet-derived growth factor. Using CSF-1 receptor/Flt3 chimeras, two groups have characterized some of the post-receptor signaling events and substrate specificity of murine Flt3 receptor. However, there are few studies on the signaling pathway through human Flt3. We examined human Flt3 signaling pathways in a murine IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cell line Baf3, which stably expresses full-length human Flt3 receptor. This subline proliferates in response to human FL. Like the chimeric murine Flt3, human Flt3 undergoes autophosphorylation, associates with Grb2, and leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc on ligand binding. We found that SHP-2, but not SHP-1, is tyrosine-phosphorylated by FL stimulation. SHP-2 does not associate with Flt3, but binds directly to Grb2. SHIP is also tyrosine-phosphorylated and associates with Shc after FL simulation. We further examined the downstream signaling pathway. FL transiently activates MAP kinase. This activation could be blocked by PD98059, a specific MEK inhibitor. PD98059 also blocked cell proliferation in response to FL. These results demonstrate that SHP-2 and SHIP are important components in the human Flt3 signaling pathway and suggest that SHP-2 and SHIP, by forming complexes with adapter proteins Grb2 and Shc, may modulate MAP kinase activation, which may be necessary for the mitogenic signaling of Flt3.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01 HL 53586, R01 HL 54037, R01 HL 56416

    Journal of leukocyte biology 1999;65;3;372-80

  • Shp-2 tyrosine phosphatase functions as a negative regulator of the interferon-stimulated Jak/STAT pathway.

    You M, Yu DH and Feng GS

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Walther Oncology Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-5254, USA.

    Shp-2 is an SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase. Although the mechanism remains to be defined, substantial experimental data suggest that Shp-2 is primarily a positive regulator in cell growth and development. We present evidence here that Shp-2, while acting to promote mitogenic signals, also functions as a negative effector in interferon (IFN)-induced growth-inhibitory and apoptotic pathways. Treatment of mouse fibroblast cells lacking a functional Shp-2 with IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma resulted in an augmented suppression of cell viability compared to that of wild-type cells. To dissect the molecular mechanism, we examined IFN-induced activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, using a specific DNA probe (hSIE). The amounts of STAT proteins bound to hSIE upon IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma stimulation were significantly increased in Shp-2(-/-) cells. Consistently, tyrosine phosphorylation levels of Stat1 upon IFN-gamma treatment and, to a lesser extent, upon IFN-alpha stimulation were markedly elevated in mutant cells. Furthermore, IFN-gamma induced a higher level of caspase 1 expression in Shp-2(-/-) cells than in wild-type cells. Reintroduction of wild-type Shp-2 protein reversed the hypersensitivity of Shp-2(-/-) fibroblasts to the cytotoxic effect of IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma. Excessive activation of STATs by IFNs was also diminished in mutant cells in which Shp-2 had been reintroduced. Together, these results establish that Shp-2 functions as a negative regulator of the Jak/STAT pathway. We propose that Shp-2 acts to promote cell growth and survival through two mechanisms, i.e., the stimulation of growth factor-initiated mitogenic pathways and the suppression of cytotoxic effect elicited by cytokines, such as IFNs.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R29 GM053660, R29GM53660

    Molecular and cellular biology 1999;19;3;2416-24

  • Specificity of the SH2 domains of SHP-1 in the interaction with the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-bearing receptor gp49B.

    Wang LL, Blasioli J, Plas DR, Thomas ML and Yokoyama WM

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rheumatology Division, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

    Inhibitory receptors on hemopoietic cells critically regulate cellular function. Despite their expression on a variety of cell types, these inhibitory receptors signal through a common mechanism involving tyrosine phosphorylation of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), which engages Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing cytoplasmic tyrosine or inositol phosphatases. In this study, we have investigated the proximal signal-transduction pathway of an ITIM-bearing receptor, gp49B, a member of a newly described family of murine NK and mast cell receptors. We demonstrate that the tyrosine residues within the ITIMs are phosphorylated and serve for the association and activation of the cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Furthermore, we demonstrate a physiologic association between gp49B and SHP-1 by coimmunoprecipitation studies from NK cells. To address the mechanism of binding between gp49B and SHP-1, binding studies involving glutathione S-transferase SHP-1 mutants were performed. Utilizing the tandem SH2 domains of SHP-1, we show that either SH2 domain can interact with phosphorylated gp49B. Full-length SHP-1, with an inactivated amino SH2 domain, also retained gp49B binding. However, binding to gp49B was disrupted by inactivation of the carboxyl SH2 domain of full-length SHP-1, suggesting that in the presence of the phosphatase domain, the carboxyl SH2 domain is required for the recruitment of phosphorylated gp49B. Thus, gp49B signaling involves SHP-1, and this association is dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation of the gp49B ITIMs, and an intact SHP-1 carboxyl SH2 domain.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1999;162;3;1318-23

  • p85 subunit of PI3 kinase does not bind to human Flt3 receptor, but associates with SHP2, SHIP, and a tyrosine-phosphorylated 100-kDa protein in Flt3 ligand-stimulated hematopoietic cells.

