G2Cdb::Human Disease report

Disease id
D00000244
Name
Gastric atrophy
Nervous system disease
no

Genes (1)

Gene Name/Description Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
G00001453 PTPN11
protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11
Y (16032704) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
G00001453 PTPN11
protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11
Y (17235629) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y

References

  • Association between serum pepsinogens and polymorphismof PTPN11 encoding SHP-2 among Helicobacter pylori seropositive Japanese.

    Goto Y, Ando T, Yamamoto K, Tamakoshi A, El-Omar E, Goto H and Hamajima N

    Department of Gastroenterology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays a crucial role in the development of gastric atrophy and cancer, and cagA-positive strains, which are universal in Japan, increase the risk of these outcomes substantially. The CagA protein is injected from attached H. pylori into gastric epithelial cells and undergoes Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the eukaryotic phosphatase SHP-2. The CagA/SHP-2 interactions elicit cellular changes that increase the risk of carcinogenesis. We investigated the association of a frequent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; JST057927; G-to-A) in the PTPN11 gene that encodes SHP-2 with gastric atrophy and gastric cancer in Japan. Gastric atrophy was assessed by measuring serum pepsinogen I and II levels. The subjects comprised 454 healthy controls (126 males; mean age, 58.4) and 202 gastric cancer cases (134 males and 68 females; mean age, 66.7). All gastric cancer cases and 250 (55%) controls were H. pylori seropositive; 179 (89%) of the gastric cancer cases had gastric atrophy compared to 137 (55%) of the H. pylori seropositive controls (p < 0.001). Among HP seropositive controls compared to the common PTPN11 G/G genotype, the odds ratio of atrophy was nonsignificantly reduced with the G/A genotype (0.70; 95% CI = 0.39-1.25) and significantly reduced with the A/A genotype (0.09; 95% CI = 0.01-0.72). Lower risk for gastric atrophy had a gene-dose association with the A allele (p = 0.01, trend test). There was a clear deficiency of the A/A genotype in those with atrophy compared to those without (1 subject in the gastric atrophy group vs. 8 in the group without). Cancer cases differed from controls in frequencies of PTPN11 G/A genotype only because of a higher prevalence of atrophy among the cancer cases. The G/A SNP in the PTPN11 gene appears to be a risk factor for gastric atrophy in subjects infected with cagA-positive H. pylori. This may explain why only a proportion of CagA-positive individuals develop gastric atrophy and gastric cancer, even though infection with cagA strains is universal in Asian countries such as Japan. The functional consequences of the G/A polymorphism remain to be elucidated.

    International journal of cancer 2006;118;1;203-8

  • Significant association between PTPN11 polymorphism and gastric atrophy among Japanese Brazilians.

    Kawai S, Goto Y, Ito LS, Oba-Shinjo SM, Uno M, Shinjo SK, Marie SK, Ishida Y, Nishio K, Naito M and Hamajima N

    Department of Preventive Medicine/Biostatistics and Medical Decision Making, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

    Background: Helicobacter pylori, especially the cytotoxin-associated antigen A (cagA)-positive strains, plays a crucial role in the development of gastric atrophy and gastric cancer. CagA delivered into gastric epithelial cells combines with src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2), possibly leading to atrophy/cancer. Our previous study found that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; IMS-JST057927) of the PTPN11 gene encoding SHP-2, was associated with gastric atrophy among H. pylori-seropositive subjects. This study aimed to examine the reproducibility of the association among Japanese residing in a different circumstance.

    Methods: The subjects were 918 healthy adult Japanese Brazilians from four different areas in Brazil. Blood was sampled from March to May 2001. The target SNP in intron 3 of PTPN11 was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction with confronting two-pair primers (PCR-CTPP). Gastric atrophy was evaluated with serum pepsinogens (PGs); PG I, less than 70 ng/dl and PG I/II ratio, less than 3.

    Results: The genotype frequency of PTPN11 was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: 65.5% for G/G, 30.4% for G/A, and 4.1% for A/A. The PTPN11 polymorphism had no significant association with H. pylori seropositivity. Among the H. pylori-seropositive subjects, the odds ratios (ORs) of gastric atrophy were 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-1.47) for the G/A genotype and 0.31 (95% CI, 0.10-0.95) for the A/A genotype, compared with the G/G genotype.

    Conclusions: The present study reproduced the significant association between the A/A genotype and reduced risk of gastric atrophy among Japanese outside Japan. According to the Japan Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (JSNP) database (db)SNP data, the G allele is very frequent among Japanese and rare in Caucasians. This fact may partly explain the distribution of gastric atrophy/cancer in the world.