    Zhang S and Broxmeyer HE

    Departments of Microbiology/Immunology and Medicine and Walther Oncology Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, 46202, USA.

    Flt3/Flk2 belongs to class III receptor tyrosine kinases. Like other members of type III receptor tyrosine kinases, murine Flt3 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of p85 and subsequently activation of PI3 kinase upon FL binding. While p85 binds murine Flt3 at Y958 in the carboxyl terminus of the receptor, human Flt3 does not have a potential p85-binding site in the carboxyl terminus. In this study, we examined whether p85 binds to human Flt3 in Baf3/Flt3 and THP-1 cells. In contrast to murine Flt3, p85 is not tyrosine phosphorylated after FL stimulation, nor does it bind Flt3 in both cell lines. Instead p85 associates inducibly with tyrosine phosphorylated SHP-2 and constitutively with SHIP and two tyrosine phosphorylated proteins with molecular weights about 100-kDa (p100) and 120-kDa (p120) in Baf3/Flt3 cells. The p100 associates with both p85 and SHP-2. In THP-1 cells, p85 associates inducibly with tyrosine phosphorylated SHIP, p100 and p120. These results indicate that p85 does not bind human Flt3, but forms a complex with SHP-2, SHIP, p100 and p120 in hematopoietic cells.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01 HL 53586, R01 HL 54037, R01 HL 56416

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1999;254;2;440-5

  • The carboxyl-terminal region of biliary glycoprotein controls its tyrosine phosphorylation and association with protein-tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 in epithelial cells.

    Huber M, Izzi L, Grondin P, Houde C, Kunath T, Veillette A and Beauchemin N

    McGill Cancer Centre, Medicine, and Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6, Canada.

    Biliary glycoprotein (Bgp, C-CAM, or CD66a) is an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule and functions as a tumor suppressor protein. We have previously shown that the Bgp1 isoform responsible for inhibition of colonic, liver, prostate, and breast tumor cell growth contains within its cytoplasmic domain two tyrosine residues positioned in immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) consensus sequences. Moreover, we determined that these residues, upon phosphorylation, associate with the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. In this report, we have further evaluated the structural bases of the association of Bgp1 with Tyr phosphatases. First, we demonstrate that Bgp1 also associates with the SHP-2 Tyr phosphatase, but not with an unrelated Tyr phosphatase, PTP-PEST. Association of Bgp1 and SHP-2 involves the Tyr residues within the Bgp1 ITIM sequences, Val at position +3 relative to the second Tyr (Tyr-515), and the SHP-2 N-terminal SH2 domain. In addition, our results indicate that residues +4, +5, and +6 relative to Tyr-515 in the Bgp1 cytoplasmic domain play a significant role in these interactions, as their deletion reduced Bgp1 Tyr phosphorylation and association with SHP-1 and SHP-2 by as much as 80%. Together, these results indicate that both SHP-1 and SHP-2 interact with the Bgp1 cytoplasmic domain via ITIM-like sequences. Furthermore, they reveal that the C-terminal amino acids of Bgp1 are critical for these interactions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;1;335-44

  • A novel heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein-like protein interacts with NS1 of the minute virus of mice.

    Harris CE, Boden RA and Astell CR

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada.

    NS1, the major nonstructural parvovirus protein of the minute virus of mice, is a multifunctional protein responsible for several aspects of viral replication. NS1 transactivates the P38 promoter (used to express the structural proteins), as well as its own strong promoter, P4. To study the mechanism of activation and to map regions of NS1 responsible for transactivation, NS1 and various deletions of NS1 were cloned in frame with the GAL4DB and cotransfected into COS-7 and LA9 cells with a synthetic GAL4-responsive reporter plasmid. These studies showed NS1 can directly activate transcription through its 129 carboxyl-terminal amino acid residues. Any deletion from this region of the C terminus, even as few as 8 amino acids, completely abolishes transactivation. A yeast two-hybrid system used to identify protein-protein interactions demonstrated that NS1 is able to dimerize when expressed in yeast cells. However, only an almost complete NS11-638 bait was able to interact with the full-length NS1. A two-hybrid screen identified a HeLa cell cDNA clone (NS1-associated protein 1 [NSAP1]) that interacts with NS11-276 and NS11-638. An additional sequence was predicted from human EST (expressed sequence tag) data, and the cDNA was estimated to be at least 2,221 bp long, potentially encoding a 562-amino-acid protein product. A polyclonal antibody raised to a synthetic peptide within NSAP1 recognizes an approximately 65-kDa cellular protein. This NSAP1 cDNA has not previously been characterized, but the predicted protein sequence is 80% identical to the recently identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) R (W. Hassfeld et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 26:439-445, 1998). NSAP1 contains four ribonucleoprotein domains, as well as a highly repetitive C-terminal region. A closely related mouse cDNA (deduced from murine EST data) encodes a protein with only a single amino acid residue change from the human protein. NSAP1 is predicted to be a 65-kDa polynucleotide binding protein, and it likely functions in the regulation of splicing and/or transport of mRNAs from the nucleus.

    Journal of virology 1999;73;1;72-80

  • Syp Y279, Y304 Can Mediate the Binding of Bcr-Abl to Grb2 and Other Proteins.

    Zhu K, Liu XP, Zeng G and Ye FY

    Clinic Lab./ Research Center, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. zhuk@cesmtp.ccf.org

    In this study we obtained 3 mutants of Syp cDNA Y279F, Y304F and Y546F by using the method of site-directed mutation in vitro. We then inserted them into the pXM mammalian expression vector, and transferred the plasmids into K562 cells. Western Blot has found WT/ 3MT Syp are expressed in the K562 cells. Immunoprecipitation and Immunoblot have found that WT, Y279F, Y304F and Y546F Syp can bind directly to the Bcr-Abl in vivo. However, we found that mutation of Syp Y279F can block the binding of Grb2 SH2 to Syp mutation of Syp Y304F can block the binding of Shc SH2 to Syp in vitro. As a adaptor, Syp can mediate binding of Bcr-Abl to Shc and Grb2.Grb2 bind to Syp pY279, Shc bind to Syp pY304 in vitro.

    Sheng wu hua xue yu sheng wu wu li xue bao Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica 1999;31;4;448-450

  • Direct binding of Shc, Grb2, SHP-2 and p40 to the murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor.

    Ward AC, Monkhouse JL, Hamilton JA and Csar XF

    Institute of Hematology, Room Ee 1330e, Erasmus University Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ward@hema.fgg.eur.nl

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mediates the proliferation, differentiation and activation of cells in the granulocytic lineage. However, knowledge about the specific signaling pathways utilized by the G-CSF receptor (G-CSF-R) upon ligand binding remains limited. In this report, we show rapid phosphorylation of Shc upon stimulation of NFS-60 cells with G-CSF, and inducible association of Shc and Grb2 with the G-CSF-R in these cells. Using a tyrosine-phosphorylated GST-G-CSF-R fusion we demonstrate that Shc, Grb2 and SHP-2 directly bind the receptor via their respective SH2 domains, suggesting multiple routes of MAPK activation from the G-CSF-R are possible. In addition, we have identified an unknown p40 molecule which is associated with the G-CSF-R transiently following G-CSF stimulation, and a constitutively-associated p37 molecule.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1998;1448;1;70-6

  • Purification and cloning of PZR, a binding protein and putative physiological substrate of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2.

    Zhao ZJ and Zhao R

    Hematology Division, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-6305, USA. joe.zhao@mcmail.vanderbilt.edu

    Overexpression of a catalytically inactive mutant of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 in 293 cells resulted in hyperphosphorylation of a glycoprotein specifically associated with the enzyme. The protein has been purified to near homogeneity. Based on the amino acid sequences of peptides obtained from the protein, a full-length cDNA was isolated. The cDNA encodes a protein with a single transmembrane segment and a signal sequence. The extracellular portion of the protein contains a single immunoglobulin-like domain displaying 46% sequence identity to that of myelin P0, a major structural protein of peripheral myelin. The intracellular segment of the protein shows no significant sequence identity to any known protein except for two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs. We name the protein PZR for protein zero related. Transfection of the PZR cDNA in Jurkat cells gave rise to a protein of expected molecular size. Stimulation of cells with pervanadate resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of PZR and a near-stoichiometric association of PZR with SHP-2. Northern blotting analyses revealed that PZR is widely expressed in human tissues and is particularly abundant in heart, placenta, kidney, and pancreas. As a binding protein and a putative substrate of SHP-2, PZR protein may have an important role in cell signaling.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL57393

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;45;29367-72

  • Recruitment and activation of SHP-1 protein-tyrosine phosphatase by human platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1). Identification of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-like binding motifs and substrates.

    Hua CT, Gamble JR, Vadas MA and Jackson DE

    Division of Human Immunology, Hanson Centre for Cancer Research, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Adelaide, South Australia, 5000 Australia.

    Stimulation of platelet aggregation leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of receptors and signaling molecules including platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1). In this report, we demonstrate that both protein-tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 physically associate with different kinetics of assembly with tyrosine-phosphorylated human PECAM-1 during integrin alphaIIbbeta3-mediated platelet aggregation. Peptido-precipitation analysis revealed that tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides encompassing residues 658-668 and 681-691 of PECAM-1 bound specifically to both protein-tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2. We further show that the association of SHP-1 with PECAM-1 occurs through the direct interaction of the src homology region 2 domains of SHP-1 with two highly conserved phosphotyrosine binding motifs within PECAM-1 having the sequences NSDVQpY663TEVQV and DTETVpY686SEVRK (where pY represents phosphotyrosine). In vitro dephosphorylation experiments using phosphotyrosyl PECAM-1 peptides encompassing either Tyr-663 or Tyr-686 revealed induction of SHP-1 catalytic activity, suggesting that PECAM-1 serves as a SHP-1 substrate. Surface plasmon resonance studies reveal that recombinant SHP-2 binds PECAM-1 phosphopeptides with 5-fold higher affinity than recombinant SHP-1. These data suggest that in hematopoietic cells such as platelets, PECAM-1 cellular signaling is regulated by the selective recruitment and activation of two distinct protein-tyrosine phosphatases, SHP-1 and SHP-2, via a common immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory-like motif.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;43;28332-40

  • The COOH-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation sites on IRS-1 bind SHP-2 and negatively regulate insulin signaling.