    Gastric cancer : official journal of the International Gastric Cancer Association and the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association 2006;9;4;277-83

Literature (2)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • Association between serum pepsinogens and polymorphismof PTPN11 encoding SHP-2 among Helicobacter pylori seropositive Japanese.

    Goto Y, Ando T, Yamamoto K, Tamakoshi A, El-Omar E, Goto H and Hamajima N

    Department of Gastroenterology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays a crucial role in the development of gastric atrophy and cancer, and cagA-positive strains, which are universal in Japan, increase the risk of these outcomes substantially. The CagA protein is injected from attached H. pylori into gastric epithelial cells and undergoes Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the eukaryotic phosphatase SHP-2. The CagA/SHP-2 interactions elicit cellular changes that increase the risk of carcinogenesis. We investigated the association of a frequent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; JST057927; G-to-A) in the PTPN11 gene that encodes SHP-2 with gastric atrophy and gastric cancer in Japan. Gastric atrophy was assessed by measuring serum pepsinogen I and II levels. The subjects comprised 454 healthy controls (126 males; mean age, 58.4) and 202 gastric cancer cases (134 males and 68 females; mean age, 66.7). All gastric cancer cases and 250 (55%) controls were H. pylori seropositive; 179 (89%) of the gastric cancer cases had gastric atrophy compared to 137 (55%) of the H. pylori seropositive controls (p < 0.001). Among HP seropositive controls compared to the common PTPN11 G/G genotype, the odds ratio of atrophy was nonsignificantly reduced with the G/A genotype (0.70; 95% CI = 0.39-1.25) and significantly reduced with the A/A genotype (0.09; 95% CI = 0.01-0.72). Lower risk for gastric atrophy had a gene-dose association with the A allele (p = 0.01, trend test). There was a clear deficiency of the A/A genotype in those with atrophy compared to those without (1 subject in the gastric atrophy group vs. 8 in the group without). Cancer cases differed from controls in frequencies of PTPN11 G/A genotype only because of a higher prevalence of atrophy among the cancer cases. The G/A SNP in the PTPN11 gene appears to be a risk factor for gastric atrophy in subjects infected with cagA-positive H. pylori. This may explain why only a proportion of CagA-positive individuals develop gastric atrophy and gastric cancer, even though infection with cagA strains is universal in Asian countries such as Japan. The functional consequences of the G/A polymorphism remain to be elucidated.

    International journal of cancer 2006;118;1;203-8

  • Significant association between PTPN11 polymorphism and gastric atrophy among Japanese Brazilians.

    Kawai S, Goto Y, Ito LS, Oba-Shinjo SM, Uno M, Shinjo SK, Marie SK, Ishida Y, Nishio K, Naito M and Hamajima N

    Department of Preventive Medicine/Biostatistics and Medical Decision Making, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

    Background: Helicobacter pylori, especially the cytotoxin-associated antigen A (cagA)-positive strains, plays a crucial role in the development of gastric atrophy and gastric cancer. CagA delivered into gastric epithelial cells combines with src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2), possibly leading to atrophy/cancer. Our previous study found that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; IMS-JST057927) of the PTPN11 gene encoding SHP-2, was associated with gastric atrophy among H. pylori-seropositive subjects. This study aimed to examine the reproducibility of the association among Japanese residing in a different circumstance.

    Methods: The subjects were 918 healthy adult Japanese Brazilians from four different areas in Brazil. Blood was sampled from March to May 2001. The target SNP in intron 3 of PTPN11 was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction with confronting two-pair primers (PCR-CTPP). Gastric atrophy was evaluated with serum pepsinogens (PGs); PG I, less than 70 ng/dl and PG I/II ratio, less than 3.

    Results: The genotype frequency of PTPN11 was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: 65.5% for G/G, 30.4% for G/A, and 4.1% for A/A. The PTPN11 polymorphism had no significant association with H. pylori seropositivity. Among the H. pylori-seropositive subjects, the odds ratios (ORs) of gastric atrophy were 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-1.47) for the G/A genotype and 0.31 (95% CI, 0.10-0.95) for the A/A genotype, compared with the G/G genotype.

    Conclusions: The present study reproduced the significant association between the A/A genotype and reduced risk of gastric atrophy among Japanese outside Japan. According to the Japan Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (JSNP) database (db)SNP data, the G allele is very frequent among Japanese and rare in Caucasians. This fact may partly explain the distribution of gastric atrophy/cancer in the world.

    Gastric cancer : official journal of the International Gastric Cancer Association and the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association 2006;9;4;277-83

© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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