    Myers MG, Mendez R, Shi P, Pierce JH, Rhoads R and White MF

    Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. myersmg@joslab.harvard.edu

    Activation of tyrosine kinases by numerous growth factor and cytokine receptors leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-proteins. Tyrosine-phosphorylated motifs on the IRS proteins bind to the SH2 domains in proteins that mediate downstream signals, including phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase, GRB-2, and SHP-2. We investigated the function of the two SHP-2 binding COOH-terminal tyrosines of IRS-1 by replacing them with phenylalanine (IRS-1(FCT)). IRS-1(FCT) failed to bind SHP-2 or mediate its tyrosine phosphorylation during insulin stimulation. Although several reports suggest a critical role for SHP-2 in insulin stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and cell proliferation, IRS-1(FCT) mediated these effects normally in 32D cells. Indeed, IRS-1(FCT) exhibited increased tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase binding and activation of protein synthesis in response to insulin. These results suggest that SHP-2 attentuates the phosphorylation and downstream signal transmission of IRS-1 and that the interaction of IRS-1 and SHP-2 is an important regulatory event which attenuates insulin metabolic responses.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 43808

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;41;26908-14

  • Binding of Shp2 tyrosine phosphatase to FRS2 is essential for fibroblast growth factor-induced PC12 cell differentiation.

    Hadari YR, Kouhara H, Lax I and Schlessinger J

    Department of Pharmacology, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA.

    FRS2 is a lipid-anchored docking protein that plays an important role in linking fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and nerve growth factor receptors with the Ras/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway. In this report, we demonstrate that FRS2 forms a complex with the N-terminal SH2 domain of the protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in response to FGF stimulation. FGF stimulation induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Shp2, leading to the formation of a complex containing Grb2 and Sos1 molecules. In addition, a mutant FRS2 deficient in both Grb2 and Shp2 binding induces a weak and transient MAP kinase response and fails to induce PC12 cell differentiation in response to FGF stimulation. Furthermore, FGF is unable to induce differentiation of PC12 cells expressing an FRS2 point mutant deficient in Shp2 binding. Finally, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of Shp2 is essential for sustained activation of MAP kinase and for potentiation of FGF-induced PC12 cell differentiation. These experiments demonstrate that FRS2 recruits Grb2 molecules both directly and indirectly via complex formation with Shp2 and that Shp2 plays an important role in FGF-induced PC12 cell differentiation.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1998;18;7;3966-73

  • Determination of Gab1 (Grb2-associated binder-1) interaction with insulin receptor-signaling molecules.

    Rocchi S, Tartare-Deckert S, Murdaca J, Holgado-Madruga M, Wong AJ and Van Obberghen E

    INSERM U145, Nice, France.

    The newly identified insulin receptor (IR) substrate, Gab1 [growth factor receptor bound 2 (Grb2)-associated binder-1] is rapidly phosphorylated on several tyrosine residues by the activated IR. Phosphorylated Gab1 acts as a docking protein for Src homology-2 (SH2) domain-containing proteins. These include the regulatory subunit p85 of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phosphotyrosine phosphatase, SHP-2. In this report, using a modified version of the yeast two-hybrid system, we localized which Gab1 phospho-tyrosine residues are required for its interaction with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and with SHP-2. Our results demonstrate that to interact with p85 or SHP-2 SH2 domains, Gab1 must be tyrosine phosphorylated by IR. Further, we found that Gab1 tyrosine 472 is the major site for association with p85, while tyrosines 447 and 589 are participating in this process. Concerning Gab1/SHP-2 interaction, only mutation of tyrosine 627 prevents binding of Gab1 to SHP-2 SH2 domains, suggesting the occurrence of a monovalent binding event. Finally, we examined the role of Gab1 PH (Pleckstrin homology) domain in Gab1/IR interaction and in Gab1 tyrosine phosphorylation by IR. Using the modified two-hybrid system and in vitro experiments, we found that the Gab1 PH domain is not important for IR/ Gab1 interaction and for Gab1 tyrosine phosphorylation. In contrast, in intact mammalian cells, Gab1 PH domain appears to be crucial for its tyrosine phosphorylation and association with SHP-2 after insulin stimulation.

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 1998;12;7;914-23

  • Grb10 identified as a potential regulator of growth hormone (GH) signaling by cloning of GH receptor target proteins.

    Moutoussamy S, Renaudie F, Lago F, Kelly PA and Finidori J

    Unité 344, Endocrinologie Moléculaire, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Faculté de Médecine Necker-Enfants Malades, 75730 Paris Cedex 15, France.

    The cloning of receptor targets procedure, used so far to identify proteins associated with tyrosine kinase receptors was modified to clone SH2 proteins able to bind to the growth hormone receptor (GHR). The cytoplasmic region of GHR, a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily does not contain tyrosine kinase activity. It was thus phosphorylated in bacteria by the Elk tyrosine kinase and radiolabeled to screen a mouse expression library. With this probe, we identified Shc and the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase as direct targets of the receptor. The other proteins identified, Csk, Shb, Grb4, and Grb10 are new potential transducers for cytokine receptors. We show in Huh-7 hepatoma cells that Grb10 and GHR associate under GH stimulation. Co-transfections in 293 cells further show that Grb10 interacts with both the GHR and Jak2. Functional tests demonstrate that Grb10 inhibits transcription of two reporter genes containing, respectively, the serum response element of c-fos and the GH response element 2 of the Spi2.1 gene, whereas it has no effect on a reporter gene containing only Stat5 binding elements. Our results suggest that Grb10 is a new target for a member of the cytokine receptor family that down-regulates some GH signaling pathways downstream of Jak2 and independently of Stat5.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;26;15906-12

  • Tyrosine 1213 of Flt-1 is a major binding site of Nck and SHP-2.

    Igarashi K, Isohara T, Kato T, Shigeta K, Yamano T and Uno I

    Life Science Research Center, Nippon Steel Corporation, Kawasaki, Japan. igarashi@lab1.nsc.co.jp

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) binds to its receptor tyrosine kinase Flt-1 and KDR/Flk-1 and stimulates their autophosphorylation. However, little is known about their downstream signal transduction properties. We examined the interactions of certain proteins with a SH2-domain with Flt-1 and KDR using the yeast two-hybrid system and found that Nck, SHP-2, PLC gamma, and PI3K p85 bind to Flt-1. Extensive site-directed mutagenesis of Flt-1 revealed their major binding sites. Nck, SHP-2, and PI3K bind to Y1213 of Flt-1. Nck also binds to Y1333 of Flt-1. These results suggest that Nck, SHP-2, PLC gamma, and PI3K play important roles in Flt-1 signal transduction and that Y1213 of Flt-1 is a major binding site of PI3K, Nck, and SHP-2.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998;246;1;95-9

  • The phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 participates in a multimeric signaling complex and regulates T cell receptor (TCR) coupling to the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in Jurkat T cells.

    Frearson JA and Alexander DR

    T Cell Laboratory, Department of Immunology, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge, CB2 4AT, United Kingdom.

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatases (SHPs) are increasingly being shown to play critical roles in protein tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling pathways. The role of SHP-1 as a negative regulator of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling has been established. To further explore the function of the other member of this family, SHP-2, in TCR-mediated events, a catalytically inactive mutant SHP-2 was expressed under an inducible promoter in Jurkat T cells. Expression of the mutant phosphatase significantly inhibited TCR-induced activation of the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)-2 member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, but had no effect on TCR-zeta chain tyrosine phosphorylation or TCR-elicited Ca2+ transients. Inactive SHP-2 was targeted to membranes resulting in the selective increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of three membrane-associated candidate SHP-2 substrates of 110 kD, 55-60 kD, and 36 kD, respectively. Analysis of immunoprecipitates containing inactive SHP-2 also indicated that the 110-kD and 36-kD Grb-2-associated proteins were putative substrates for SHP-2. TCR-stimulation of Jurkat T cells expressing wild-type SHP-2 resulted in the formation of a multimeric cytosolic complex composed of SHP-2, Grb-2, phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3'-kinase, and p110. A significant proportion of this complex was shown to be membrane associated, presumably as a result of translocation from the cytosol. Catalytically inactive SHP-2, rather than the wild-type PTPase, was preferentially localized in complex with Grb-2 and the p85 subunit of PI 3'-kinase, suggesting that the dephosphorylating actions of SHP-2 may regulate the association of these signaling molecules to the p110 complex. Our results show that SHP-2 plays a critical role in linking the TCR to the Ras/MAPK pathway in Jurkat T cells, and also provide some insight into the molecular interactions of SHP-2 that form the basis of this signal transduction process.

    The Journal of experimental medicine 1998;187;9;1417-26

  • Roles of the complex formation of SHPS-1 with SHP-2 in insulin-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.

    Takada T, Matozaki T, Takeda H, Fukunaga K, Noguchi T, Fujioka Y, Okazaki I, Tsuda M, Yamao T, Ochi F and Kasuga M

    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University School of Medicine, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650, Japan.

    SHPS-1 is a receptor-like protein that undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation and binds SHP-2, an SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase, in response to insulin and other mitogens. The overexpression of wild-type SHPS-1, but not of a mutant SHPS-1 in which all four tyrosine residues in its cytoplasmic region were mutated to phenylalanine, markedly enhanced insulin-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in Chinese hamster ovary cells that overexpress the human insulin receptor. Mutation of each tyrosine residue individually revealed that the major sites of tyrosine phosphorylation of SHPS-1 in response to insulin are Tyr449 and Tyr473. In addition, mutation of either Tyr449 or Tyr473 abolished the insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of SHPS-1 and its association with SHP-2. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing the NH2-terminal or COOH-terminal SH2 domains of SHP-2 bound preferentially to phosphotyrosyl peptides corresponding to the sequences surrounding Tyr449 or Tyr473, respectively, of SHPS-1. Furthermore, phosphotyrosyl peptides containing Tyr449 or Tyr473 were effective substrates for the phosphatase activity of recombinant SHP-2 in vitro. Together, these results suggest that insulin may induce phosphorylation of SHPS-1 at Tyr449 and Tyr473, to which SHP-2 then binds through its NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal SH2 domains, respectively. SHPS-1 may play a crucial role both in the recruitment of SHP-2 from the cytosol to a site near the plasma membrane and in increasing its catalytic activity, thereby positively regulating the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade in response to insulin.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;15;9234-42

  • SHP-1 binds and negatively modulates the c-Kit receptor by interaction with tyrosine 569 in the c-Kit juxtamembrane domain.

    Kozlowski M, Larose L, Lee F, Le DM, Rottapel R and Siminovitch KA

    Health Canada Life Sciences and the University of Ottawa, Canada. Maya_Kozlowski@hc-sc.gc.ca

    The SH2 domain-containing SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase has been shown to negatively regulate a broad spectrum of growth factor- and cytokine-driven mitogenic signaling pathways. Included among these is the cascade of intracellular events evoked by stem cell factor binding to c-Kit, a tyrosine kinase receptor which associates with and is dephosphorylated by SHP-1. Using a series of glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins containing either tyrosine-phosphorylated segments of the c-Kit cytosolic region or the SH2 domains of SHP-1, we have shown that SHP-1 interacts with c-Kit by binding selectively to the phosphorylated c-Kit juxtamembrane region and that the association of c-Kit with the larger of the two SHP-1 isoforms may be mediated through either the N-terminal or C-terminal SHP-1 SH2 domain. The results of binding assays with mutagenized GST-Kit juxtamembrane fusion proteins and competitive inhibition assays with phosphopeptides encompassing each c-Kit juxtamembrane region identified the tyrosine residue at position 569 as the major site for binding of SHP-1 to c-Kit and suggested that tyrosine 567 contributes to, but is not required for, this interaction. By analysis of Ba/F3 cells retrovirally transduced to express c-Kit receptors, phenylalanine substitution of c-Kit tyrosine residue 569 was shown to be associated with disruption of c-Kit-SHP-1 binding and induction of hyperproliferative responses to stem cell factor. Although phenylalanine substitution of c-Kit tyrosine residue 567 in the Ba/F3-c-Kit cells did not alter SHP-1 binding to c-Kit, the capacity of a second c-Kit-binding tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-2, to associate with c-Kit was markedly reduced, and the cells again showed hyperproliferative responses to stem cell factor. These data therefore identify SHP-1 binding to tyrosine 569 on c-Kit as an interaction pivotal to SHP-1 inhibitory effects on c-Kit signaling, but they indicate as well that cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatases other than SHP-1 may also negatively regulate the coupling of c-Kit engagement to proliferation.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1998;18;4;2089-99

  • Crystal structure of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2.

    Hof P, Pluskey S, Dhe-Paganon S, Eck MJ and Shoelson SE

    Joslin Diabetes Center and the Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    The structure of the SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase, determined at 2.0 angstroms resolution, shows how its catalytic activity is regulated by its two SH2 domains. In the absence of a tyrosine-phosphorylated binding partner, the N-terminal SH2 domain binds the phosphatase domain and directly blocks its active site. This interaction alters the structure of the N-SH2 domain, disrupting its phosphopeptide-binding cleft. Conversely, interaction of the N-SH2 domain with phosphopeptide disrupts its phosphatase recognition surface. Thus, the N-SH2 domain is a conformational switch; it either binds and inhibits the phosphatase, or it binds phosphoproteins and activates the enzyme. Recognition of bisphosphorylated ligands by the tandem SH2 domains is an integral element of this switch; the C-terminal SH2 domain contributes binding energy and specificity, but it does not have a direct role in activation.

    Cell 1998;92;4;441-50

  • Association of tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2, inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP with gp49B1, and chromosomal assignment of the gene.

    Kuroiwa A, Yamashita Y, Inui M, Yuasa T, Ono M, Nagabukuro A, Matsuda Y and Takai T

    Laboratory of Animal Genetics, School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-01, Japan.

    We have analyzed the molecules participating in the inhibitory function of gp49B1, a murine type I transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on mast cells and natural killer cells, as well as the chromosomal location of its gene. As assessed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis, tyrosine-phosphorylated, but not nonphosphorylated, synthetic peptides matching each of the two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-like sequences found in the cytoplasmic portion of gp49B1 associated with the approximately 65-kDa tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and approximately 70-kDa SHP-2 derived from RBL-2H3 cells. In addition, the phosphotyrosyl peptide matching the second ITIM-like sequence also bound the approximately 145-kDa inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase SHIP. Thus, it has been strongly suggested that the inhibitory nature of gp49B involves the recruitment of SHP-1, SHP-2, and SHIP for the delivery of inhibitory signal to the cell interior upon phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in their ITIMs. The gp49B gene has been found to be in the juxtaposition of its cognate gene, gp49A. The gene pair was shown to locate in the B4 band of mouse chromosome 10. In this region, no conserved linkage homology to human chromosome 19, where the genes for killer cell inhibitory receptors are found, has been identified.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;2;1070-4

  • Inhibition of antigen-induced T cell response and antibody-induced NK cell cytotoxicity by NKG2A: association of NKG2A with SHP-1 and SHP-2 protein-tyrosine phosphatases.

    Le Dréan E, Vély F, Olcese L, Cambiaggi A, Guia S, Krystal G, Gervois N, Moretta A, Jotereau F and Vivier E

    INSERM U463, Institut de Biologie et Faculté des Sciences, Nantes, France.

    Subsets of T and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes express the CD94-NKG2A heterodimer, a receptor for major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. We show here that engagement of the CD94-NKG2A heterodimer inhibits both antigen-driven tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release and cytotoxicity on melanoma-specific human T cell clones. Similarly, CD16-mediated NK cell cytotoxicity is extinguished by cross-linking of the CD94-NKG2A heterodimer. Combining in vivo and in vitro analysis, we report that both I/VxYxxL immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIM) present in the NKG2A intracytoplasmic domain associate upon tyrosine phosphorylation with the protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2, but not with the polyinositol phosphatase SHIP Determination of the dissociation constant, using surface plasmon resonance analysis, indicates that NKG2A phospho-ITIM interact directly with the SH2 domains of SHP-1 and SHP-2 with a high affinity. Engagement of the CD94-NKG2A heterodimer therefore appears as a protein-tyrosine phosphatase-based strategy that negatively regulates both antigen-induced T cell response and antibody-induced NK cell cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that this inhibitory pathway sets the threshold of T and NK cell activation.

    European journal of immunology 1998;28;1;264-76

  • The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR activates multiple signal transduction pathways in porcine aortic endothelial cells.

    Kroll J and Waltenberger J

    Department of Internal Medicine II (Cardiology), Ulm University Medical Center, Robert-Koch-Strasse 8, D-89081 Ulm, Federal Republic of Germany.

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (here referred to as VEGF) is an endothelium-specific growth factor that binds to two distinct receptor tyrosine kinases, designated Flt-1 and KDR/Flk-1. VEGF stimulates autophosphorylation of both receptors, but little is known about their signal transduction properties. In this study, we used porcine aortic endothelial (PAE) cells overexpressing KDR (PAE/KDR) to evaluate the interaction of KDR with intracellular proteins and compared them with Flt-1-expressing PAE cells (PAE/Flt-1). VEGF-induced stimulation of KDR results in the association and phosphorylation of the 46-, 52-, and 66-kDa isoforms of Shc and the induction of Shc-Grb2 complex formation. In a similar fashion, KDR associates with Grb2 and Nck in a ligand-dependent fashion, suggesting Shc, Grb2, and Nck as potential candidates involved in the regulation of endothelial function. Another strong candidate is mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, which is strongly activated in response to VEGF stimulation as demonstrated by phosphorylation of the specific substrate myelin basic protein. Inhibition of MAP kinase activation by PD98059, a specific MAP kinase kinase inhibitor, results in inhibition of VEGF-induced proliferation of PAE/KDR cells. In contrast, VEGF-induced stimulation of Flt-1 does not activate MAP kinase in PAE/Flt-1 cells. In this study we provide the first two examples of molecules potentially capable of functionally counteracting the endothelial response to VEGF, namely SHP-1 and SHP-2. These two SH2 protein-tyrosine phosphatases physically associate with KDR secondary to VEGF stimulation, raising the interesting possibility that both molecules participate in the generation and/or modulation of VEGF-induced signals. Taken together, our results substantially broaden the spectrum of KDR-associating molecules, indicating that endothelial function and angiogenesis are regulated by a diverse network of signal transduction cascades.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;51;32521-7

  • Transmembrane domain of gp130 contributes to intracellular signal transduction in hepatic cells.

    Kim H and Baumann H

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA.

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces the expression of acute phase plasma protein genes in hepatic cells through the action of gp130, the signal-transducing subunit of the IL-6 receptor. To identify whether the transmembrane domain of gp130 is required for signaling function, cytoplasmic forms of gp130 were constructed that consisted of the tetramerizing N-terminal domain of Bcr linked to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of gp130 (Bcr/gp130) or just to the cytoplasmic domain of gp130 (Bcr/gp130DeltaTM). The expression and function of both constructs were determined in transiently transfected COS-1 and HepG2 cells. Bcr/gp130 is capable of interacting with JAK1, JAK2, and TYK2; is constitutively active; and induces gene expression through IL-6-responsive elements. In contrast, Bcr/gp130DeltaTM, while expressed at a higher level than Bcr/gp130 and still able to interact with JAK1, is ineffective in recruiting the endogenous signal transduction pathways for inducing gene expression. However, Bcr/gp130DeltaTM initiates partial signaling in the presence of overexpressed JAK1 and TYK2, but not JAK2. The data suggest that the transmembrane domain of gp130 is necessary for signal transduction and determines the interaction with members of the Janus kinase family.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA26122

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;49;30741-7

  • Syk-independent tyrosine phosphorylation and association of the protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 with the high affinity IgE receptor.

    Kimura T, Zhang J, Sagawa K, Sakaguchi K, Appella E and Siraganian RP

    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Dental Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. tk51w@nih.gov

    Aggregation of the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilonRI), a member of the immune receptor family, results in the activation of protein tyrosine kinases and downstream signaling pathways. The two cytoplasmic Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatases, SHP-1 (also called SH-PTP1, PTP1C or HCP) and SHP-2 (also known as SH-PTP2, PTP1D, PTP2C, or Syp), are expressed in the RBL-2H3 rat mast cell line. Here we report that aggregation of Fc epsilonRI induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of both SHP-1 and SHP-2. This phosphorylation was independent of the presence of the protein tyrosine kinase Syk. Both SHP-1 and SHP-2 associated with Fc epsilonRI. Whereas SHP-1 was constitutively associated with the receptor, SHP-2 coprecipitated with Fc epsilonRI only after receptor aggregation. Fusion proteins containing either the full-length or the Src homology 2 domains of SHP-2 directly bound to the tyrosine-phosphorylated beta, but not the gamma, subunit of Fc epsilonRI. In the reciprocal experiments, synthetic phosphorylated peptides based on the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif of the beta, but not the gamma, subunit precipitated SHP-2. In contrast, neither fusion proteins nor synthetic peptides detected interaction between SHP-1 and Fc epsilonRI. In vitro, both SHP-1 and SHP-2 dephosphorylated tyrosine-phosphorylated beta and gamma subunits of Fc epsilonRI. Therefore, SHP-1 and SHP-2 associate with Fc epsilonRI by different mechanisms and can regulate the extent of the tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor subunits. Thus, unlike other immune cells in which inhibitory molecules are recruited by accessory proteins, Fc epsilonRI bind molecules that both activate and inhibit signal transduction.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1997;159;9;4426-34

  • Erythropoietin and IL-3 induce tyrosine phosphorylation of CrkL and its association with Shc, SHP-2, and Cbl in hematopoietic cells.

    Chin H, Saito T, Arai A, Yamamoto K, Kamiyama R, Miyasaka N and Miura O

    First Department of Internal Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan.

    The present study demonstrates that erythropoietin (Epo) and IL-3 induce tyrosine phosphorylation of the SH2/SH3-containing adapter protein CrkL and its transient association with tyrosine-phosphorylated SHP-2, Shc, and Cbl in a murine IL-3-dependent cell line, 32D, expressing the Epo receptor (EpoR). In these cells, CrkL was constitutively complexed with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor C3G, which was found to coimmunoprecipitate with Shc from Epo- or IL-3-stimulated cells. Studies using cells expressing mutant EpoRs showed that the Epo-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of CrkL is dependent on the membrane-proximal EpoR cytoplasmic region involved in the activation of Jak2 as well as the C-terminal 145 amino acid region which is required for tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP-2 and Shc. It was further revealed that CrkL is recruited to the tyrosine-phosphorylated EpoR, most likely through its interaction with tyrosine-phosphorylated Shc and SHP-2. These results suggest that CrkL is involved in the signaling pathways from the receptors for Epo and IL-3, most likely by modulating the activity of the Ras family GTPases through its interaction with C3G.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1997;239;2;412-7

  • Induced direct binding of the adapter protein Nck to the GTPase-activating protein-associated protein p62 by epidermal growth factor.

    Tang J, Feng GS and Li W

    The Ben May Institute for Cancer Research and the Department of Pharmacological and Physiological Sciences, the University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

    The SH3-SH3-SH3-SH2 adapter protein Nck links receptor tyrosine kinases, such as EGF and PDGF receptors, to downstream signaling pathways, among which p21cdc42/rac-activated kinase cascade, Sos-activated Ras signaling and the human Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp)-mediated actin cytoskeleton changes, have been implicated. In EGF stimulated cells, Nck co-immunoprecipitates with a number of phosphotyrosine proteins including the EGF receptor (Li et al., 1992 Mol. Cell. Biol. 12: 5824-2833). To identify the phosphotyrosine protein(s) that directly interacts with Nck and to distinguish it from indirectly associated proteins, preexisting phosphoytrosine protein complexes in the cell lysate were dissociated by heat and SDS prior to the test for binding to Nck. We found that Nck does not directly bind to EGF receptor, instead it binds via its SH2 domain to a 62 kDa phosphotyrosine protein. We present evidence demonstrating that the Nck-bound p62 is related to the previously identified GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-associated phosphotyrosine protein p62. (1) The Nck-bound and the GAP-bound p62 proteins co-migrate with each other in SDS-PAGE. (2) SH2 domains from Nck and GAP compete for binding to p62 in vitro. (3) Purified GST-Nck-SH2 binds directly to the GAP-associated p62. Under these conditions, SH2 domains from PLCgamma, PI-3 kinase, SHC, and Grb2 did not bind p62. (4) Tryptic phosphopeptide maps of the Nck- and the GAP-associated p62 proteins are identical. However, Nck and GAP do not co-immunoprecipitate with each other and apparently bind to different pools of p62. This study suggests that the GAP-associated p62 acts as an SH2 domain docking protein and mediates the interaction between Nck and EGF receptor in response to EGF stimulation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01CA65567-01A1

    Oncogene 1997;15;15;1823-32